ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (11): 1328-1340.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01328

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

“学-测经验”对前摄干扰监控及行为的修正作用

刘希平1;陈立青1;唐卫海1;白学军2   

  1. (1天津师范大学教育科学学院, 天津 300387) (2天津师范大学心理与行为研究院, 天津 300074)
  • 收稿日期:2014-05-19 出版日期:2015-11-25 发布日期:2015-11-25
  • 通讯作者: 刘希平, E-mail: lxp3771@sina.com
  • 基金资助:

    教育部人文社科研究基金(14YJA190007); 天津市哲学社科规划重点课题(TJJX13-002); 天津市十二五教育科学规划重点课题(CE2016);天津市高等学校创新团队培养计划资助。

Experience with Proactive Interference Diminishes Its Memory #br# Monitoring and Control

LIU Xiping1; CHEN Liqing1; TANG Weihai1; BAI Xuejun2   

  1. (1 School of Educational Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387, China)
    (2 Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300074, China)
  • Received:2014-05-19 Online:2015-11-25 Published:2015-11-25
  • Contact: LIU Xiping, E-mail: lxp3771@sina.com

摘要:

先前的学习与记忆对后继学习项目的削弱作用, 称为前摄干扰。前摄干扰监控是指对前摄干扰造成的记忆成绩的削弱所进行的监督和调整。前摄干扰的监测偏差是指学习者对被干扰项目做出的监测判断比控制项目的判断等级高。研究考察“学-测经验”对前摄干扰监测、控制及干扰行为的修正作用。采用前摄干扰经典的A-B-D实验范式, 利用三个实验分别考察前摄干扰监测偏差是否存在; 考察增加“学-测经验”之后被试能否意识到前摄干扰的存在; 以及增加“学-测经验”之后被试是否可以对前摄干扰进行修正。结果发现:(1)被试对前摄干扰存在监测偏差, 且延迟判断的偏差更大。(2)在延迟判断条件下, 通过增加“学-测经验”, 可以修正监测偏差。(3)通过增加“学-测经验”, 被试可以自主调控学习过程; 用时较多的被试在自主调控学习过程之后能够完全克服前摄干扰。这一研究结果说明, “学-测经验”能够修正被试对前摄干扰的监控偏差; 而当给予被试充分的学习时间, 被试能够克服前摄干扰作用。研究为揭示前摄干扰的元记忆监控的规律、探索制约前摄干扰的因素及修正前摄干扰具有一定启示作用。

关键词: 前摄干扰, 记忆监测, 记忆控制, “学-测经验”, 时间分配

Abstract:

 

Proactive interference refers to the phenomena that learning and memory for previous items interfere with those for subsequent items. Previous studies have shown that there was a bias in participants’ proactive interference monitoring, but it is still unclear whether proactive interference can be reduced or overcome and how to eliminate the deviation of proactive interference monitoring.
The present study used three experiments to investigate whether learning- testing experience could improve the monitoring and control of proactive interference. 102 undergraduates with normal vision participated in this study. The sample sizes of Experiment 1, 2, and 3 were 40, 31, and 31 respectively. Experiment 1 examined whether the participants were able to realize proactive interference effect. The learning materials were divided into the control condition (A–B, C–D) and the interference condition (A–B, A–D). During the study phase, participants were asked to estimate their recall performances either immediately or after a delay. Experiment 2 examined whether the participants with learning- testing experience were aware of proactive interference. Participants were only asked to estimate their recall performances after a delay (delay-JoL condition only). Experiment 3 used a self-pace allocation study time procedure and showed that participants must have learning- testing experience with proactive interference to become aware of and reduce the effects of proactive interference.
In Experiment 1 and 2, memory accuracy and JoLs were recorded by E-prime, and in Experiment 3, the allocated time for each type of items and memory performance were recorded. Data was analyzed with SPSS 18.0. The results showed that: (1) The monitoring of proactive interference had a bias, which was greater in the delay judgment condition. (2) Learning- testing experience could reduce the monitoring bias in the delay judgment condition. (3) The participants with learning- testing experience allocated more attention to interference items during the second study round than the first one. (4) The participants spending more time in the second study round allocated more attention to interference items and thus overcome the proactive interference effect completely.

In conclusion, these results indicated that the learning- testing experience with proactive interference could enhance the awareness of its effects and allow individuals to adjust their learning and retrieval strategies in order to reduce the effects in a appropriate way.

Key words: proactive interference, memory monitoring, memory control, learning - test experience, time allocating