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CN 11-1911/B

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    25 May 2024, Volume 56 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue

    Reports of Empirical Studies
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    Reports of Empirical Studies
    How semantic prosody is acquired in novel word learning: Evidence from the “Double-Date Tree” Effect
    WU Shiyu, LI Zan
    2024, 56 (5):  531-541.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2024.00531
    Abstract ( 231 )   HTML ( 50 )  
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    Generally, a word’s meaning consists of at least two components. The first is denotative meaning, representing the definitional meaning found in dictionaries and serving as the word’s fundamental meaning. The second component involves semantics that a word “absorbs” from its linguistic context, not constrained by definitions; this is known as semantic prosody, described as a consistent aura of meaning with which a form is imbued by its collocates. While theories and empirical studies have shed light on mechanisms supporting the acquisition of the first word meaning component, the acquisition of the connotative meaning engendered by semantic prosody has been overlooked. It remains unclear whether readers can unconsciously acquire the semantic prosody (or emotional connotations) of a novel word after encountering it consistently in a context with a strong emotional polarity.
    Against this backdrop, we conducted a word learning experiment, manipulating context emotionality (negative versus neutral versus positive) and context variability (same-repeated versus varied contexts) as crucial contextual variables. This aimed to address two understudied questions in vocabulary acquisition: (1) Does transfer of affect to a word from its linguistic context take place through reading exposures, facilitating the acquisition of semantic prosody for the word? If so, is such transfer influenced by context variability? (2) Does the acquired semantic prosody for words affect the acquisition of word forms and meanings, and is this acquisition modulated by context variability? This experiment involved two sessions: a reading-and-learning phase and a testing phase. During the reading-and-learning session, participants read emotionally charged passages, simultaneously learning embedded target words. The testing session included an immediate posttest, incorporating four vocabulary tests—valence rating, orthographic choice, definition matching, and definition generation. A total of 196 Chinese speakers participated in the experiment.
    Mixed-effects models were utilized to analyze data from the valence rating task and the other three vocabulary knowledge tests. The findings revealed that, within the same-repeated context, manipulating context emotionality (positive versus neutral versus negative) significantly influenced valence ratings, showing significantly higher ratings in the positive condition compared to neutral and negative conditions. Conversely, in the varied context, no significant differences in valence ratings were observed. This result supports the hypothesis of the “Double-Date Tree” effect, emphasizing the effect of repetitive texts compared to multiple texts. However, in the varied context, valence ratings played a role in influencing participants’ performances in the vocabulary tests, leading to better outcomes as valence ratings increased. In the same-repeated context, valence ratings had minimal effect on accuracy in the orthographic choice test and the definition prompting test.
    We posit that the effective mechanism for learning the semantic-prosody-engendered connotations of words involves the transfer of affect from their collocations. However, this transfer seems to be contingent on context variability, occurring only in the same-repeated context and not in the varied context. Furthermore, we illustrate that the emotionality of context influences the quality of both orthographic and semantic word learning, with words being better learned in positive contexts as opposed to negative or neutral ones.

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    Different effects of linguistic and perceptual symbolic representations on foreign language vocabulary learning: Evidence from behavioral and EEG data
    REN Weicong, YANG Ting, WANG Hanlin
    2024, 56 (5):  542-554.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2024.00542
    Abstract ( 120 )   HTML ( 24 )  
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    Semantic representation is how our brains process and understand the meaning of words and information from other sources, facilitating functions such as speech production and memory retrieval. In the evolution of how we understand semantic representation, two distinct viewpoints emerge. The traditional cognitive perspective, exemplified by linguistic symbol representation, posits that linguistic symbols serve as vessels for semantic representation without sensory attributes. According to this view, conceptual information travels through propositional networks established among linguistic symbols and is processed through a logic akin to computer operations to achieve semantic representation (Markman & Dietrich, 2000). Conversely, the embodied cognitive viewpoint, typified by perceptual symbol representation, contends that semantic representation relies on perceptual symbols imbued with embodied (or multimodal) traits. This perspective suggests that rich sensory and emotional experiences actively participate in the representation process through perceptual simulation, endowing these representations with characteristics akin to perceptual images (Barsalou, 1999). The perspective of symbolic integration provides insights for understanding the semantic representation characteristics in foreign language learning.

    Currently, there is a lack of a thorough comparison regarding how the two different systems for characterizing information impact language learning. The precise influence of these various representation methods on learning foreign language vocabulary and their corresponding cognitive neural mechanisms remains unclear. In an effort to clarify the influence of semantic representation on vocabulary acquisition, this study employs a paradigm focused on vocabulary memory recognition. During the memory encoding phase, participants are exposed to linguistic (native language) and nonverbal (directional space and motion cues) schematic materials, prompting them to engage with the language symbols and perceptual symbols associated with foreign language vocabulary. This research compares how these two symbol representations affect the processes of both encoding and recognizing foreign language vocabulary using both behavioral observations and EEG technique, shedding light on the cognitive processes and neural mechanisms linked to semantic representation in vocabulary acquisition.

    Initially, during the memory encoding stage, the study examines how the two symbol representations impact the depth of vocabulary encoding by concentrating on the late positive components (LPC) triggered by the encoding process. Subsequently, during the recognition stage, the research investigates how the two ways of symbol representations impact the extraction of vocabulary meaning at a visual level, specifically focusing on the N400 components evoked during vocabulary recognition. Furthermore, to gauge the level of perceptual simulation exhibited by the two symbol representation modes in the recognition stage, the study scrutinizes time-frequency analysis of EEG activity during the recognition process, analyzing the rhythmic oscillations of brain μ waves in the 8-13 Hz frequency band. Lastly, to assess how the two representation patterns influence memory retrieval performance, the study examines the impact of vocabulary recognition on memory retrieval by investigating power variations in the frequency band (4-7 Hz) within the theta range.

    A total of 52 participants were randomly assigned to the two symbolic representation conditions and executed a vocabulary learning-recognition task. To manipulate the participants’ semantic representations effectively when learning foreign language vocabulary, two types of spatial semantics, i.e., “up” and “down,” were chosen as the learning materials. Furthermore, to investigate the learning process effectively, the foreign words expressing the meanings of “up” and “down” were selected from languages that the participants were completely unfamiliar with. In the learning stage, spatial cues (Figure 1A) or Chinese characters (Figure 1B) of “up” and “down” were presented first as semantic priming stimuli to initiate the participants’ linguistic symbolic or perceptual symbolic representations of the foreign words subsequently presented. The participants were then required to learn the foreign words. After every 20 words learned, a test on the semantic recognition of the foreign words was conducted. Behavioral and EEG data were collected to investigate the different effects of linguistic symbolic and perceptual symbolic representations on the learning and recognition stages.

    Behavioral results. Independent sample t-tests were used to analyze the judgment of learning (JOL) scores and recognition accuracy of participants under the two conditions. The findings revealed that participants' recognition accuracy (Figure 2B) was significantly higher under perceptual symbol representation conditions (0.74 ± 0.10, mean ± standard deviation) compared to linguistic symbol representation conditions (0.67 ± 0.11), t (50) = 2.53, p = 0.015, 95% CI [0.02,0.13], d = 0.68. However, there was no significant difference in JOL scores (Figure 2A) between perceptual (5.87 ± 1.05) and linguistic (5.83 ± 1.20) symbol representation conditions, t (50) = 0.14, p = 0.89.

    EEG time-domain analysis. In the memory encoding stage, we performed a repeated measurement analysis of variance (ANOVA) for representation type (perceptual/linguistic symbol) × electrode position on the average amplitude of LPC (Figure 3). The results indicated that the interaction between these factors was not significant, F(4, 200) = 0.07, p = 0.87. However, the main effect of the representation type was significant, F(1, 50) = 4.85, p = 0.032, 95% CI [0.13,2.80], η2p = 0.09. This suggests that the average amplitude of LPC under perceptual symbol representation conditions (5.64 ± 2.23 μV) was significantly higher than that in the linguistic symbol representation condition (4.17 ± 2.56 μV). Additionally, there was a significant main effect of the electrode, F(4, 200) = 129.78, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.72. In the memory retrieval stage, we conducted a repeated measurement ANOVA for representation type and electrode position on the average amplitude of N400 induced by correctly recognizing old items (Figure 4). The results revealed that the interaction between these two factors was not significant, F(4, 200) = 0.79, p = 0.40. However, the main effect of the representation type was significant, F(1, 50) = 5.08, p = 0.029, 95% CI [0.17,2.98], η2p = 0.09. This indicates that the average amplitude of N400 under perceptual symbol representation conditions (5.26 ± 2.13 μV) was significantly more pronounced than that in the linguistic symbol representation condition (6.84 ± 2.86 μV). The main effect of the electrode was not significant, F(4, 200) = 1.31, p = 0.26.

    EEG time-frequency domain analysis. Firstly, the assessment of event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) results within the μ range for correctly identified previous items demonstrate that compared to the linguistic symbolic representation condition, greater inhibition of EEG rhythmic oscillations in the μ frequency band was observed in the perceptual symbolic representation condition, resulting in lower power (Figure 5, dashed line boxes). Specifically, the repeated measurement ANOVA for representation type and electrode position indicated that the main effect of the representation type [F(1, 50) = 25.60, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.34] and the electrode [F(4, 200) = 9.31, p = 0.001, η2p = 0.16] were significant. Additionally, the interaction between the two factors was also significant, F(4, 200) = 4.76, p = 0.018, η2p = 0.09. Further simple effect analysis indicates that at each electrode position, the power within the μ band in the perceptual symbol representation are significantly lower than those in the linguistic symbol representation condition, ps ≤ 0.001. Secondly, the assessment of ERSP results within the theta range demonstrated perceptual symbol representation results in a more pronounced frontal θ power enhancement (Figure 5, solid line boxes). Specifically, the repeated measurement ANOVA for representation type and electrode position indicated that the main effect of the representation type is marginally significant, F(1, 50) = 3.60, p = 0.064, while the main effect of electrode is significant, F(4, 200) = 20.16, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.29. Additionally, the interaction between the two factors was also significant, F(4, 200) = 6.61, p = 0.004, η2p = 0.12. Further simple effect analysis indicates that the frequency power within theta band in the frontal (a), mid-frontal (b), and central (c) region are significantly higher under perceptual symbol representation conditions than those in the linguistic symbol representation condition, Fa(1, 50) = 8.17, p = 0.006, 95% CI [0.06,0.33], η2p = 0.14; Fb(1, 50) = 6.66, p = 0.013, 95% CI [0.04,0.30], η2p = 0.12, Fc(1, 50) = 4.29, p = 0.043, 95% CI [0.004,0.26], η2p = 0.08. No significant differences are found in other locations, ps > 0.05.

    To sum up, the event related potential results showed that during the learning stage, the perceptual symbolic representation induced more positive LPC components in the time window of 400~800 ms) than the linguistic symbolic representation condition. During the recognition stage, in relation to the linguistic symbolic representation condition, the perceptual symbolic representation evoked larger N400 components in the time window of 200~400 ms after the onset of the recognition words. The results of EEG time- frequency analysis showed that during the recognition stage, the perceptual symbolic representation condition elicited lower μ band power and higher θ band power than the linguistic symbolic representation condition (the time windows of the two bands were 200~800 ms after the onset of the recognition words).

    In conclusion, results indicated that compared with linguistic symbolic representation, perceptual symbolic representation had a delayed influence on vocabulary encoding. It promoted deep encoding processing of vocabulary and improved the efficiency of vocabulary semantic retrieval through perceptual simulation in the recognition process, thereby implicitly improving the semantic recognition of vocabulary.

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    Chunking feedback in instructor-learner interaction facilities long-term learning transfer: Behavioral and fNIRS hyperscanning studies
    ZHU Yi, HU Yi
    2024, 56 (5):  555-576.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2024.00555
    Abstract ( 92 )   HTML ( 26 )  
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    Elaborated feedback facilitates deep learning, such as transfer. However, how the presentation of feedback in instructor-learner interactions affects long-term learning transfer and its interpersonal neural basis remains unclear. This study employs a face-to-face instructor-learner question-and-answer feedback task, exploring through two dyadic experiments (behavioral and fNIRS hyperscanning) the long-term facilitation of learning transfer by chunked feedback presentation, cognitive processes, and their interpersonal neural basis. The results reveal that chunked feedback promotes long-term transfer in students with low prior knowledge. Chunked error correction mediates between feedback presentation and long-term transfer. During the process of providing and receiving chunked feedback, greater brain-to-brain synchrony in the frontal and parietal lobes was observed between teachers and students, and frontal lobe synchrony predicted long-term transfer and chunked error correction. These findings offer a new understanding of the cognitive and neural basis of real instructional feedback in classrooms from an interpersonal perspective and provide practical insights for enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of instructional feedback.

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    Social inclusion regulates the effect of social exclusion on adaptation to emotional conflict
    MENG Xianxin, LUO Yi, HAN Chenyuan, WU Guowei, CHANG Jiao, YUAN Jiajing, QIAN Kun, FU Xiaolan
    2024, 56 (5):  577-593.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2024.00577
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    Social exclusion is a very painful experience that threatens people’s physical and mental health, potentially increasing their risk of developing emotional problems. However, the psychological mechanism by which social exclusion affects emotional problems remains unclear. Studies have found that an impaired adaptability to emotional conflict plays an important role in emotional problems. Therefore, the first objective of the present study is to explore whether and how social exclusion affects adaptation to emotional conflict. After a person experiences social exclusion, social inclusion can promote positive emotions and lessen negative emotions. Therefore, the second objective of the present study is to explore whether and how social inclusion has the potential to regulate the effect of social exclusion on adaptation to emotional conflict.

    The present study used the Cyberball game and face−word Stroop paradigm to explore the effect of social exclusion on adaptation to emotional conflict (Experiment 1), and whether social inclusion had the potential to regulate the effect of social exclusion on adaptation to emotional conflict (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 used a mixed experimental design with 2 (social situation: exclusion, inclusion) × 2 (previous trial consistency: consistent, inconsistent) × 2 (current trial consistency: consistent, inconsistent) format. The consistency of the previous trial and the consistency of the current trial were the within-subject factors, while the social situation was the between-subject factor. In Experiment 1, participants were randomly assigned to either the inclusion group or the exclusion group. Experiment 2 used a mixed experimental design with 2 (Game 1: exclusion vs. inclusion) × 2 (Game 2: exclusion vs. inclusion) × 2 (previous trial consistency: consistent, inconsistent) × 2 (current trial consistency: consistent, inconsistent) format. The consistency of both the previous trial and the current trial were the within-subject factors, while Game 1 and Game 2 were the between-subject factors. In Experiment 2, participants were randomly assigned to the inclusion−exclusion, exclusion−exclusion, exclusion−inclusion, or inclusion−inclusion groups.

    In Experiment 1, the emotional conflict adaptation effects (CAEs) in reaction times of exclusion group (M= 4.39, SD= 45.55) was lower than that of the inclusion group (M = 19.16, SD= 38.83), [t (89) = 1.67, p= 0.099, d= 0.35]. In Experiment 2, the inclusion−exclusion group showed a greater emotional conflict adaptation effects (CAEs) in its reaction times than the exclusion−exclusion group [F (1,122) = 4.60, p= 0.034, η2 p = 0.04]. There was no significant difference in the emotional conflict adaptation effects (CAEs) in reaction times between the exclusion−inclusion group and the inclusion−inclusion group [F (1,122) = 0.80, p= 0.373] (Figure 1).

    In conclusion, social exclusion has the potential to reduce the individual’s adaptation to emotional conflict, while social inclusion has the potential to regulate the excluded individual’s adaptation to emotional conflict. These findings contribute to understanding the relationship between social exclusion and emotional problems and provide a feasible program to mitigate the risk of emotional problems caused by social exclusion.

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    “Buddha-like” mentality in workplace: The building of fundamental theory and the empirical test of its validity in Chinese context
    YAN Yu, FENG Ming, ZHANG Yong
    2024, 56 (5):  594-611.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2024.00594
    Abstract ( 131 )   HTML ( 21 )  
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    As a combination of traditional Buddha culture and modern network culture, Buddha-like mentality has been a popular work attitude in the workplace, yet limited scholarly attentions have been paid to investigate this concept, which is partly due to a lack of established scale. This lack, in turn, lead to incomplete understandings of the facets as well as the consequences of employees’ Buddha-like mentality.

    To construct the framework of Buddha-like mentality and examine its consequences, we used qualitative research and quantitative research in this study. We firstly collected participants’ views on Buddha-like mentality through interviews and questionnaires, and searched the contents related to Buddha-like mentality through the Internet. Secondly, the classical grounded theory was adopted to encode the descriptions derived from open survey, so as to conduct an exploration study on the concept and structural dimensions of the Buddha-like mentality in the working context. Based on this qualitative study and the exploratory factor analysis (EFA), an 18-item questionnaire was compiled according to the structural dimension of Buddha-like mentality. Then we conducted a correlation analysis with a sample of 290 participants to examine the discriminant validities between the Buddha-like mentality and existing concepts. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is conducted to test the construct validity with 478 samples. Finally, a time-lagged study is used to test the predictive validity of Buddha-like mentality with 402 valid matching questionnaires collected from 29 enterprises.

    The results of grounded theory show that the Buddha-like mentality in the work situation can be divided into four dimensions: unconcerned, satisfied with the status quo, friendly and not argumentative, and letting nature take its course (see Figure 1). EFA (see Table 1) and CFA (see Table 2) of the Buddha-like mentality questionnaire show good reliability and validity, and there is no redundancy of questions. In addition, in the second-order four-factor model, the correlation coefficients of these factors are significant (see Table 3), and all of the standardized loadings of the first-order factor (see Figure 2) and the second-order factor (see Figure 3) are significant, which further confirms that the Buddha-like mentality in the workplace is a second-order structure composed of four first-order factors. Correlation analyses show (1) Buddha-like mentality correlates negatively with extraversion, (2) Buddha-like mentality has no significant correlation with agreeableness (see Table 4). The prediction validity study shows (1) Buddha-like mentality has a significant negative impact on creativity, (2) Buddha-like mentality has a significant positive impact on workplace well-being, (3) The impact of Buddha-like mentality on job performance is not significant (see Table 5~7).

    These findings enrich the scholarly understandings of Buddha-like mentality and offer a reliable instrument for the assessment of Buddha-like mentality, which may benefit much for future studies on this concept.

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    Trapped by family or compensated from work? The influence of daily negative family events on daily effective leadership behaviors
    LIU Depeng, LI Juexing, ZHANG Shengjun, PANG Xuhong, WANG Zheng
    2024, 56 (5):  612-629.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2024.00612
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    Negative family events and experiences have been major social problems in recent years due to the intersection and influence of technical, economic, and epidemic shocks. Negative family events influence leaders’ family domain and also have a cross-domain effect on leadership behaviors at work. However, there are two contradictory views on the relationship between negative family events and effective leadership behaviors. Some scholars claim a negative effect because of the depletion of leaders’ self-control resources, called the “trapped-by-family effect.” Others propose a positive effect owing to cross-domain compensation, called the “compensation effect.”

    The inconsistency in existing literature prompts us to reconcile it using the theory of cross-domain leader identity. We argue that the influence of daily negative family events on leader identity and effective leadership behaviors depends on the leaders’ extraversion levels. Specifically, when leaders have higher levels of extraversion, the compensation effect will come into play; that is, daily negative family events will be positively associated with daily effective leadership behaviors by promoting daily leader identity. In contrast, when leaders have lower levels of extraversion, the trapped-by-family effect will play a role; that is, daily negative family events will be negatively associated with daily effective leadership behaviors by reducing daily leader identity. To capture within-person variance and test our model, we conducted two experience sampling studies of middle managers across 10 consecutive workdays.612-629/img_1.png429.0118.05612-629/img_2.png429.0118.05

    In Study 1, participants were middle managers from three merchant banks in three cities. Before initiating the daily survey, participants were asked to complete a basic survey containing demographic questions and an extraversion personality inventory. After matching procedures, 461 observations from 67 managers were included in our final sample. In this group of 67 participants, the average age is 34.12 years (SD = 6.44). 68.66% are male, and the average department tenure is 3.88 years (SD = 4.43).

    We used Mplus 8.3 (Muthén & Muthén, 2010) for multilevel confirmatory factor analysis in study 1 to assess the validity of the key variables in the model. As shown in Table 1, the results indicated that the five-factor model provided the best fit: χ2 = 1230.06, df = 534, χ2/df = 2.30 (< 5), RMSEA = 0.05 (< 0.08), CFI = 0.91 (> 0.9), TLI = 0.90 (> 0.9), SRMRwithin = 0.03 (< 0.08), and SRMRbetween = 0.07 (< 0.08).

    As shown in Table 2, the percentage of within-person variances for negative family events, leader identity, initial structure, transformational leadership, positive affect, negative affect, positive family events, and sleep quality were 26.26%, 34.33%, 36.50%, 44.64%, 38.13%, 33.33%, 61.00%, and 41.40%, respectively. With a sufficient number of within-person variances, multi-level path analysis can be conducted in Study 1.

    Table 3 illustrates the descriptive statistics and correlation coefficients of variables in Study 1. At the within-person level, a significant negative correlation was observed between negative family events and initial structure (r = −0.11, p = 0.02). Furthermore, leader identity exhibited a significant positive correlation with both initial structure (r = 0.40, p = 0.00) and transformational leadership (r = 0.32, p = 0.00).

    Table 4 reports the results of the multi-level path analysis. As shown in models 2 and 3 in Table 4, negative family events had no significant impact on leader identity (β = −0.06, ns), while extraversion had a positive moderating effect on the relationship between negative family events and leader identity (β = 0.25, p = 0.00). The moderating effect of extraversion is shown in Figure 1. Simple slope analysis showed that the relationship between negative family events experienced by high extraversion leaders and leader identity was significantly positive (slope = 0.18, p = 0.02). On the contrary, the relationship between negative family events experienced by low extraversion leaders and leader identity was significantly negative (slope = −0.33, p = 0.00). The difference was significant (d = 0.52, p = 0.00). Hypothesis 1 was supported.

    As shown in Models 5 and 7 in Table 4, leader identity had significant positive effect on initial structure (β = 0.19, p = 0.00) and transformational leadership (β = 0.21, p = 0.01). Hypothesis 2a and 2b were supported.

    Table 5 reports the moderated mediation effects. When extraversion was low, the indirect effect of negative family events on initial structure through leader identity was significantly negative, and the 95% confidence interval was [−0.12, −0.02]. When extraversion was high, the indirect effect of negative family events on initial structure through leader identity was significantly positive, and the 95% confidence interval was [0.0002, 0.08]. The difference was significant, and the 95% confidence interval was [0.03, 0.18]. Therefore, hypothesis 3a was supported. When extraversion was low, the indirect effect of negative family events on transformational leadership through leader identity was significantly negative, and 95% confidence interval was [−0.14, −0.01]. When extraversion was high, the indirect effect of negative family events on transformational leadership through leader identity was significantly positive, and 95% confidence interval was [0.0001, 0.09]. The difference was significant, and 95% confidence interval was [0.03, 0.21]. Therefore, hypothesis 3b was supported.

    We conducted a supplement analysis for the moderation of extraversion in long term. We speculate that a leader's personal resources will continue to be consumed in a high degree of negative family events for a long time, leading to resource exhaustion, even leaders with high extraversion would find it difficult to have enough resources for leader identity. Therefore, in the long run, the moderating effect of extraversion will not be significant. The results supported our speculation.

    In Study 2, we collected data from participants from different regions and industries, and the final sample included 307 observations from 42 managers. In this group of 42 participants, the average age is 35.54 years (SD = 6.33). 80.95% are male, and the average tenure of 42 participants is 8.00 years (SD = 6.87).

    As shown in Table 6, in Study 2, multilevel CFA results indicated that the six-factor model provided the best fit: χ2 = 1797.64, df = 915, χ2/df = 1.96, RMSEA = 0.06, CFI = 0.91, TLI =0.89, SRMRwithin = 0.04 (< 0.08), SRMRbetween = 0.09.

    As shown in Table 7, the percentage of within-person variances for negative family events, ego depletion, compensation, leader identity, initial structure, and transformational leadership in Study 2 were 31.36%, 43.41%, 30.20%, 36.99%, 24.50%, and 30.99%, respectively.

    The descriptive statistics and correlation coefficients of variables in study 2 are shown in Table 8. At within-person level, negative family events were positively correlated with ego depletion (r = 0.38, p < 0.001) and compensation (r = 0.31, p < 0.001), compensation was positively correlated with leader identity (r = 0.60, p < 0.001). Leader identity was positively correlated with initial structure (r = 0.26, p < 0.001) and transformational leadership (r = 0.25, p < 0.001).

    The multi-level path analysis results of study 2 are shown in Table 9. The results showed that negative family events had a positive effect on leaders' ego depletion (β = 0.30, p = 0.02) and leaders' compensation for family deficiencies (β = 0.39, p = 0.04). Leaders' ego depletion had a negative effect on leader identity (β = −0.10, p = 0.04), whereas leaders' compensation was positively related with leader identity (β = 0.49, p < 0.001). The two mechanisms of ego depletion and compensation played opposite mediating roles between negative family events and leader identity, and the results also showed that negative family events had no significant effect on leader identity (β = 0.21, ns), indicating the existence of the trapped effect and the compensatory effect. Leader identity had significant positive effects on initial structure (β = 0.18, p = 0.04) and transformational leadership (β = 0.17, p= 0.05).

    In study 2, we examined the mediating effects of ego depletion and compensation between negative family events and leader identity. As shown in Table 10, negative family events had negative influence on leader identity through ego depletion, and 95% confidence interval was [−0.08, −0.0002]; negative family events had positive influence on leader identity via compensation, and 95% confidence interval was [0.01, 0.39].

    In sum, our data analysis results in two studies showed that negative family events did have both a trapped-by-family effect on leader identity and effective leadership behavior through ego-depletion and a compensation effect on leader identity and effective leadership behavior through compensation.

    The theoretical contributions of this paper are fourfold. First, we integrate the inconsistent ideas of the relationship between negative family events and effective leadership behavior using the theory of cross-domain leader identity. We find that the levels of leaders’ extraversion play a vital role in deciding whether negative family events will have a trapped-by-family effect or a compensation effect on effective leadership behavior via leader identity. Second, unlike existing empirical studies, our findings suggest that negative family events will not always lead to negative leadership behaviors. At the within-person level, leaders with high levels of extraversion will exhibit more effective leadership behaviors at work after experiencing negative family events. Third, we extend the current research to further explore the effect of personality on leadership behaviors. Prior studies have suggested that extraversion assists leaders in handling the challenges of work, while we find that extraversion will also promote leaders to actively respond to negative family events by engaging in effective leadership behaviors. Fourth, we also contribute to leader identity studies by shifting its antecedents from work domain to family domain and by exploring the interactive effect of personal and situational factors on leader identity. The present study also provides practical guidance for organizations and leaders to cope with the challenge of negative family events and promote its potential positive effects.

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    Empowerment or ostracism? The consequences of interpersonal interaction between star employee and team leader
    ZHAO Kai, YU Xi, ZHANG Shanshan
    2024, 56 (5):  630-649.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2024.00630
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    Star employees can enhance the organizational value creation not only through their direct and disproportionate contribution, but also by their extensive and profound influence on colleagues via interpersonal interaction. The existing studies mainly focus on the interpersonal effect of stars on non-star employees; however, the investigations on the interpersonal dynamics between star employees and their direct leader remain limited. Drawing on social interdependence theory and dominance complementarity theory, this study elucidates the nuanced mechanisms underlying the interpersonal interactions of star employees with team leaders. We propose a moderated mediation model to dissect the cooperative and competitive facets of goal dependency between star performers and team leaders, elucidating both positive and negative outcomes in their interactions.

    Specifically, the positive effect emerges from goal congruence between team leader and the star subordinates in “completing team tasks and improving team performance”, fostering cooperation and prompting team leader to offer positive appraisals of star subordinates, thereby catalyzing collaborative behaviors such as leader empowerment; conversely, the negative effect stems from goal misalignment between team leader and the star subordinates in “individual power and status allocation”, leading to competitive evaluations by team leader and consequent competitive behaviors like leader ostracism towards the star subordinates perceived as threats to their status.

    Furthermore, our study also investigates strategies to cultivate positive interpersonal interactions between team leader and star employees while mitigating negative ones. Based on social interdependence theory, the nature and intensity of goal dependency hinge upon the team leader’s subjective assessment of whether the presence of star employees facilitates her/his own goal attainment. Additionally, dominance complementarity theory posits that such subjective evaluation is shaped by the interpersonal traits of star employees and their interpersonal compatibility with the team leader. Integrating these theories, our study examines how the dominance traits of star employees influence team leader’s evaluations of their goal dependency, subsequently influencing her/his interpersonal reactions towards star subordinates.

    To sum, our theoretical model is shown in Figure 1. This model offers a novel perspective on leader-star employee dynamics, highlighting the dual nature of their goal dependency and the moderating role of star’s dominance trait. By elucidating the mechanisms underlying these interactions, organizations can better understand and navigate the complexities of star employees’ integration within teams, ultimately fostering more productive and harmonious work environments.

    We conducted a scenario-based experiment and a field study to test our theoretical model. In the scenario experiment (Study 1), we manipulated “the subordinate’s stardom” (i.e., star or non-star) and “the subordinate’s dominance trait” (i.e., high or low), resulting in a 2 by 2 categories of the scenarios. Data was collected from the participants enrolled in an Executive Development Program at a Chinese university through an online questionnaire platform (https://www.wjx.cn). The final sample comprised 356 respondents. Table 1 shows descriptive statistics and bivariate correlations for the whole sample.

    As depicted in Figure 2, the subordinate’s stardom was positively related to the leader’s trust in subordinate (β = 0.34, SE = 0.05, p < 0.001) and perceived threat to status (β = 0.16, SE = 0.05, p = 0.001). Leader’s trust had a positive effect on the leader’s empowerment (tendency) (β = 0.63, SE = 0.04, p < 0.001) and a negative effect on the leader’s ostracism (tendency) (β = -0.24, SE = 0.05, p < 0.001). The indirect effect of leader’s trust on both the relationship between subordinate’s stardom and leader’s empowerment (tendency) (b = 0.40, SE = 0.07, 95% CI = [0.28,0.54]) and the relationship between subordinate’s stardom and leader’s ostracism (tendency) (b = -0.21, SE = 0.05, 95% CI = [-0.33, -0.12]) were significant. Additionally, leader’s perceived threat to status had a negative effect on the leader’s empowerment (tendency) (β = -0.12, SE = 0.04, p = 0.008) and a positive effect on the leader’s ostracism (tendency) (β = 0.39, SE = 0.06, p < 0.001). The indirect effect of perceived threat to status on both the relationship between subordinate’s stardom and leader’s empowerment (tendency) (b = -0.04, SE = 0.02, 95% CI = [-0.08, -0.01]) and the relationship between subordinate’s stardom and leader’s ostracism (tendency) (b = 0.16, SE = 0.06, 95% CI = [0.07,0.29]) were significant. However, the interaction between subordinate’s stardom and subordinate’s dominance trait was not significantly related to leader’s trust (β = 0.05, SE = 0.05, p = 0.267), but it was significantly correlated with the leader’s perceived threat to status (β = 0.12, SE = 0.05, p = 0.026). Specifically, when the subordinate’s dominance trait was high, his or her stardom had a significant influence on the leader’s empowerment (tendency) through leader’s perceived threat to status (b = -0.06, SE = 0.03, 95% CI = [-0.14, -0.02]). Conversely, when subordinate’s dominance trait was low, his or her stardom was not significantly related to the leader’s empowerment (tendency) through leader’s perceived threat to status (b = -0.01, SE = 0.02, 95% CI = [-0.05, 0.02]). Furthermore, when subordinate’s dominance trait was high, his or her stardom had a significant influence on the leader’s ostracism (tendency) through leader’s perceived threat to status (b = 0.28, SE = 0.08, 95% CI = [0.14,0.46]). When subordinate’s dominance trait was low, his or her stardom was not significantly related to the leader’s ostracism (tendency) through leader’s perceived threat to status (b = 0.05, SE = 0.07, 95% CI = [-0.10, 0.19]).

    To replicate these findings and enhance their external validities, we then conducted a multi-source, multi-wave field study (Study 2). Employees and their direct supervisors from a Chinese new material manufacturing company were invited to participate in our survey. We collected the data at two time points (i.e., a one-month time lag) through another online questionnaire platform (https://end.huajuetech.com). The paired sample size was 291. Table 2 shows descriptive statistics and bivariate correlations for the whole sample.

    As illustrated in Figure 3, Study 2 replicated most of the findings in Study 1, except for the indirect effect of subordinate’s stardom on leader’s empowerment behavior through perceived threat to status, which was not significant. To be specific, subordinate’s stardom was positively associated with the leader’s trust in subordinate (β = 0.30, SE = 0.06, p < 0.001) and the leader’s perceived threat to status (β = 0.14, SE = 0.06, p = 0.024). The leader’s trust in subordinate positively influenced leader’s empowerment (β = 0.17, SE = 0.06, p = 0.003) and negatively affected leader’s ostracism (β = -0.16, SE = 0.06, p = 0.008). Significant indirect effects were observed for leader's trust on the relationship between subordinate's stardom and leader empowerment (b = 0.18, SE = 0.07, 95% CI = [0.06,0.35]), as well as between subordinate's stardom and leader's ostracism (b = -0.22, SE = 0.10, 95% CI = [-0.45, -0.07]). The leader’s perceived threat to status was not significantly related to leader’s empowerment (β = 0.03, SE = 0.06, p = 0.639) but was positively correlated with leader’s ostracism (β = 0.18, SE = 0.09, p = 0.048). The indirect effect of leader’s perceived threat to status on the relationship between subordinate’s stardom and leader’s ostracism was significant (b = 0.12, SE = 0.09, 95% CI = [0.003,0.37]). Although the interaction between subordinate’s stardom and dominance trait was not significantly related to leader’s trust (β = 0.05, SE = 0.04, p = 0.147), it was positively associated with leader’s perceived threat to status (β = 0.16, SE = 0.06, p =0.008). When subordinate’s dominance trait was high, there was no significant relationship between the subordinate's stardom and leader's empowerment through perceived threat to status (b = 0.03, SE = 0.07, 95% CI = [-0.08, 0.19]). Similarly, when subordinate’s dominance trait was low, the subordinate’s stardom was not significantly related to the leader’s empowerment through leader’s perceived threat to status (b = -0.001, SE = 0.02, 95% CI = [-0.06, 0.03]). However, when subordinate’s dominance trait was high, the subordinate’s stardom had a significantly positive influence on the leader’s ostracism through leader’s perceived threat to status (b = 0.25, SE = 0.15, 95% CI = [0.02,0.62]). When subordinate’s dominance trait was low, the subordinate’s stardom was not significantly related to the leader’s ostracism through leader’s perceived threat to status (b = -0.01, SE = 0.07, 95% CI = [-0.19, 0.11]).

    In summary, our study makes three important contributions: (1) We clarified the consequences and mechanisms of star employees’ interpersonal interaction on team leaders, thereby enriching research on the interpersonal effect of star employees. (2) By examining the boundary conditions of stars’ impact on team leaders, our study prompted scholars and managers to explore how to build a proper work context to leverage stars’ value. (3) Our study aided leadership researchers to further investigate the antecedents of positive or negative leadership behaviors (i.e., empowerment and ostracism) from the perspective of “the interpersonal relationship between a leader and the key minority subordinates”.

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    Impact of repeated two-syllable brand names on consumer ethical responses in different moral contexts: A mind perception theory perspective
    YE Weiling, XU Su, ZHOU Xinyue
    2024, 56 (5):  650-669.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2024.00650
    Abstract ( 102 )   HTML ( 16 )  
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    Brand names serve as crucial touchpoints for establishing brand-consumer relationships and are integral components of brand assets. Linguistic studies on branding have established that the phonetic features of brand names can influence consumers’ cognition, emotions, and behavior. However, research on the impact and mechanisms of phonetic features on consumers’ ethical responses is limited. Based on the mind perception theory, this study explores the asymmetric paths through which the use of repeated two-syllable brand names influences consumers’ moral reactions in two different situations. Based on seven experiments, we determined that in the context of brands as moral agents, compared to non-repeated two-syllable brand names, repeated ones can alleviate consumers’ negative moral reactions (anger, disgust, blame, punishment intention) toward the brand by reducing the think dimension of brand mind perception (rather than the feel dimension). However, in the context of brands as moral patients, repeated two-syllable brand names enhance consumers’ positive moral reactions (sympathy, compassion, regret, and purchase intention) toward the brand by increasing the feel dimension of brand mind perception (rather than the think dimension).

    Experiment 1a was designed to derive experimental evidence on the relationship between repeated two-syllable brand name and consumers’ negative moral reactions in the context of moral agent. Experiment 1a (N = 200, 130 female, Mage = 29.85, SDage = 8.86) was a single factor (repeated two-syllable: yes vs. no) between-subjects design in which participants were randomly assigned to different groups to read a news report regarding an incident of vulgar advertising with repeated or non-repeated two-syllable brand names. Participants then reported their level of anger, disgust, and blame toward the brand. Experiment 1b (N = 200, 127 female, Mage = 30.26, SDage = 9.00), which had a similar between-subjects design as Experiment 1a, verified the relationship between repeated two-syllable brand name and consumers’ positive moral reactions in the context of moral patient. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups to read a news report regarding an incident of corporate data breach. They then reported their level of sympathy, compassion, and pity for the brand. Experiment 2a (N = 196, 124 female, Mage = 34.04, SDage = 11.49) was designed to confirm the mediating role of the think dimension of the brand in the relationship between repeated two-syllable brand name and consumers’ negative moral reactions in the context of moral agent. The experimental design was the same as that of Experiment 1a. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups to read a news report regarding an incident of drug companies raising drug prices despite patients. Participants then reported their level of anger, blame, feel dimension, think dimension, brand warmth, and brand competence toward the brand. Experiment 2b (N = 196, 119 female, Mage = 29.86, SDage = 7.50) verified the mediating role in the relationship between repeated two-syllable brand name and consumers’ positive moral reactions in the context of moral patient. The experimental design and procedure were identical to that in Experiment 1b. After reading a news report regarding the incident of corporate data breach, participants reported their level of sympathy, support, feel dimension, think dimension, brand warmth, and brand competence toward the brand. Experiment 3a sought to confirm the influence of repeated two-syllable brand name on downstream behavioral intention in the context of moral agent. Experiment 3a (N = 296, 190 female, Mage = 29.65, SDage = 8.49) was a single factor (repeated two-syllable: yes vs. no vs. “little”) between-subjects design; participants were randomly assigned to three groups to read the same news report as in Experiment 2a. They then reported their level of anger, disgust, blame, feel dimension, think dimension, and punishment intention toward the brand. Experiment 3b (N = 292, 184 female, Mage = 31.48, SDage = 10.23) verified the influence of repeated two-syllable brand name on downstream behavioral intention in the context of moral patient and was a similar between-subjects design to Experiment 3a. The participants were randomly assigned to three groups and asked to read a news report on an incident of one company being coerced by another. They then reported their level of sympathy, compassion, regret, feeling, thinking, and purchase intention for the brand. Experiment 4 (N = 363, 233 female, Mage = 31.90, SDage = 10.94) used a 2 (repeated two-syllable: yes vs. no) × 2 (moral agent vs. moral patient) between-subjects design to more rigorously demonstrate the effect of repeated two-syllable names in the same moral situation. Participants were randomly assigned to four groups and asked to read a news report on an incident of commercial bullying. In the moral agent group, the brand was a game production company that bullies other firms, and in the moral patient group, the brand was a game operation company that is bullied by other firms. The participants reported their level of unethical judgment on the incident and the level of feel and think dimensions toward the brand.

    A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) in Experiments 1a and 1b suggested that repeated two-syllable brand name could decrease consumers’ negative moral reactions toward the brand when it was a moral agent, whereas such brand name could increase consumers’ positive moral reactions when the brand was a moral patient (see Table 1).

    The ANOVA results of Experiment 2a and an examination of parallel mediation revealed that the think dimension of brand mind perception mediated the influence of repeated two-syllable brand name on consumers’ negative moral reactions (see Table 2 and Figure 1).

    Based on the ANOVA and parallel medication analysis, the results of Experiment 2b revealed that feel dimension of brand mind perception mediated the influence of repeated two-syllable brand name on consumers’ positive moral reactions (see Table 3). At the same time, Experiment 2a ruled out alternative explanations for the stereotype content model. On the other hand, Experiment 2b established that after controlling for the indirect effect of the stereotype content model, a significant mediating effect of the mind perception theory remained (see Figure 2).

    Meanwhile, the results of the serial mediation mechanism analysis in Experiments 3a and 3b revealed that in the moral agent context, repeated two-syllable brand names ultimately influence consumers’ intentions to punish by influencing the think dimension and negative moral reactions (see Figure 3 and 4). However, in the moral patient context, repeated two-syllable brand names ultimately influence consumers’ purchase intention by influencing the feel dimension and positive moral reactions. In addition, the ANOVA and multi-category mediation mechanism analyses of Experiments 3a and 3b documented that repeated two-syllable brand name and “little” could produce similar effects in the moral agent and moral patient context (see Table 4 and 5).

    Finally, the results of the two-way ANOVA for Experiment 4 indicated significant interactions between repeated two-syllable names and moral roles in the immoral judgment of the incident and the feel and think dimensions of the brand. In the moral agent condition, participants in the repeated two-syllable group made fewer unethical judgments about the incident and perceived a lower level of the think dimension of the brand than participants in the non-repeated two-syllable group, but no significant difference was observed in the perceived level of feel dimension. In the moral patient condition, participants in the repeated two-syllable group made more unethical judgments about the incident and perceived a higher level of the feel dimension of the brand than those in the non-repeated two-syllable group, but no significant difference was observed in the perceived level of the think dimension (see Table 6 and Figure 5).

    This study provides an innovative theoretical exploration of the causal relationship between sound symbolism and consumers’ reactions to business ethical crisis. Meanwhile, we reveal the mechanism by which the two dimensions (think and feel) of brand mind perception exist as asymmetric mediators. In addition, we employ the theory of mind perception to discover how people anthropomorphize non-human things, which deepens the exploration of the mechanisms of anthropomorphism-generating processes in the brand anthropomorphism literature. In a practical sense, our research not only provides reference for the design of brand names and nicknames but also directly assists in crafting public relations content for handling ethical crises and creating content for public service announcements.

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    Development of Online Calibration Method based on SCAD penalty and EM perspective in CD-CAT: G-DINA model
    TAN Qingrong, CAI Yan, WANG Daxun, LUO Fen, TU Dongbo
    2024, 56 (5):  670-688.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2024.00670
    Abstract ( 78 )   HTML ( 11 )  
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    Cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT) provides a detailed diagnosis of an examinee’s strengths and weaknesses in the content measured in a timely and accurate manner, which can be used as a reference for further study or remediation planning, thus meeting the practical need for efficient and detailed test results. The successful implementation of CD-CAT is based on an item bank, but its maintenance is a very challenging task. A psychometrically popular choice for maintaining an item bank is online calibration. Currently, the research on online calibration methods in the CD-CAT that can calibrate Q-matrix and item parameters simultaneously is very weak. The existing methods are basically developed based on the deterministic input, noisy and gate (DINA) model. Compared with the DINA model, the generalized DINA (G-DINA) model has been more widely applied because it is less restrictive and can meet the requirements of a large number of test data in psychological and educational assessment. Therefore, if the online calibration method that jointly calibrates the Q-matrix and item parameters can be developed for models with few constraints such as G-DINA, its meaning is understood without explanation.

    In current study, a new online calibration method, SCADOCM, was proposed, which was suitable for the G-DINA model. The construction of SCADOCM was based on the smoothly clipped absolute deviation penalty (SCAD) and marginalized maximum likelihood estimation (MMLE/EM) algorithm. For the new item j, the log-likelihood function with SCAD can be formulated based on the examinees’ responses in this item and the examinees’ attribute marginal mastery probability, and the q-vector of the new item can be estimated by the q-vector estimator based on SCAD. Then, the EM algorithm was used to estimate the item parameter of the new item j based on the posterior distributions of examinees’ attribute patterns, the examinees’ responses to new item j and the estimated q-vector.

    To examine the performance of the proposed SCADOCM and compare it with the SIE method, two simulation studies (Study 1 and Study 2) are conducted. Study 1 is based on a simulated item bank while Study 2 is based on the real item bank (Internet addiction item bank; Shi, 2017). In these simulation studies, four factors were manipulated: the calibration sample size (nj = 50 vs. 100 vs. 500 vs. 1000 vs. 2000), the distribution of the attribute pattern (uniform distribution vs. high-order distribution vs. normal distribution), the item quality (U(0.05, 0.15) vs. U(0.1, 0.3)), and the online calibration methods (SCADOCM vs. SIE). The results showed that (1) SCADOCM has satisfactory calibration accuracy and calibration efficiency, and is superior to the SIE method (see Figures 1-3 and Table 1 for details). In addition, the traditional SIE method is not applicable for the G-DINA model, and its Q-matrix estimation accuracy rate is low under all experimental conditions (see Figure 2). (2) The item calibration accuracy of SCADOCM and SIE increases with the increase of calibration sample and item quality under most conditions, and its item calibration accuracy in the uniform distribution/higher-order distribution is greater than that in the normal distribution (see Figures 2-3). (3) The calibration efficiency of SCADOCM decreases with the increase of calibration samples, but it is less affected by the item quality and the attribute pattern distribution; the calibration efficiency of SIE decreases with the increase of calibration samples, but it is less affected by the item quality. Moreover, the calibration efficiency of the SIE method in the normal distribution is slightly slower than that of uniform distribution/high-order distribution (see Figure 1).

    To sum up the results, this study demonstrated that the SCADOCM has higher item calibration accuracy and calibration efficiency, and outperforms the SIE method; meanwhile, the traditional SIE method is not suitable for G-DINA model. All in all, this study provides an efficient and accurate method for item calibration in CD-CAT, and provides important support for further promoting the application of CD-CAT in practice.

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