ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2022, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (7): 1626-1636.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01626

• 研究前沿 • 上一篇    下一篇


郝娜, 崔丽莹()   

  1. 上海师范大学教育学院心理学系, 上海 200234
  • 收稿日期:2021-04-15 出版日期:2022-07-15 发布日期:2022-05-17
  • 通讯作者: 崔丽莹

Compensate others or protect oneself ? The difference of the effects of guilt and shame on cooperative behavior

HAO Na, CUI Liying()   

  1. Department of Psychology, College of Education, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China
  • Received:2021-04-15 Online:2022-07-15 Published:2022-05-17
  • Contact: CUI Liying


作为两种常见且易被混淆的自我意识情绪, 诸多研究者对内疚和羞耻的产生前因及影响后效进行研究, 尤其是近年来的研究逐渐关注两者对合作行为的影响。我们通过对已有研究进行梳理发现, 内疚和羞耻对合作行为的影响及其机制存在差异, 内疚的影响更为稳定及具有普适性, 羞耻的影响具有复杂性和多样性, 更容易受到其他因素的影响。内疚和羞耻对合作行为的不同影响可从动机机制和调节机制两方面进行解释。首先, 动机机制包括内疚对他人的补偿、修复动机以及羞耻对自我的保护、修复动机。内疚对他人的补偿、修复动机主要体现在维护社会互动中的公平; 弥补对他人造成的伤害, 降低自己和他人的痛苦; 修复人际关系, 重新获得他人或自己的接纳与认同。羞耻对自我的保护、修复动机主要体现在释放消极的情绪状态; 维护积极的自我形象和声誉, 修复自我; 保护自我, 防止后续伤害及不良后果。总体而言, 内疚者关注过失行为及后果, 侧重于对受害他人的补偿或对与他人关系的修复, 而羞耻者关注整体自我的受损, 侧重于对自我的保护和对自己社会形象的修复, 基于此, 我们在前人研究的基础上构建了内疚与羞耻影响合作行为的动机机制对比模型图。其次, 调节机制涉及到个体因素和情境因素的调节作用, 其中个体因素包括认知因素、社会价值取向、自我控制能力、情绪特质和情绪状态, 情境因素包括暴露情境和掩蔽情境、实验情境和日常情境、相关情境和不相关情境。具体而言, 内疚对合作行为的影响的较少受情境的限制, 而羞耻受情境因素限制较多, 在暴露情境、相关情境中更能促进合作行为的产生, 而在掩蔽情境、不相关情境中, 羞耻较难影响个体的合作抉择, 且无论是实验室情境还是日常情境, 内疚似乎都比羞耻更易影响合作。最后, 鉴于内疚与羞耻的诱发和测量方法的有效性仍需检验, 两种情绪对合作行为影响的过程机制和生理机制仍不明晰, 个体因素影响的研究尚不充足以及跨文化研究较为缺乏, 未来研究可以从内疚和羞耻诱发与测量方法的有效性, 情绪作用发生的内在过程和生理机制, 情绪影响的个体和文化差异这几方面进行扩展和深挖。

关键词: 内疚, 羞耻, 合作行为, 动机机制, 调节机制


As two common and easily confused self-conscious emotions, many researchers have studied the antecedents and aftereffects of guilt and shame. In recent years, researches have gradually focused on the effect of both on cooperative behavior. By combining the existing studies, we found that there are differences in the impact and mechanism of guilt and shame on cooperative behavior. The effect of guilt is more stable and universal, and the impact of shame, which is more vulnerable to other factors, is complex and diverse. The motivation and regulation mechanisms explain the different effects of guilt and shame on cooperative behavior. First, the motivation mechanism includes the compensation and repair motivation of guilt to others and the protection and repair motivation of shame to self. The compensation and repair motivation of guilt to others is mainly reflected in maintaining fairness in social interaction; making up for the harm caused to others and reducing the pain; repairing interpersonal relationships and regaining the acceptance and recognition of others or oneself. The protection and repair motivation of shame to self is mainly reflected in releasing negative emotional state; maintaining a positive self-image and reputation to repair self; protecting oneself to prevent subsequent injury and adverse consequences. Generally speaking, guilty people pay attention to negligent behaviors and consequences, focusing on compensating for the injured others or repairing the relationship with others. In contrast, the ashamed people pay attention to the damage of the overall self, focusing on protecting the self and repairing their social image. Based on this and previous research, we constructed a comparative model of the motivation mechanism of guilt and shame affecting cooperative behavior. Second, the regulation mechanism involves individual and situational factors. Individual factors include cognitive factors, social value orientation, self-control ability, emotional traits and state. Situational factors include the following situations: exposure and masking; experimental and daily; related and unrelated. Specifically, the influence of guilt on cooperative behavior is less limited by the situation, while shame is more limited by situational factors. It can promote the emergence of cooperative behavior in the exposed or related situations, while in the masked or unrelated situations, shame has difficulty affecting individual cooperative choice. In both experimental and daily situations, guilt affects cooperation more than shame. Finally, there are some deficiencies in previous studies. The effectiveness of the induction and measurement methods of guilt and shame still needs to be tested. The process and physiological mechanisms of the impact of the two emotions on cooperative behavior are still unclear. The research on the impact of individual factors is insufficient, and cross-cultural research is relatively lacking. Therefore, future research can expand and investigate the effectiveness of guilt and shame induction and measurement methods, the internal process and physiological mechanism of emotional effects, and the individual and cultural differences in emotional effects.

Key words: guilt, shame, cooperative behavior, motivation mechanism, regulation mechanism