ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (1): 175-189.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00175

• 研究方法 • 上一篇    下一篇



  1. (华东师范大学课程与教学研究所, 上海 200062)
  • 收稿日期:2012-04-25 出版日期:2013-01-15 发布日期:2013-01-15
  • 通讯作者: 杨向东
  • 基金资助:


Cognitive Processes and Task Features of Algebra Story Problems for Item Generation

YANG Xiangdong   

  1. (Institute of Curriculum and Instruction, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China)
  • Received:2012-04-25 Online:2013-01-15 Published:2013-01-15
  • Contact: YANG Xiangdong

摘要: 认知项目设计起源于理论驱动的测量模式, 要求在详尽阐述测量建构理论的基础上, 鉴别测验项目类型的任务特征, 建立和标定与测量建构认知变量之间的对应关系, 从而通过系统变换任务特征生成项目。本文以Greeno (1994)提出的代理者-情境交互作用(agent-situation interaction)的问题解决观为基础, 对代数应用题解决的认知过程和任务蕴含性(affordance)进行了系统分析。具体而言, 代数应用题被视为以文本形式呈现的, 嵌套在现实情境中的某种量化结构。在代数应用题解决的转译、整合、计划、执行的认知过程中需要形成三种不同的表征, 即文本基、情境模型和问题模型。其形成及解决过程受到个体问题图式知识的深刻影响。对应于不同表征方式, 对代数应用题语法/语义结构、量化元素及结构、问题情境特征进行了系统分析和综合。该分析表明, 为了保证代数应用题项目生成的科学性, 当前研究的关键在于建立任务特征与问题解决认知变量之间的经验关系, 并在问题领域整体水平上检验这种关系的可推广性。

关键词: 理论驱动的测量模式, 项目生成, 代数应用题, 认知过程, 任务特征

Abstract: Cognitive item generation, rooted from the theory-based measurement paradigm, requires formulating an elaborated theory of the measured construct, upon which task features that are linked to cognitive variables underlying such theory can be systematically analyzed and manipulated. Cast from the perspective of problem solving as an agent – situation interactive process, both cognitive processes of algebra story problem solving and task affordance of such problems are systematically analyzed in this article. Specifically, an algebra story problem is considered as a particular quantitative structure embedded in a verbally-stated realistic situation. Three different types of representations, i.e., a textbase, a situational model and a quantitative model, need to be formed during the four phases of algebra story problem solving including translation, integration, planning and execution, which are further mediated by the schematic knowledge possessed by the problem-solver. Correspondingly, Task features that are associated with syntactic/semantic relations, quantitative elements as well as their structures, and problem situations are analyzed and synthesized based on a broad range of relevant literature. It is evident from the current analysis that subsequent research should focus on empirical studies to link the set of cognitive variables and task features for such problems, as well as to evaluate the generalizability of such linkages across the targeted domain in order for item generation of algebra story problem to lay on a solidly scientific foundation.

Key words: theory-based measurement, item generation, algebra story problem, cognitive process, task feature