ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (5): 806-814.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00806

• 研究前沿 • 上一篇    下一篇


汪钰涵, 马国杰, 庄想灵()   

  1. 陕西省行为与认知心理学重点实验室暨陕西师范大学心理学院, 西安 710062
  • 收稿日期:2020-06-01 出版日期:2021-05-15 发布日期:2021-03-30
  • 通讯作者: 庄想灵
  • 基金资助:

The effect of cell phone distraction on pedestrians’ information processing and behavior during road crossing

WANG Yuhan, MA Guojie, ZHUANG Xiangling()   

  1. Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Behavior and Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, China
  • Received:2020-06-01 Online:2021-05-15 Published:2021-03-30
  • Contact: ZHUANG Xiangling


行人过街时, 因使用手机而造成的伤亡事故持续增长。过街时使用手机对行人信息加工、行为及安全均会产生影响。结果表明:使用手机的行人, 在场景知觉阶段注意范围更狭窄, 在外周视野的注意力明显下降; 过街决策阶段, 更容易错过过街机会或做出更有风险的决策; 运动控制阶段, 使用手机会改变行人步态, 降低其动作稳定性。以上效应还受到行人使用手机方式的调节, 但综合看来, 手机分心提升了行人过街风险, 更容易造成过街事故。最后, 通过建立手机分心对行人过街中信息加工及行为影响的概念模型, 指出未来研究应评估手机分心如何影响行人听觉信息的获取, 以及间隔接受决策的子过程, 从而为后期有针对性地干预提供理论基础。

关键词: 信息加工, 分心, 智能手机, 行人, 交通安全


With the development of communication technology and popularization of smart phones, pedestrians using cell phones while crossing road have become more prevalent. It is estimated to account for nearly 20% of all pedestrians in both observations and self-report surveys. Consistently, the proportion of pedestrian casualties involving mobile phones during road crossing keeps increasing. This study reviewed 34 papers to evaluate how using a cell phone affected their safety and efficiency in road crossing. We also highlighted some mechanisms in terms of human information processing from scene perception, decision making to movement control.
Overall, the evaluation shows detrimental effect of using cell phone on both safety and efficiency in crossing a road. Compared with non-distracted pedestrians, pedestrians using a cellphone are exposed to higher risk as indicated by more conflicts with vehicles, higher likelihood of violations such as going against red light and crossing outside of crosswalks, and less vigilance behaviors such as looking at vehicles. In virtual environments, they also had more collisions with vehicles or near misses where the safety margin is so small that the vehicle almost collides with the pedestrians. In terms of efficiency, pedestrians distracted by cell phones usually waited longer before starting to cross. What’s more, they are more likely to deviate from a straight route and have a lower walking speed. Consequently, their overall efficiency in road crossing declined.
The above decline in safety and efficiency results from impairments in earlier processes of information processing. First, during the scene perception phase, distracted pedestrians tend to have a narrower scope of attention (esp. in the peripheral visual field), making it more difficult to perceive visual and auditory cues in traffic scenes. What’s worse, the distraction from a channel (visual or audial) can not only affect scene perception of the same channel, but also affect other channels by occupying central cognitive resources. Second, during the decision-making phase, distracted pedestrians are also more likely to miss street crossing opportunities when the gap between vehicles are large enough to cross or make risky decisions when the gap between the vehicle are too small to cross. Finally, using a cell phone also harms pedestrian movement control ability. Their gait patterns are more conservative with less frequent stepping and alternation between the two feet, shorter stride, and larger lateral deviation of feet movements. Besides, their action stability declined as a result of trying to reduce the relative movement of cellphones and head while browsing messages from cell phones.
The above impairments of information processing are modulated by specific task types (e.g. conversing vs. browsing), pedestrian age and experience in cell phone usage. To integrate these findings within a framework, a conceptual model was proposed to describe the effect of mobile phone distraction on pedestrians’ information processing and behavior based on previous pedestrian cognitive models. Based on the model, we highlighted several gaps for future research. In the scene perception phase, future research needs to evaluate how mobile phone distraction affects pedestrian auditory scene perception, which is important to locate risky targets in traffic scenes. During the decision-making phase, efforts are still needed to evaluate how using a cell phone impacts the sub processes within the gap acceptance decision-making, such as estimation of vehicles’ time to arrival and pedestrians’ needed time to cross a road. The evaluation will help to develop targeted interventions to improve pedestrian safety while using cell phones.

Key words: information processing, distraction, mobile phones, pedestrian, transportation safety