ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (7): 1291-1299.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01291

• 研究前沿 • 上一篇    下一篇


孙红月(), 鲁盼, 蒋元萍   

  1. 上海师范大学教育学院, 上海 200234
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-20 出版日期:2021-07-15 发布日期:2021-05-24
  • 通讯作者: 孙红月
  • 基金资助:

Negative discounting in intertemporal choice

SUN Hongyue(), LU Pan, JIANG Yuanping   

  1. College of Education, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China
  • Received:2020-07-20 Online:2021-07-15 Published:2021-05-24
  • Contact: SUN Hongyue


主流跨期决策模型认为, 跨期决策存在一个时间折扣过程。时间折扣是指人们会根据将来获益或损失的延迟时间对其效用进行折扣, 折扣后的效用小于原来的效用, 而负折扣现象违背了时间折扣过程。负折扣现象出现在金钱、非金钱的获益与损失领域, 其可能的解释机制为预期情绪。目前关于负折扣现象的研究, 较少验证其影响机制, 未来的研究可以结合眼动追踪和fMRI技术探讨其机制, 并丰富对负折扣现象的影响因素研究。

关键词: 负折扣, 获益, 损失, 预期恐惧, 预期享乐


Mainstream models on intertemporal choice assume that a temporal discounting process occurs when people choose between outcomes occurring at different times in an intertemporal choice. Economists and psychologists have proposed a series of models to describe the intertemporal decision-making behavior. Whether it is the initial discounting utility model or the later hyperbolic model, etc., the hypothesis of time discounting has been upheld, which refers to people’s tendency to discount the value of delayed outcomes by the amount of time one must wait for them, thereby reducing the subjective value of these future outcomes. However, there is a phenomenon that fundamentally deviates from the discounting family model—the negative discounting phenomenon. The emergence of negative discounting challenges the time discounting hypothesis held by mainstream intertemporal decision-making models. The current researches on intertemporal choice pay little attention to the negative discounting phenomenon. Its related researches mainly concentrated in the early stage and that on its influencing factors and internal mechanism are even poorer.

This article systematically sorted out the phenomenon of negative discounting, which was found in money and non-money domains with benefits and losses. There is a certain percentage of negative discounting phenomenon in every domain, which may be underestimated. Researchers need to pay more attention to this phenomenon in the future and find more by modifying the decision-making paradigm. This article also elaborated on the possible explanation mechanism—anticipated emotions. The negative discounting phenomenon in the domain of gain and loss can be explained by "anticipated savoring" and "anticipated dread" respectively. However, there are few empirical studies on the mechanism of negative discounting. Future research should combine eye tracking and fMRI technology to further explore the mechanism and enrich researches on the influencing factors of the negative discounting, such as individual characteristics and option characteristics.

Currently, researchers mostly explored intertemporal choice behavior under the framework of time discounting hypothesis. However, it will help us better understand intertemporal choice and further improve the intertemporal decision model to explore the internal mechanism and influencing factors of the negative discounting. Moreover, in certain situations of gains or losses, the phenomenon of negative discounting will benefit individuals’ mental health as well as social harmony. Therefore, it is of great social significance to formulate a boosting strategy to facilitate the emergence of the negative discounting phenomenon.

Key words: negative discounting, gain, loss, anticipated dread, anticipated savoring