ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (8): 1325-1336.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01325

• 研究前沿 • 上一篇    下一篇


王煜(), 李梦菊   

  1. 中国地质大学(武汉)心理科学与健康研究中心, 武汉 430074
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-23 出版日期:2020-08-15 发布日期:2020-06-28
  • 通讯作者: 王煜
  • 基金资助:
    * 国家自然科学基金青年科学基金项目(31800941)

Constructive or destructive? A dual-pathway model of shame

WANG Yu(), LI Mengju   

  1. Research Center for Psychological and Health Sciences, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
  • Received:2019-12-23 Online:2020-08-15 Published:2020-06-28
  • Contact: WANG Yu


羞愧是一种典型的自我意识情绪, 在个体行为以及心理发展结果中发挥着重要作用。羞愧同时是一种中国传统文化中极为重要的道德情绪, 被认为是中国人自我反省的重要途径。但当前关于羞愧的导向性存在两个截然相反的观点:羞愧导向建设性还是破坏性?理论模型包括:其一, 羞愧导向破坏性, 相应的理论解释有社会威胁防御模型、羞愧调节模型等, 其二, 羞愧导向建设性, 相应的理论解释有进化心理学视角及功能主义视角等。这两种观点均得到大量实证研究的支持。为了合理解释这一分歧, 系统理解羞愧促发的行动机制, 本文提出羞愧的双路径结构模型, 突出社会自我威胁评估在其中的重要作用。未来研究需要开发出更客观全面的羞愧测量方法, 基于文化差异关注社会自我修复的影响因素, 理解不同文化背景社会对羞愧的诠释, 从而提出更具针对性的干预方法, 以促进个体羞愧可能的破坏性结果向建设性方向转化。

关键词: 羞愧, 社会威胁, 功能性


Shame is a self-conscious emotion that plays an important role in individual behaviour and personal psychological development. Shame is also a significant moral emotion in traditional Chinese culture and is a major way that Chinese people examine themselves and their own behaviours. There are two opposing views on the value of shame. In other words, is shame a constructive or a destructive emotion? Theoretical models include: (1) Shame as a destructive emotion includes models of social self-threat and shame adjustment and so on. (2) Shame as a constructive emotion includes those models of evolutionary psychology as well as the functionalist perspective. Both views on shame are supported by a large number of empirical studies. In order to examine the concept of shame systematically and comprehensively, this paper proposes a dual-pathway structural model with the goal of improving our understanding of the mechanisms underlying shame-induced behaviours. In our study, we highlight the critical role of social self-threat and the need to repair social self-image. Future studies are needed to develop more objective and comprehensive measures of shame and take account of the cultural factors that influence social self-healing. More objective analyses are needed to help people understand the interpretation of shame as experienced by those from different cultural backgrounds. Thus, more targeted interventions can be proposed and facilitate the constructive transformation of the potentially destructive consequences of individual shame.

Key words: shame, social threats, functionality