ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (9): 1550-1559.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2015.01550

• 研究前沿 • 上一篇    下一篇



  1. (清华大学社会科学学院心理学系, 北京 100084)
  • 收稿日期:2014-10-14 出版日期:2015-09-15 发布日期:2015-09-15
  • 通讯作者: 彭凯平, E-mail:

Skill or Style: Two Approaches to Measure Individual Differences on Rational Thinking

FENG Xue; PENG Kaiping   

  1. (Department of Psychology, School of Social Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China)
  • Received:2014-10-14 Online:2015-09-15 Published:2015-09-15
  • Contact: PENG Kaiping, E-mail:


本文通过总结前人关于理性思维的个体差异的研究, 介绍和区分了两种有关理性思维的测量途径, 并讨论了二者之间的内在关系。理性思维可以分成技能和风格两种形式。前者常用评价性的、情境测试方式进行评估, 后者常用描述性的、自陈量表方式进行测量。通过分析认知能力对这两种理性思维的影响, 本文提出一个认知能力与理性思维技能和思维风格关系的理论模型, 为后续在理性思维测量方法上的研究提供一种理论指导。

关键词: 理性思维技能, 理性思维风格, 直觉和偏差, 个体差异


Based on the literature review on rational thinking, the current article examined two different approaches to measure rational thinking, and discussed the relationships between these two. One approach to measure rational thinking is to define the rational thinking as a thinking skill on which people adapt different strategies to respond to difference situation tasks. The other approach is to define it as a thinking style, measured usually by self-report scales to evaluate individual chronic and stable tendency. We proposed a theoretical model to synthesize the differences between these two approaches, suggesting the rational thinking style mediates the relationship between cognitive ability and rational thinking skill. That is to say, cognitive ability could predicts the performance of heuristic and thinking bias tasks only for individuals with high rational thinking style.

Key words: rational thinking skill, rational thinking style, heuristic and thinking bias, individual difference