ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2022, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (4): 781-801.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00781

• 元分析 • 上一篇    下一篇


林新奇, 栾宇翔, 赵锴(), 赵国龙   

  1. 中国人民大学劳动人事学院, 北京 100872
  • 收稿日期:2021-05-27 出版日期:2022-04-15 发布日期:2022-02-22
  • 通讯作者: 赵锴
  • 基金资助:

A meta-analysis of the relationship between leadership styles and employee creative performance: A self-determination perspective

LIN Xinqi, LUAN Yuxiang, ZHAO Kai(), ZHAO Guolong   

  1. School of Labor and Human Resources, Renming University of China, Beijing 100872, China
  • Received:2021-05-27 Online:2022-04-15 Published:2022-02-22
  • Contact: ZHAO Kai


领导对员工创新起到重要作用。什么样的领导风格与员工创新相关更高? 实际研究中存在一定争议。为了回答这个问题, 基于自我决定理论, 我们提出一个理论框架, 来解释不同领导风格与员工创新相关系数的差异。我们使用元分析汇集432篇独立的实证研究的证据(中文研究229篇, 英文研究203篇, 样本总量达161599), 来检验我们的假设。研究发现:(1)交易型领导、伦理型领导、变革型领导、服务型领导、领导-成员交换、授权型领导、包容型领导及真实型领导与员工创新绩效之间均存在显著的正相关, 且相关递增; (2)个人主义、绩效评价方式、数据收集时间点、领导风格测量方式、创新测量方式以及发表语言部分调节领导风格和员工创新绩效的关系。研究结果符合理论预测, 研究促进自我决定理论的发展。更为重要的是, 研究结论为管理者提供重要的实践意义, 即使用合适的领导风格进而促进员工创新。

关键词: 领导风格, 自我决定理论, 员工创新绩效, 元分析


Facing the complex challenges from the environment, if organizations want to survive and develop continuously, they must insist on innovation. Employee creative performance affects the innovation of the entire organization deeply. Thus, managers, scholars, or policymakers are paying more and more attention to employee creative performance. Among the factors that affect employees’ innovation, leadership style plays a vital role. Plenty of leadership styles (e.g., transformational, transactional, and authentic leadership) may influence employee creative performance. Which kind of leadership style has a higher correlation with employee creative performance? To answer this question, drawing on self-determination theory (SDT), we proposed a theoretical framework, to explain the differences of correlations between different leadership and employee creative performance. To begin with, we hypothesized that transformational leadership, transactional leadership, authentic leadership, ethical leadership, servant leadership, inclusive leadership, empowering leadership, and leader-member exchange are positively related to employee creative performance. Among these leadership styles, authentic leadership had the highest correlation. Then, we hypothesized in the following situations(1) when the sample comes from a country with high individualism, (2) when the creative performance is evaluated by others, and (3) when the data is collected at multiple time points, the correlations between leadership style and employee creative performance were lower. Finally, we detected the potential moderating effects of the measurement of leadership and creative performance

We used meta-analysis to summarize evidences from 432 independent empirical studies (229 Chinese studies and 203 English studies, with a total sample size of 161599 to test our hypothesis. To begin with, we searched the studies from multi-databases. Then, we coded the necessary information from the previous survey studies. Next, the Hunter-Schmidt random effect meta-analysis method was used to correct statistical artifacts (e.g., measuring error and sampling error) and evaluate the true score correlations. Finally, subgroup analysis was used to detect the potential moderating effects.

The results showed that: (1) transactional leadership (ρ = 0.273), ethical leadership (ρ = 0.300), transformational leadership (ρ = 0.364), servant leadership (ρ = 0.400), leader-member exchange(ρ = 0.401), empowering leadership (ρ = 0.402), inclusive leadership (ρ = 0.457), and authentic leadership (ρ = 0.475) had significant positive correlations with employee creative performance, and their correlations showed an upward trend; (2) individualism, methods of performance appraisal, the time point of data collection, measurement of leadership, measurement of employee creative performance and publication language partially moderated the relationship between leadership styles and employee creative performance.

Based on the SDT, this research proposed a theoretical model to explain the different effects of different leadership styles on employee creative performance and test the model robustly based on the meta-analysis technology. Therefore, the theoretical implication of this research mainly focuses on this model. First, this research promotes the development of theories related to leadership styles and employee creative performance. Second, this research promotes the development of self-determination theory and expands the scope of application of self-determination theory. The practical implication is that, when organizations need employees to show higher creative performance, managers can try to adopt the authentic leadership style.

Key words: leadership, self-determination theory, employee creative performance, meta-analysis