心理学报, 2019, 51(4): 471-483 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00471

研究报告

发展性阅读障碍儿童的新词习得及其改善

白学军,1,2, 马杰1, 李馨1, 连坤予1, 谭珂1, 杨宇1, 梁菲菲,2

1 天津师范大学心理与行为研究院, 天津 300074

2 天津师范大学教育科学学院, 天津 300387

The efficiency and improvement of novel word’s learning in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia during natural reading

BAI Xuejun,1,2, MA Jie1, LI Xin1, LIAN Kunyu1, TAN Ke1, YANG Yu1, LIANG Feifei,2

1 Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300074, China

2 School of Education and Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387, China

通讯作者: 白学军, E-mail: baixuejun@tjnu.edu.cn;梁菲菲, E-mail: feifeiliang_329@126.com;

收稿日期: 2018-05-9   网络出版日期: 2019-04-25

基金资助: * 国家自然科学基金.  31600902
国家自然科学基金.  81471629
国家自然科学基金.  31571122
国家自然科学基金.  31800920
天津市哲学社会科学规划课题.  TJJX16-013

Received: 2018-05-9   Online: 2019-04-25

摘要

本研究通过比较重复学习新词时个体眼动模式的变化, 探讨发展性阅读障碍儿童的新词习得及改善途径。实验1以发展性阅读障碍、生理年龄和阅读能力匹配儿童为被试, 采用重复学习新词的范式, 探讨发展性阅读障碍儿童的新词习得。结果发现, 与匹配组相比, 发展性阅读障碍儿童在新词的首次注视时间和凝视时间上需要更多的语境才出现显著下降, 且在总注视时间上表现出更缓慢的下降。表明发展性阅读障碍儿童的新词习得慢于正常儿童。实验2以词间空格和正常无空格两种文本呈现方式, 仍采用重复学习新词范式, 探讨词间空格是否能促进发展性阅读障碍儿童的新词习得。结果发现, 在词间空格条件下, 发展性阅读障碍儿童的新词习得可达到正常儿童的水平。表明作为视觉词切分线索的词间空格, 可促进发展性阅读障碍儿童的新词习得。本研究结果为发展性阅读障碍儿童新词习得提供了一条新的途径。

关键词: 发展性阅读障碍 ; 新词习得 ; 词切分 ; 中文阅读

Abstract

Previous studies have shown that the amount of vocabularies of children with developmental dyslexia is remarkably lower than that of normal children, thus, it becomes one of the primary indicators for discriminating dyslexia in clinical children develop vocabularies at an extremely high rate in primary school, and a conservative estimate shows that approximately one-third of vocabulary growth is acquired by accidental learning in natural reading. The critical process of this way to learn words, is to infer the word meaning by gathering useful sources base on lexical and contextual cues. Chinese developmental dyslexia typically have deficits in the aspects of morphological- and phonological-related processing, we infer they would be less skilled to derive the word meaning by using lexical information. The first experiment is designed to examine the dyslexic children’s performance of novel word learning in reading.

In Experiment 1, the novel words were embedded into eight sentences, each of which provided a context for readers to form a new lexical representation. Three groups of children were selected as participants, including children with developmental dyslexia (DD), the chronological age-matched children (CA), and reading level-matched children (RL). They were instructed to read sentences containing novel words as their eye movements were recorded. The results showed that, reading times on target words gradually reduced with the increasing of learning stages. Children with developmental dyslexia needed more contexts to begin to decrease for the measures of first fixation duration and gaze duration, and showed a slower decline on total fixation time as compared to age-matched and reading level-matched children. It suggests that more contexts are necessary for dyslexic children to learn novel words in reading.

The insertion of spaces between words, has been proven to be an effective way of improving children’s word learning efficiency. In Experiment 2, we examined whether children with dyslexia were more benefit from word spacing in word learning because of their low-level of reading skills. Three groups of children as the same in Experiment 1 were instructed to read sentences in unspaced, and word-spaced formats. The results showed that all children were benefit from word spacing in word learning, and it was more pronounced for children with- than without- dyslexia. We argue that word spacing may allow readers to form a more fully specified representation of the novel word, or to strengthen connections between representations of the constituent characters and the multi-character word.

Our findings provide robust evidence that Chinese children with developmental dyslexia have lower efficiency of word learning in reading, probably this accounts for their less vocabularies in mental lexicon. The findings also have strong implications for educational practice with respect to reading development with dyslexia.

Keywords: developmental dyslexia ; word acquisition ; word segmentation ; Chinese reading

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本文引用格式

白学军, 马杰, 李馨, 连坤予, 谭珂, 杨宇, 梁菲菲. (2019). 发展性阅读障碍儿童的新词习得及其改善 . 心理学报, 51(4), 471-483

BAI Xuejun, MA Jie, LI Xin, LIAN Kunyu, TAN Ke, YANG Yu, LIANG Feifei. (2019). The efficiency and improvement of novel word’s learning in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia during natural reading. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 51(4), 471-483

1 问题提出

发展性阅读障碍指个体无明显脑损伤、精神障碍等器质性病变, 具有中等或以上智力水平, 与同龄人享有同等教育, 但字词识别效率低下的一种学习障碍, 具体表现为:(1)字词识别的流畅性和准确性差; (2)词汇拼写及解码能力差(Lyon, Shaywitz, & Shaywitz, 2003)。大量研究发现, 由于发展性阅读障碍儿童存在字词识别困难, 其识字量和词汇量均显著低于正常儿童(Meng, Cheng-Lai, Zeng, Stein, & Zhou, 2011; Pan, Yan, Laubrock, Shu, & Kliegl, 2014; Shu, McBride-Chang, Wu, & Liu, 2006; Zhang, Xie, Xu, & Meng, 2018), 因此识字量是甄别发展性阅读障碍儿童的主要指标(Chen et al., 2018; Pan et al., 2014; Yan, Pan, Laubrock, Kliegl, & Shu, 2013; Zhou et al., 2014)。

小学阶段是儿童识字量和词汇量增长的黄金时期。据统计, 儿童平均每年约掌握3000个新词, 其中超过80%的词汇是在自然阅读中习得的(Nagy, Herman, & Anderson, 1985)。Fukkink (2005)以拼音文字为基础, 提出自然阅读中新词习得的4个认知阶段:(1)做出是否触发学习新词的决定; (2)对词汇本身及其相关语境投入大量认知资源寻找有效线索, 即词汇内部线索、语境线索以及个体在长时记忆中储存的知识; (3)利用语境线索推断新词含义; (4)对已形成的新词含义进行评估。由于汉语文本没有明显的视觉词边界信息, 成功进行词切分是阅读中进行新词习得的首要环节(白学军, 张慢慢, 臧传丽, 李馨, 陈璐, 闫国利, 2014; 李兴珊, 刘萍萍, 马国杰, 2011; Li, Rayner, & Cave, 2009; Liang et al., 2015, 2017)。如果将Fukkink (2005)提出的新词习得认知阶段模型应用到汉语阅读中, 则需要增加词切分过程。因此在汉语阅读中进行新词习得时, 需先对句子进行词切分, 同时利用词汇内部线索和语境等线索对新词进行语义推断与整合。

梁菲菲、章鹏、张琪涵、王永胜和白学军(2017)采用眼动追踪技术, 通过重复学习新词时眼动模式的变化, 从发展的角度探讨正常儿童及成人在自然阅读中新词习得的差异。实验要求成人和三年级小学生在连续五个语境的阅读中学习新词。结果发现, 在新词的凝视时间和再注视比率上, 成人在第二次阅读新词时就大幅下降, 而小学生在第四次阅读时才开始下降; 在总注视时间上, 小学生在前四次阅读中呈连续下降, 而成人仅在前两次阅读中表现出大幅下降, 随后下降幅度大幅减小。该结果表明, 正常儿童的新词习得眼动注视模式不同于成人, 即成人在新词上的眼动注视模式呈阶梯式下降, 而儿童呈连续下降。这可能是由于, 相比于成人, 儿童为不熟练阅读者, 阅读水平较低, 各项语言认知加工技能有待于发展(Reichle et al., 2013), 因此导致他们在阅读中学习新词时, 无法像成人一样有效地利用词汇内部线索以及语境等线索推断新词语义。

和正常儿童相比, 发展性阅读障碍儿童阅读水平较低, 且存在如下缺陷可能会影响新词习得。(1)语音加工缺陷, 表现为语音意识弱, 语音记忆能力低和语音提取困难(Ho, Law, & Ng, 2000)。(2)正字法意识缺陷, 表现为汉字组字规则和结构意识弱, 字形结构加工能力差(Ho, Chan, Tsang, & Lee, 2002)。由于汉语词汇切分和识别是视觉特征、汉字和词汇三个层面自上而下和自下而上的交互加工过程(Li et al., 2009), 发展性阅读障碍儿童的语音加工缺陷和正字法意识缺陷可能影响汉字层面加工, 与此同时, 汉字层面的加工也可能会影响其它层面的激活, 使其在建立汉字形、音、义之间的联结更加困难。由此推断, 发展性阅读障碍儿童在句子中对新词进行切分和识别的过程可能会更困难。(3)快速命名缺陷, 表现为对熟悉视觉刺激形-音转换的自动化加工能力差(Yan et al., 2013)。(4)阅读流畅性差, 表现为阅读的速度慢、准确性差(Li & Wu, 2015; Meng et al., 2011)。快速命名和阅读流畅性均涉及语音和正字法等多种低水平阅读认知加工过程, 反映自动化加工的程度(Hudson, Pullen, Lane, & Torgesen, 2009; Li et al., 2015; Wolf, Bowers, & Biddle, 2000)。发展性阅读障碍儿童存在快速命名缺陷, 且其阅读流畅性差, 需要将更多的认知资源集中于语音和正字法等多种低水平认知加工过程上, 而用于寻找有效线索进行语义推断的认知资源较少, 影响对新词的语义推断与整合, 降低阅读理解效率(Fukkink, 2005; Li et al., 2015)。基于上述原因, 研究者推断发展性阅读障碍儿童在自然阅读中习得新词可能会更加困难。本研究的第一个目的是探讨发展性阅读障碍儿童在自然阅读中新词习得的特点及其表现。

词间空格作为一种视觉层面的词边界信息, 可以加强新词各词素间字形、字音及语义之间的联结, 有利于在视觉上成功进行词切分。那么, 读者只需利用词汇内部线索和语境线索进行新词的语义推断与整合(梁菲菲等, 2017; Bai et al., 2013; Blythe et al., 2012; Liang et al., 2015, 2017)。已有研究发现, 词间空格在英语(Rayner, Fischer, & Pollatsek, 1998)、泰语(Winskel, Radach, & Luksaneeyanawin, 2009)、汉语(Bai et al., 2013)、德语(Inhoff & Radach, 2002)、日语(Sainio, Hyönä, Bingushi, & Bertram, 2007)、西班牙语(Perea & Acha, 2009)等阅读中起促进作用, 其促进作用大小受读者阅读技能高低的调节, 即读者阅读技能越低, 词间空格所起的促进作用越大(Blythe et al., 2012; Shen et al., 2012)。与正常儿童相比, 发展性阅读障碍儿童的阅读技能更低(Shu et al., 2006), 且在词素形、音、义的识别和联结上存在缺陷(Lyon et al., 2003)。由此推断, 他们在阅读中更加依赖视觉词边界线索(如词间空格)。本研究的第二个目的是探讨词间空格在发展性阅读障碍儿童新词习得中的促进作用。

采用重复学习新词范式, 通过比较发展性阅读障碍、生理年龄匹配和阅读能力匹配三组儿童重复学习新词时眼动模式的变化, 实验1探讨发展性阅读障碍儿童新词习得进程中各阶段的加工特点及表现; 在此基础上, 实验2通过操纵文本呈现方式(词间空格、正常无空格), 探讨词间空格如何促进发展性阅读障碍儿童的新词习得。基于前期正常读者新词习得的特点(梁菲菲等, 2017; Blythe et al., 2012), 以及发展性阅读障碍儿童存在语音、正字法、快速命名缺陷及其阅读流畅性差(Ho et al., 2002; Meng et al., 2011; Yan et al., 2013), 本研究预期:(1)在反映各个加工阶段的眼动指标上, 发展性阅读障碍儿童的表现均差于正常儿童, 尤其是在新词习得的早期加工阶段; (2)词间空格会促进三组儿童的新词习得, 且对发展性阅读障碍儿童的促进作用最大。

由于发展性阅读障碍儿童的阅读发展存在两种模式(薛锦, 舒华, 杨剑锋, 陆建平, 2008):(1)阅读发展的滞后模式(delayed development), 表现为发展性阅读障碍儿童的阅读水平与年龄较小儿童相类似; (2)阅读的变异模式(atypical development), 表现为发展性阅读障碍儿童的阅读行为与任何年龄段的正常儿童(包括同年龄及年龄较小儿童)均不相似。为了探讨发展性阅读障碍儿童的新词习得是滞后还是变异的发展模式, 本研究同时选取生理年龄匹配和年龄较小的阅读能力匹配儿童作为对照组。如果发展性阅读障碍儿童在新词习得时的眼动模式变化与年龄较小的阅读能力匹配儿童相似, 与生理年龄匹配儿童差异较大, 则表明他们的新词习得的阅读模式是滞后发展的; 如果发展性阅读障碍儿童在新词习得时的眼动模式变化与阅读能力匹配儿童及生理年龄匹配儿童均不相似, 则表明他们的新词习得的阅读模式是变异发展的。

2 实验1:发展性阅读障碍儿童的新词习得

采用重复学习新词范式, 将每一个新词(由两个汉字构成的假词)嵌入8个不同的语境, 通过比较发展性阅读障碍儿童以及匹配儿童在各个学习阶段中眼动模式的变化, 探讨发展性阅读障碍儿童新词习得的特点。

2.1 研究方法

2.1.1 被试

对天津市三所小学以及福建省一所小学881名五年级小学生和951名三年级小学生进行测试, 筛选出41名发展性阅读障碍儿童, 筛出率为4.65%, 见表1。由于学校及学生个人原因, 共22名发展性阅读障碍儿童参与实验, 其中男生16人, 女生6人。

表1   被试筛选基本信息

学校 年级 性别 年级
人数
发展性阅读
障碍儿童
筛出率
小学A 五年级 117 9 7.7%
98 0 0
总数 215 9 4.2%
小学B 五年级 79 2 2.5%
80 2 2.5%
总数 159 4 2.5%
小学C 五年级 61 4 6.5%
46 3 6.5%
总数 107 7 6.5%
小学D 五年级 211 17 8.1%
189 4 2.1%
总数 400 21 5.3%

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发展性阅读障碍组及匹配组被试筛选标准如下。首先, 进行以下测验(Meng et al., 2011; Shu et al., 2006):(1)以班级为单位对三年级和五年级小学生进行《小学生汉字识字量测验》(王孝玲, 陶保平, 1996)和《联合瑞文推理测验》(李丹, 胡克定, 陈国鹏, 金瑜, 李眉, 1988); (2)以个体为单位进行语言及认知能力测验(林传鼎, 张厚粲, 1986; 凌文辁, 滨治世, 1988; 王晓辰, 2010; 邹艳春, 2003; Cheng, Li, & Wu, 2015; Denckla & Rudel, 1974; Li et al., 2015; Shu, Meng, Chen, Luan, & Cao, 2005), 包括正字法意识测验、语音意识测验(包括音节判断测验、音位删除测验、声母/韵母/声调辨别测验)、言语短时记忆测验(包括数字广度任务、汉字广度任务)、快速自动命名测验、阅读流畅性测验(包括一分钟快速读词、三分钟句子阅读)。

其次, 根据被试的测验成绩分组:(1)发展性阅读障碍组, 智力处于中等或良好水平, 识字量低于生理年龄匹配组平均成绩1.5个标准差以上, 阅读流畅性测验成绩低于同年级平均成绩1个标准差以上, 且至少有一项个体测验成绩低于生理年龄匹配组1个标准差以上; (2)生理年龄匹配组, 与发展性阅读障碍组同年龄且智力水平相当, 且识字量处于同年级平均成绩上下0.5个标准差以内; (3)阅读能力匹配组, 与发展性阅读障碍组智力水平和识字量相当, 且低两个年级。

最终确定发展性阅读障碍、生理年龄匹配及阅读能力匹配三组儿童各22人。各被试组的平均年龄及各项测验成绩见表2

表2   各年龄组被试的平均年龄及各项测验成绩

各项测验 发展性阅读障碍组 生理年龄匹配组 阅读能力匹配组 F ηp2
年龄(月) 126 (6.78) 129(8.98) 105 (6.65) 68.75*** 0.69
智力(标准分) 106 (12) 108 (10) 113 (12) 2.56
识字量(字) 2173 (236) 2959 (206) 2166 (255) 83.96*** 0.73
正字法意识 72 (7.66) 78 (5.97) 75 (4.88) 4.31* 0.12
语音意识
音节判断 35 (2.38) 36 (0.59) 35 (1.57) 1.63
音位删除 11 (5.80) 17 (5.21) 17 (4.99) 7.70** 0.20
声母/韵母/声调辨别 29 (2.59) 30 (4.38) 31 (3.13) 1.80
言语工作记忆
数字广度(顺背+倒背) 15 (2.79) 16 (2.54) 15 (2.84) 2.94 (0.06) 0.09
汉字广度 9.55 (1.63) 8.91 (1.63) 9.55 (1.79) 1.05
快速命名(RAN)
数字RAN反应时 23 (4.97) 20 (2.29) 22 (3.66) 3.17* 0.09
字母RAN反应时 29 (7.32) 23 (2.31) 26 (7.86) 4.48* 0.13
颜色RAN反应时 46 (9.24) 41 (6.46) 48 (9.08) 3.70* 0.11
阅读流畅性
一分钟读词(词/分) 83(12) 94 (11) 88 (12) 4.66* 0.13
三分钟阅读(字) 382 (97) 518 (62) 430 (92) 14.53*** 0.32

注:括号内为标准差, *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05。

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经检验发现:在年龄上, 发展性阅读障碍组和生理年龄匹配组差异不显著(t(42) = 1.25, p > 0.05), 但显著大于阅读能力匹配组(t(42) = 10.60, p < 0.001, d = 3.27); 在音位删除测验上, 发展性阅读障碍组的成绩均显著低于生理年龄匹配和阅读能力匹配组(ts > 3.31, ps < 0.002, ds > 1.02); 在识字量、正字法、言语工作记忆、数字/字母/颜色快速命名、一分钟读词和三分钟阅读测验上, 发展性阅读障碍组的表现显著均差于生理年龄匹配组(ts > 2.11, ps < 0.041, ds > 0.65), 且和阅读能力匹配组无显著差异(ts < 1.70, ps > 0.05); 在智力水平、音节判断、声母/韵母/声调辨别等测验上, 三组被试成绩均无显著差异(Fs < 2.56, ps > 0.05)。由此可知, 本研究选取的发展性阅读障碍儿童主要存在正字法意识缺陷、语音意识缺陷、言语工作记忆缺陷、快速命名缺陷和阅读流畅性缺陷。

2.1.2 实验设计

采用3(被试类型:发展性阅读障碍组、生理年龄匹配组、阅读能力匹配组) × 4(学习阶段:1、2、3、4)的混合设计。被试类型为被试间变量, 学习阶段为被试内变量, 阶段一包括语境1, 阶段二包括语境2, 阶段三包括语境3、4、5, 阶段四包括语境6、7、8。

2.1.3 实验材料

基于SUBTLEX-CH语料库(Cai & Brysbaert, 2010), 选择96个高频汉字(频率均大于100/百万)作为构成新词的词素。选取不参与正式实验的15名三年级小学生对所选汉字进行注音和组词。选择注音和组词均正确的80个汉字作为目标字, 平均字频为323/百万, 平均笔画数为8.6, 词素位于词首和词尾的概率为50%。

将目标字两两组合成40个假词作为新词。控制假词“假”的程度(与真词不具有相似性):(1)所有假词在《现代汉语词典》中不存在; (2)呈现假词的正确注音, 要求不参与正式实验的15名大学生根据注音写出对应的词, 结果选出30个写不出词的假词, 作为本实验的新词。

通过8个句子, 将每个新词描述成某个常见语义类别的新成员。共设有10个语义类别:建筑物、药类、家具、文具、花类、动物、职业、水果、交通工具、衣服。每个语义类别包含3个假词。选取不参与正式实验的15名大学生对假词和所属语义类别的联想程度进行四点等级评定(“1”代表非常难联想到; “4”代表非常容易联想到)。平均联想值为1.04 (SD = 0.07), 表明由假词联想到真词的程度很低。

将目标词放在句子中间, 句子长度为13~14个汉字。分别选取不参与正式实验的15名小学三年级学生对句子的通顺性和难度进行五点等级评定, 其中“1”表示句子非常不通顺且非常难理解; “5”表示句子非常通顺且非常容易理解。为了排除新词对句子通顺性和难度的影响, 借鉴Liang等人(2015, 2017)的做法, 将每一个句子框架中的新词替换为与新词同语义类别的熟悉成员, 如“富丽端庄的环米的花瓣不易脱落”, 将“环米”替换“牡丹”, 然后进行评定。句子通顺性的平均值为4.31 (SD = 0.29); 句子难度的平均值为4.47 (SD = 0.35), 表明句子非常通顺且容易理解。

在每个新词创设的8个语境中, 随机设置1~3个阅读理解题目, 考察被试是否真正理解句子的含义。同时为每个新词设置1个语义类别选择题目, 考察被试对新词语义类别的掌握程度。选取30个新词中的15个新词作为实验1的材料, 材料举例见表3

2.1.4 实验仪器

采用加拿大SR Research公司Eyelink1000眼动仪, 采样率为1000 Hz, 屏幕分辨率为1024×768像素, 刷新率为120 Hz。被试眼睛与屏幕之间的距离为65 cm。字体为宋体18号, 每个汉字大小为25×25像素, 水平视角为0.74°。

表3   实验1材料举例

学习阶段 句子编号 例句
学习阶段一 语境1 花园里的环米特别的鲜艳夺目。
学习阶段二 语境2 充足光照是环米生长的基本条件。
学习阶段三 语境3 水养或盆栽的环米都不需要施肥。
语境4 四月到五月是环米开花的好时期。
语境5 富丽端庄的环米的花瓣不易脱落。
学习阶段四 语境6 适合红色环米生长的土壤呈酸性。
语境7 所有盆栽的环米都必须定期浇水。
语境8 生长在山上的环米是一种药材。
语义类别选择题目:请选择“环米”属于以下哪个类别?
(1)文具 (2)花类 (3)容器 (4)季节

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2.1.5 施测程序

采用五点模式进行校准, 平均误差小于0.5°。校准成功后, 要求被试逐一阅读包含新词的8个语境, 并通过鼠标按键完成阅读理解题目和语义类别选择题目。分2次学习15个新词, 中间休息10分钟。整个实验大约持续50分钟。

2.2 结果

三组被试的阅读理解正确率无显著差异(发展性阅读障碍组为81%, 生理年龄匹配组为87%, 阅读能力匹配组为85%), F(2, 63) = 2.39, p > 0.05, 表明三组被试都认真阅读句子。三组被试的语义类别选择正确率没有显著差异(发展性阅读障碍组为95%, 生理年龄匹配组为99%, 阅读能力匹配组为96%), F(2, 63) = 2.48, p > 0.05, 表明三组被试都能正确掌握新词的语义类别。根据如下标准删除数据(梁菲菲等, 2017):(1)注视点少于3个的句子(0.88%); (2)眼动数据追踪丢失(0.05%); (3)3个标准差以外(0.4%)。共删除总数据的1.33%。

将新词作为兴趣区, 选取如下眼动指标作为因变量(梁菲菲等, 2017; Bai et al., 2013; Blythe et al., 2012):(1)首次注视时间(first fixation duration):指首次通过兴趣区的首个注视点的注视时间, 反映早期加工阶段的特征; (2)凝视时间(gaze duration):指从首次注视点开始到注视点首次离开当前兴趣区的持续时间总和, 反映词汇通达早期阶段的特征; (3)总注视时间(total fixation duration):指兴趣区内所有注视点的持续时间总和, 反映该兴趣区内后期加工的特点(闫国利, 熊建萍, 臧传丽, 余莉莉, 崔磊, 白学军, 2013)。

2.2.1 眼动分析结果

三组被试在不同学习阶段的眼动数据结果见表4图1所示。

表4   无空格条件下三组被试在不同学习阶段的眼动数据

组别 学习
阶段
首次注视
时间(ms)
凝视时
间(ms)
总注视
时间(ms)
发展性阅读障碍组 阶段一 289 (60) 468 (135) 1123 (340)
阶段二 285 (58) 461 (141) 898 (270)
阶段三 265 (42) 393 (101) 715 (241)
阶段四 264 (36) 380 (109) 645 (195)
生理年龄匹配组 阶段一 284 (57) 471 (146) 1121 (307)
阶段二 265 (44) 328 (72) 687 (176)
阶段三 253 (36) 325 (66) 609 (153)
阶段四 246 (34) 297 (53) 549 (122)
阅读能力匹配组 阶段一 307 (74) 540 (184) 1404 (391)
阶段二 275 (49) 431 (148) 955 (287)
阶段三 266 (44) 371 (92) 796 (220)
阶段四 250 (43) 326 (89) 637 (199)

注:括号内为标准差。

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(1)学习阶段。在首次注视时间、凝视时间和总注视时间上的主效应均显著(Fs > 20.89, ps < 0.001, ηp2 > 0.25)。进一步检验发现, 相邻两个学习阶段之间的差异均显著(ts > 2.40, ps < 0.023, ds > 0.64)。表明随着学习阶段的递增, 被试在新词上的注视时间呈逐渐下降趋势。

(2)组别。在首次注视时间上的主效应被试分析不显著, 项目分析显著(F1(2, 63) = 0.76, p1 > 0.05; F2(2, 58) = 11.52, p2 < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.28), 在凝视时间和总注视时间上的主效应均显著(Fs > 3.61, ps < 0.033, ηp2> 0.10)。由于组别和学习阶段的交互作用在三个指标上达到显著, 本研究将主要分析二者的交互作用。

(3)学习阶段和组别的交互作用。在首次注视时间上的被试分析不显著, 项目分析显著(F1(6, 189) = 1.22, p1 > 0.05; F2(6, 174) = 2.36, p2 = 0.032, ηp2 = 0.08), 在凝视时间和总注视时间上均显著(Fs > 4.17, ps < 0.001, ηp2 > 0.12)。简单效应分析发现, 三组被试在四个学习阶段上的差异均显著(Fs > 3.72, ps < 0.014, ηp2 > 0.06)。

进一步考察三组被试在不同学习阶段的变化趋势(如图1所示), 结果发现:发展性阅读障碍组在首次注视时间和凝视时间上, 均在从第二到第三学习阶段表现出明显下降(ts > 2.39, ps < 0.026, ds >0.93), 其余相邻学习阶段之间均无显著差异(ts < 1.31, ps > 0.05)。生理年龄匹配组, 从第一到第二和第三到第四学习阶段, 在首次注视时间上被试分析不显著, 项目分析显著(ts < 1.80, ps > 0.05; ts > 2.01, ps < 0.054, ds > 0.75), 在凝视时间上表现显著下降(ts > 4.07, ps < 0.001, ds > 1.61); 从第二到第三学习阶段, 在首次注视时间和凝视时间上的下降均不显著(ts < 1.51, ps > 0.05)。阅读能力匹配组, 从第一到第二和第三到第四学习阶段, 在首次注视时间和凝视时间上的下降均显著(ts > 2.38, ps < 0.024, ds > 0.89); 从第二到第三学习阶段, 在首次注视时间上的下降不显著(t1(21) = 0.89, p1 > 0.05; t2(29) = 0.97, p2 > 0.05), 但在凝视时间上表现出明显下降(t1(21) = 3.04, p1 = 0.006, d = 1.33; t2(29) = 2.92, p2 = 0.007, d = 1.08)。

图1

图1   三组被试在不同学习阶段中对新词的注视情况


在总注视时间上, 三组被试从第一到第四学习阶段均表现出不断地下降(ts > 2.09, ps < 0.046, ds > 0.78), 即表现出学习上时间的节省, 具体见图2所示。

图2

图2   三组被试在不同学习阶段的节省时间


从第一到第二学习阶段, 发展性阅读障碍组的节省时间均短于生理年龄匹配和阅读能力匹配组(ts > 2.77, ps < 0.009, ds > 0.86); 从第二到第三学习阶段, 发展性阅读障碍组的节省时间长于生理年龄匹配组, 仅被试分析显著, 项目分析不显著(t1(42) = 2.18, p1 = 0.035, d = 0.67; t2(29) = 1.76, p2 > 0.05); 从第三到第四学习阶段, 阅读能力匹配组的节省时间长于发展性阅读障碍组和生理年龄匹配组(ts > 2.78, ps < 0.008, ds > 0.86)。不同组别在其余相邻学习阶段的节省时间均无显著差异(ts < 1.76, ps > 0.05)。

2.2.2 各项行为测验与眼动指标之间的相关分析

各项行为测验与眼动指标之间的相关分析结果见表5

表5   各项行为测验与眼动指标之间的相关分析

各项测验 首次注视
时间(ms)
凝视时间
(ms)
总注视
时间(ms)
正字法意识 -0.09 -0.16 -0.12
语音意识
音节判断 -0.21 -0.23 -0.21
音位删除 -0.01 -0.02 0.07
声母/韵母/声调辨别 -0.06 -0.09 -0.04
言语工作记忆
数字广度(顺背+倒背) -0.14 -0.15 -0.09
汉字广度 -0.14 -0.16 0.08
快速命名(RAN)
数字RAN反应时 0.07 0.23 0.31*
字母RAN反应时 0.08 0.05 0.27*
颜色RAN反应时 -0.06 0.12 0.11
阅读流畅性
一分钟读词(词/分) -0.20 -0.38** -0.13
三分钟阅读(字) -0.07 -0.25* -0.15

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结果发现, 阅读流畅性测验成绩(包括一分钟读词和三分钟阅读)和儿童在新词上的凝视时间呈显著负相关, |rs| > 0.25, ps < 0.044, 即阅读流畅性测验成绩越高, 凝视时间越短。数字、字母快速命名反应时与总注视时间呈显著正相关, |rs| > 0.27, ps < 0.029, 即数字和字母快速命名反应时越短, 总注视时间越短。其余各项个体测验与各项眼动指标均无显著相关, |rs| < 0.23。

2.3 讨论

实验1结果发现, 发展性阅读障碍儿童在阅读中新词习得的眼动模式与正常儿童不同, 具体表现为:(1)在新词习得的早期加工阶段, 发展性阅读障碍儿童在首次注视时间和凝视时间上的下降晚于生理年龄匹配和阅读能力匹配组; (2)在晚期加工阶段, 发展性阅读障碍组在总注视时间上的下降虽然没有晚于生理年龄匹配和阅读能力匹配组, 但其在前两个学习阶段上的节省时间显著短于匹配组儿童。由于该研究结果发现发展性阅读障碍儿童在新词习得时的眼动模式变化与生理年龄匹配组儿童和年龄较小的阅读能力匹配组儿童均不相同, 表明发展性阅读障碍儿童在自然阅读中的新词习得不是相对滞后的发展模式, 而是表现出特殊的变异发展模式。

结合汉语阅读中新词习得的首要认知加工阶段, 即“是否触发学习新词”的前提是将新词从由连续汉字组成的语境中成功切分出来, 且汉语词切分和词识别是一个自上而下和自下而上的交互加工过程(Li et al., 2009)。新词加工类似于极端低频词, 读者在头脑中缺乏相应的词汇表征, 不能有效进行自上而下加工, 因此更加依赖于自下而上的加工(Blythe et al., 2012; Liang et al., 2015, 2017)。已有研究发现, 提供低水平的视觉词切分线索(如词间空格), 在视觉上帮助读者成功进行新词切分, 可以显著促进汉语读者在自然阅读中的新词习得, 这种促进作用在阅读水平较低的儿童群体中尤为明显。这是由于儿童的各项语言认知加工技能相对较低, 他们不能像成人一样有效利用高水平词汇内部线索(如词频、词素位置概率等语言学线索, 见Liang et al., 2015, 2017)进行新词识别与切分, 因此更加依赖于视觉词切分线索。相比于正常儿童, 发展性阅读障碍儿童的各项语言认知加工技能更低, 他们在新词切分和识别中, 是否更依赖于视觉词切分线索?即词间空格的插入是否会促进发展性阅读障碍儿童的新词习得?实验2将对该问题进行探讨。

3 实验2:词间空格在发展性阅读障碍儿童新词习得中的作用

已有研究发现, 视觉词切分线索在拼音文字阅读中起重要作用, 不仅促进词汇识别, 还可以有效引导眼动(Paterson & Jordan, 2010; Perea et al., 2009; Rayner et al., 1998); 在汉语和泰语等非空格语言中, 词间空格也在一定程度上(尤其是对低水平读者而言)促进了读者的词汇识别(Shen et al., 2012; Winskel et al., 2009)。本研究通过比较三组儿童在词间空格和正常无空格文本中学习新词时的眼动特征, 探讨词间空格在发展性阅读障碍儿童新词习得中的作用。

3.1 研究方法

3.1.1 被试

由于实验1中的18名被试(包括8名发展性阅读障碍儿童、5名阅读能力匹配儿童、5名生理年龄匹配儿童)由于家长及学校原因, 不愿参加随后的实验。为了保证被试的数量, 根据筛选标准又增加了12名被试(包括6名发展性阅读障碍儿童、3名阅读能力匹配儿童、3名生理年龄匹配儿童)。实验2发展性阅读障碍、生理年龄匹配和阅读能力匹配组各20人, 共计60人。

3.1.2 实验设计

采用3(被试类型:发展性阅读障碍组、生理年龄匹配组、阅读能力匹配组) × 2(文本呈现方式:正常无空格、词间空格)的混合设计, 被试类型为被试间变量, 文本呈现方式为被试内变量。

3.1.3 实验材料

将实验1中编制的30个新词以及语境作为实验材料。包含15个新词的句子在正常无空格条件下呈现, 另外包含15个新词的句子在词间空格条件下呈现。空格条件下句子切分方法如下:基于《现代汉语词典》和SUBTLEX-CH-WF语料库(Cai et al., 2010), 将词典或语料库中存在的词作为一个词单元, 在相邻两个词单元之间加入空格。选取15名不参与正式实验的大学生对词切分的合理性进行评定, 一致率为96.3% (SD = 0.03)。

3.1.4 实验仪器及施测程序

同实验1。要求被试阅读正常空格条件和词间空格条件的句子。被试每次学习7到8个新词, 分四次完成30个新词的学习。整个实验大约持续100分钟。

3.2 结果

三组被试的阅读理解正确率无显著差异(发展性阅读障碍组为82%, 生理年龄匹配组为88%, 阅读能力匹配组为86%), F(2, 57) = 2.16, p > 0.05, 表明三组被试都认真阅读句子。三组被试的语义类别选择正确率无显著差异(发展性阅读障碍组为96%, 生理年龄匹配组为99%, 阅读能力匹配组为96%), F(2, 57) = 1.66, p > 0.05, 表明三组被试都能正确掌握新词的语义类别。删除数据标准同实验1 (梁菲菲等, 2017), 共删除数据占总数据的1.74%。因变量指标同实验1。

三组被试在不同文本呈现方式下的眼动数据结果见表6所示。

表6   三组被试在不同文本呈现方式下的眼动数据

眼动指标 发展性阅读障碍组 生理年龄匹配组 阅读能力匹配组
无空格 词间空格 无空格 词间空格 无空格 词间空格
首次注视时间(ms) 274 (36) 260 (33) 259 (34) 264 (44) 273 (43) 280 (43)
凝视时间(ms) 427 (97) 375 (83) 342 (62) 338 (70) 407 (100) 384 (70)
总注视时间(ms) 856 (218) 696 (170) 670 (145) 602 (143) 860 (240) 692 (173)

注:括号内为标准差。

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(1)文本呈现方式。在首次注视时间上的主效应不显著(F1(1, 57) = 0.05, p1 > 0.05; F2(1, 29) = 0.03, p2 > 0.05), 在凝视时间和总注视时间上的主效应均显著(Fs > 11.47, ps < 0.001, ηp2 > 0.17), 儿童在无空格条件下注视新词的凝视时间和总注视时间显著长于空格条件。

(2)组别。在首次注视时间上的主效应被试分析不显著, 项目分析显著(F1(2, 57) = 0.93, p1 > 0.05; F2(2, 58) = 15.82, p2 < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.35); 在凝视时间和总注视时间上的主效应均显著(Fs > 3.89, ps < 0.026, ηp2 > 0.12)。由于文本呈现方式和组别的交互作用在三个指标上均显著, 将主要关注二者的交互作用分析。

(3)组别和文本呈现方式的交互作用。在首次注视时间的被试分析边缘显著, 项目分析显著(F1(2, 57) = 3.09, p1 = 0.053, ηp2 = 0.10; F2(2, 58) = 4.01, p2 = 0.023, ηp2 = 0.12)。简单效应分析发现, 仅发展性阅读障碍组表现出空格促进效应, 无空格条件下的首次注视时间显著长于空格条件(F1(1, 57) = 4.62, p1 = 0.036, ηp2 = 0.07; F2(1, 29) = 4.22, p2 = 0.049, ηp2 = 0.13)。生理年龄匹配和阅读能力匹配组儿童均未表现出空格促进作用(Fs < 2.48, ps > 0.05)。

二者的交互作用在凝视时间和总注视时间上均显著(Fs > 3.20, ps < 0.048, ηp2 > 0.10)。简单效应分析发现:在凝视时间上, 发展性阅读障碍组表现出空格促进效应(F1(1, 57) = 14.89, p1 < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.21; F2(1, 29) = 22.11, p2 < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.43), 阅读能力匹配组和生理年龄匹配组均未出现空格促进效应(Fs < 3.77, ps > 0.05); 在总注视时间上, 三组被试均表现出空格促进效应(Fs > 6.13, ps < 0.019, ηp2 > 0.10), 且发展性阅读障碍组和阅读能力匹配组的空格促进效应量无显著差异(t1(38) = 0.21, p1 >0.05; t2(29) = 0.61, p2 > 0.05), 但均大于生理年龄匹配组(ts > 2.40, ps < 0.022, ds > 0.78)。

为了进一步考察词间空格对发展性阅读障碍儿童的新词习得的贡献, 将发展性阅读障碍组空格条件和生理年龄匹配组无空格条件下的眼动数据进行比较。结果发现, 两组被试在首次注视时间和总注视时间上均没有差异(ts < 1.95, ps > 0.05), 在凝视时间上被试分析不显著, 项目分析显著(t1(38) = 1.38, p1 > 0.05; t2(29) = 5.11, p2 < 0.001, d = 1.90), 表明词间空格条件下, 发展性阅读障碍儿童的新词习得达到生理年龄匹配组阅读无空格文本时的水平。

3.3 讨论

与前人研究结果一致(梁菲菲等, 2017; Blythe et al., 2012), 实验2结果发现词间空格促进三组儿童的新词习得, 且促进作用的大小和方式表现出组间差异:词间空格对发展性阅读障碍儿童的促进作用表现在新词习得的整个加工阶段; 对生理年龄匹配组和阅读能力匹配组的促进作用仅表现在后期的语义整合阶段, 且对生理年龄匹配组的促进作用小于阅读能力匹配组。表明词间空格对发展性阅读障碍儿童的促进作用最大, 阅读能力匹配组次之, 生理年龄匹配组最小。该研究结果表明, 发展性阅读障碍儿童在阅读中习得新词的过程中, 对低水平视觉切分线索的依赖性较强。

4 总讨论

通过两个实验, 探讨发展性阅读障碍和匹配组儿童新词习得眼动模式的差异, 以及促进新词习得的有效途径。结果发现:(1)发展性阅读障碍儿童的新词习得眼动模式不同于正常儿童, 且主要体现在新词习得的早期加工阶段; (2)词间空格促进了三组儿童的新词习得, 但对发展性阅读障碍儿童的促进作用更大。基于发展性阅读障碍儿童的加工缺陷以及词汇习得的认知过程, 对上述结果做如下讨论。

4.1 发展性阅读障碍儿童的新词习得

从自然阅读中学习新词是适龄儿童词汇量增长的重要途径(Nagy & Scott, 2000)。本研究结果发现, 发展性阅读障碍在新词习得过程中眼动模式的变化特点不同于生理年龄匹配组和阅读能力匹配组, 即随着新词学习次数的增多, 发展性阅读障碍儿童在新词上的注视时间呈连续下降模式, 而正常儿童(包括阅读能力匹配组和生理年龄匹配组)在新词上的注视时间则呈阶梯式下降模式, 即在第二次注视新词时, 总注视时间下降幅度特别大, 在随后的学习过程中, 下降幅度变小。该结果为发展性阅读障碍儿童新词习得的变异发展模式提供了新证据, 即他们新词习得时的眼动注视模式与年龄较小的阅读能力匹配组和同年龄的生理年龄匹配组儿童均不相似。由此可知, 发展性阅读障碍儿童的新词习得眼动模式异常不是由于阅读能力的发育迟滞, 而是自身的病理性缺陷所导致的。

在将个体测验成绩与反映新词习得认知加工过程的眼动指标进行相关分析时, 只有字符型快速命名(包括字母和数字快速命名, 见Jones, Branigan, Hatzidaki, & Obregón, 2010; Närhi et al., 2005)及阅读流畅性测验与新词的注视时间呈显著相关。该结果为快速命名、及阅读流畅性测验与阅读之间的关系提供了新的证据, 即这两个测验不仅可以用于测量与评估个体在阅读中的词汇识别效率(Norton & Wolf, 2012), 还可以在一定程度上评估儿童在自然阅读中的新词习得。

在阅读中学习新词时, 读者需要将注意资源集中在词汇内部、语境及长时记忆中寻找有效线索对新词进行识别(Fukkink, 2005)。一方面由于读者头脑中缺乏新词自上而下的词汇表征, 另一方面又由于本研究所采用的新词均为不透明词, 即读者无法根据两个词素的语义信息推断整词的含义, 因此读者只能在语境中寻找有效线索对新词的含义进行推断(Blythe et al., 2012; Liang et al., 2015, 2017)。然而, 本研究的发展性阅读障碍儿童在形-音转换的自动化加工及反映多种低水平认知加工的阅读流畅性上存在缺陷, 这意味着, 他们必须将更多的注意资源集中在新词的低水平加工, 包括新词的正字法、语音、语素加工及在形-音之间建立联结, 而用于在语境中寻找有效线索的认知资源就大大减少, 进一步影响新词的语义推断与整合。其次, 本研究筛选出的发展性阅读障碍儿童存在语音意识缺陷和正字法意识缺陷, 这也会阻碍对新词的正字法和语音信息的加工。综上所述, 由于分配给新词的认知资源较少且难以有效获取新词的低水平信息, 导致发展性阅读障碍儿童新词习得眼动模式不同于正常儿童, 使其新词习得较为缓慢。

需要说明的是, 自然阅读中的新词习得是一项是极其复杂的认知活动, 同时受学习者自身因素(如语言水平、词汇量、情绪状态)和阅读因素(如阅读任务、阅读目的)的影响(Pulido, 2004)。因此, 导致发展性阅读障碍儿童的新词习得缓慢的原因可能存在多种, 后续研究应聚焦于“自然阅读中的新词习得模型”中的某一或某几个加工阶段, 采用更具有针对性的实验设计, 为发展性阅读障碍儿童新词习得的认知机制提供更多实验证据。

4.2 发展性阅读障碍儿童新词习得的空格促进效应

已有研究发现, 词间空格作为一种视觉词切分线索, 将连续的词从视觉上凸显出来, 在一定程度上能促进汉语读者的阅读, 研究者将这种现象称为空格促进效应(梁菲菲, 2013)。该效应不仅发生在汉语阅读的词汇识别中, 还发生在词汇习得情境中, 且其大小受读者阅读技能高低的调节(Blythe et al., 2012)。这是由于, 阅读技能高的读者(如成人), 除了利用低水平视觉信息外, 还可以充分利用词汇本身所提供的高水平语言信息进行词切分, 如词素熟悉性(梁菲菲, 王永胜, 张慢慢, 闫国利, 白学军, 2016)、词素位置概率等(Liang et al., 2017); 阅读技能低的读者(如儿童), 由于他们对各项语言线索的利用能力还在发展过程中(Reichle et al., 2013), 因此更加依赖低水平视觉线索进行词切分。本研究结果发现, 相比于生理年龄匹配组儿童(五年级小学生), 词间空格的促进作用在阅读能力匹配组儿童(三年级小学生)中表现更明显, 进一步证实词间空格在词汇习得中的促进作用随着儿童年龄的增长及阅读水平的提高而逐步减少。

本研究还发现, 词间空格对发展性阅读障碍儿童的促进作用明显大于正常儿童, 即词间空格同时促进他们新词习得的早期和晚期加工阶段, 而匹配组儿童只在晚期阶段表现出空格促进效应。表明空格促进效应不仅受读者阅读水平高低的影响, 也与读者是否存在“发展性阅读障碍”有关。词间空格促进发展性阅读障碍儿童词汇习得的方式存在如下两种可能性。

第一, 词间空格减缓了视觉拥挤效应。已有研究发现, 发展性阅读障碍儿童的视觉拥挤效应大于正常儿童, 即他们在加工目标刺激时, 更容易受到相邻刺激的干扰(Zorzi et al., 2012)。在拼音文字中, 通过增大字符间距(即字母与字母之间的距离)缓解了发展性阅读障碍儿童的视觉拥挤效应, 可以有效提高其阅读速度(Perea, Panadero, Moret-Tatay, & Gómez, 2012); 在汉语研究中也发现, 增大干扰汉字和目标汉字之间的距离在一定程度上缓解了发展性阅读障碍儿童的视觉拥挤效应, 促进对目标汉字的识别(郭志英, 2016)。由于汉语文本的特殊性, 同时存在字间距和词间距。与单个汉字相比, 在汉语阅读中词更具有心理现实性(Bai, Yan, Liversedge, Zang, & Rayner, 2008; Shen et al., 2012)。因此, 相比于增大字间距, 增大词与词之间的视觉间距在汉语阅读中可能更有效。本研究在句子阅读层面上证实, 词间空格通过有效地缓解相邻词单元之间的拥挤, 促进发展性阅读障碍儿童的新词习得。

第二, 词间空格帮助发展性阅读障碍儿童成功进行词切分。汉语文本没有明显的视觉词边界信息, 自然阅读中进行新词习得的首要环节是词切分(白学军等, 2014; Liang et al., 2017)。在汉语文本中插入词间空格, 一方面从视觉层面上可以加强新词的两个词素在形、音、义上的联结, 另一方面有助于读者在整词水平上快速建立新词的词汇表征。这有效地弥补了发展性阅读障碍儿童由于字词识别缺陷导致在词汇切分和识别上的加工能力不足, 帮助他们准确、快速地完成词切分过程, 促进新词习得。

本研究结果还发现, 在汉语文本中插入词间空格, 发展性阅读障碍儿童的新词习得基本达到正常儿童水平。在自然阅读中词汇习得直接影响儿童词汇量的高低, 而词汇量能有效预测儿童的阅读能力高低(周雪莲, 程亚华, 李宜逊, 韩春翔, 李虹, 2016)。因此, 本研究结果为提高发展性阅读障碍儿童新词习得提供切实可行的干预途径。

5 结论

在本研究条件下得出如下结论:(1)与正常儿童相比, 发展性阅读障碍儿童的新词习得较为缓慢, 主要表现为新词习得早期加工的延迟和晚期加工效率的低下, 这可能是由他们在形-音转换的自动化加工及反映多种低水平认知加工的阅读流畅性上存在缺陷, 导致新词习得的阅读模式呈变异发展。(2)词间空格作为视觉词切分信息, 帮助发展性阅读障碍儿童成功进行词切分, 可能在一定程度上缓解文本的拥挤效应, 促进新词习得。

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Word frequency is the most important variable in language research. However, despite the growing interest in the Chinese language, there are only a few sources of word frequency measures available to researchers, and the quality is less than what researchers in other languages are used to. Following recent work by New, Brysbaert, and colleagues in English, French and Dutch, we assembled a database of word and character frequencies based on a corpus of film and television subtitles (46.8 million characters, 33.5 million words). In line with what has been found in the other languages, the new word and character frequencies explain significantly more of the variance in Chinese word naming and lexical decision performance than measures based on written texts. Our results confirm that word frequencies based on subtitles are a good estimate of daily language exposure and capture much of the variance in word processing efficiency. In addition, our database is the first to include information about the contextual diversity of the words and to provide good frequency estimates for multi-character words and the different syntactic roles in which the words are used. The word frequencies are freely available for research purposes.

Chen H., Zhou Y. X., Ge Z., Li Q., Sun Q. S., Zheng L. Y., … Sun Y. M . ( 2018).

Association study of FGF18 with developmental dyslexia in Chinese population

Psychiatric Genetics, 28( 1), 8-11.

URL     PMID:29240020      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a neurobiological disorder featured by reading disabilities. In recent years, genome-wide approaches provided new perspectives to discover novel candidate genes of DD. In a previous study, rs9313548 located downstream of FGF18 showed borderline genome-wide significant association with DD. Herein, we selected rs9313548 and 11 independent tag single nucleotide polymorphisms covering gene region of FGF18 to perform association analysis with DD among 978 Chinese dyslexic cases and 998 controls recruited from elementary schools. However, we did not observe any single nucleotide polymorphism exceeding significant threshold. Our preliminary results suggested that FGF18 might not be a susceptibility gene for DD in Chinese population.

Cheng Y. H., Li L. P., & Wu X. C . ( 2015).

The reciprocal relationship between compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge in Chinese: A latent growth model study

Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 440.

URL     PMID:4397958      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract The aim of this study is to examine the developmental relationship between compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge from grades 1 to 2 in Chinese children. In this study, 149 Chinese children were tested on compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge from Time 1 to Time 4, with non-verbal IQ, working memory, phonological awareness, orthographical awareness, and rapid automatized naming at Time 1 as control variables. Latent growth modeling was conducted to analyze the data. Univariate models separately calculated children's initial levels and growth rates in compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge. Bivariate model was used to examine the direction of the developmental relationships between the two variables with other cognitive and linguistic variables and the autoregression controlled. The results demonstrated that the initial level of compounding awareness predicted the growth rate of vocabulary knowledge, and the reverse relation was also found, after controlling for other cognitive and linguistic variables and the autoregression. The results suggested a reciprocal developmental relationship between children's compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge for Chinese children, a finding that informs current models of the relationship between morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge.

Denckla, M. B.,& Rudel, R. , ( 1974).

Rapid “automatized” naming of pictured objects, colors, letters and numbers by normal children

Cortex, 10( 2), 186-202.

URL     PMID:4844470      [本文引用: 1]

180 normal children, ages five through ten years, were given a set of nine naming tests, each involving 50 timed responses to five randomly recurring pictured objects, colors, letters or numbers. “Automatization” of naming, measured by speed, accuracy, and consistency on these tasks, did not parallel the developmental order of acquisition of the various categories of names; letters and numbers were named relatively faster than were colors and objects as early as age six years. Children's facility in “automatization” of naming different semantic categories is considered in terms of the contributions of overlearning, stimulus discriminability, “operativity”, word frequency and response competition; only the last two appear to be explanatory factors.

Fukkink, R. G . ( 2005).

Deriving word meaning from written context: A process analysis

Learning and Instruction, 15( 1), 23-43.

URL     [本文引用: 4]

The paper reports on a study among primary-school students of the process of deriving word meaning from written context in a first language. A sequential analysis of think-aloud protocols revealed that the students inferred one or more meanings, checked their inferences and then rejected or accepted them. These activities were performed in a highly flexible manner and their order varied. Four major sequences, which were not equally effective, showed up in a cluster analysis. The paper concludes by discussing implications for instruction and think-aloud research.

Guo, Z. Y . ( 2016).

The visual crowding effect in Chinese-speaking children with developmental dyslexia (Unpublished doctoral dissertation)

Tianjin Normal University.

[本文引用: 1]

[ 郭志英 . ( 2016).

汉语发展性阅读障碍儿童视觉拥挤效应的研究(博士学位论文)

天津师范大学.]

[本文引用: 1]

Ho C. S. H., Chan D. W. O., Tsang S. M., & Lee S. H . ( 2002).

The cognitive profile and multiple-deficit hypothesis in Chinese developmental dyslexia

Developmental Psychology, 38( 4), 543-553.

[本文引用: 1]

Ho C. S. H., Law T. P. S., & Ng P. M . ( 2000).

The phonological deficit hypothesis in Chinese developmental dyslexia

Reading and Writing, 13( 1-2), 57-79.

[本文引用: 2]

Hudson R. F., Pullen P. C., Lane H. B., Torgesen J. K . ( 2009).

The complex nature of reading fluency: A multidimensional view

Reading & Writing Quarterly, 25( 1), 4-32.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Reading fluency is commonly defined as reading accurately at a quick rate with appropriate prosody simple sounding definition. In fact, this definition hides complex processes and skills needed to produce the seemingly effortless performance of a fluent reader. Using both theory and empirical research, the presence and role of underlying processes and knowledge such as decoding fluency, processing speed, vocabulary, letter sound fluency, and sight word fluency are discussed. In doing this, we explain the elements needed for fluent reading and how they relate to each other in a multilayered fashion in young readers, and discuss the implications of this model in the development and assessment of reading fluency.

Inhoff, A. W.,& Radach, R. , ( 2002).

The biology of reading: Use of spatial segmentation in the reading of complex words

Comments on Theoretical Biology, 7( 3), 121-138.

[本文引用: 1]

Jones M. W., Branigan H. P., Hatzidaki A., & Obregón M . ( 2010).

Is the ‘naming’ deficit in dyslexia a misnomer?

Cognition, 116( 1), 56-70.

[本文引用: 1]

Li D., Hu K. D., Chen G. P., Jin Y., & Li M . ( 1988).

Test report of Raven's Progressive Matrices (CRT) of Shanghai city

Psychological Science, ( 4), 29-33.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

瑞文测验联合型是将瑞文的“渐进矩阵”测验的标准型及彩色型联合使用。此系一种非文字智力测验,可团体施行亦可个别施测。由于它实施简便省时,且可在语言交流不便的情况下使用,故可作为大规模智力筛查分等之用.在上海市区5—16岁儿童中抽样试用结果表明它的信度与效度都较好。本文附有上海市区的试测常模供参考。

[ 李丹, 胡克定, 陈国鹏, 金瑜, 李眉 . ( 1988).

瑞文测验联合型(CRT)上海市区试测报告

心理科学, ( 4), 29-33.]

URL     [本文引用: 1]

瑞文测验联合型是将瑞文的“渐进矩阵”测验的标准型及彩色型联合使用。此系一种非文字智力测验,可团体施行亦可个别施测。由于它实施简便省时,且可在语言交流不便的情况下使用,故可作为大规模智力筛查分等之用.在上海市区5—16岁儿童中抽样试用结果表明它的信度与效度都较好。本文附有上海市区的试测常模供参考。

Li, L. P, & Wu, X. C . ( 2015).

Effects of metalinguistic awareness on reading comprehension and the mediator role of reading fluency from grades 2 to 4

Plos One, 10( 3), 1-16.

URL     PMID:4370388      [本文引用: 4]

Purpose: This study examined the contribution of metalinguistic awareness including morphological awareness, phonological awareness and orthographical awareness to reading comprehension, and the role of reading fluency as a mediator of the effects of metalinguistic awareness on reading comprehension from grades 2 to 4. Methods: Four hundred and fifteen elementary students in China mainland were administered a test battery that included measures of morphological awareness, phonological awareness, orthographical awareness, reading fluency, reading comprehension and IQ. Hierarchical regression and structural equation models (SEM) were used to analyze the data. Results: Morphological awareness uniquely explained 9%, 10% and 13% variance of reading comprehension respectively from grade 2 to grade 4, however, phonological awareness and orthographical awareness did not contribute to reading comprehension; Reading fluency partially mediated the effect of morphological awareness on reading comprehension in grades 2-4. Conclusions: These findings indicated that reading fluency and morphological awareness should be facilitated in the Chinese instruction. Morphological awareness played an important role in Chinese reading and affected reading comprehension in grades 2 to 4; Reading fluency was a significant link between morphological awareness and reading comprehension in grades 2-4.

Li X. S., Liu P. P., & Ma G. J . ( 2011).

Advances in cognitive mechanisms of word segmentation during Chinese reading

Advances in Psychological Science, 19( 4), 459-470.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

[ 李兴珊, 刘萍萍, 马国杰 . ( 2011).

中文阅读中词切分的认知机理述评

心理科学进展, 19( 4), 459-470.]

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Li X. S., Rayner K., & Cave K. R . ( 2009).

On the segmentation of Chinese words during reading

Cognitive Psychology, 58( 4), 525-552.

URL     PMID:19345938      [本文引用: 3]

Given that there are no spaces between words in Chinese, how words are segmented when reading is something of a mystery. Four Chinese characters, which either constituted one 4-character word or two 2-character words, were shown briefly to subjects. Subjects were quite accurate in reporting the 4-character word, but could usually only report the first 2-character word, demonstrating that word segmentation influences character recognition. The results suggest that even with these simple 4-character strings, there is an element of seriality in reading Chinese words: processing is initially focused at least to some extent on the first word. We also found that the processing of characters that are not consistent with the context is inhibited, suggesting inhibition from word representations to character representations. A simple model of Chinese word segmentation and word recognition is presented to account for the data.

Liang, F. F . ( 2013).

The mechanism of word segmentation during Chinese reading: An eye movement study (Unpublished doctoral dissertation)

Tianjin Normal University.

[本文引用: 1]

[ 梁菲菲 . ( 2013).

中文词切分认知机制的眼动研究(博士学位论文)

天津师范大学.]

[本文引用: 1]

Liang F. F., Blythe H. I., Bai X. J., Yan G. L., Li X., Zang C. L., & Liversedge S. P . ( 2017).

The role of character positional frequency on Chinese word learning during natural reading

Plos One, 12( 11), 1-24.

URL     PMID:5685568      [本文引用: 8]

Abstract Readers' eye movements were recorded to examine the role of character positional frequency on Chinese lexical acquisition during reading and its possible modulation by word spacing. In Experiment 1, three types of pseudowords were constructed based on each character's positional frequency, providing congruent, incongruent, and no positional word segmentation information. Each pseudoword was embedded into two sets of sentences, for the learning and the test phases. In the learning phase, half the participants read sentences in word-spaced format, and half in unspaced format. In the test phase, all participants read sentences in unspaced format. The results showed an inhibitory effect of character positional frequency upon the efficiency of word learning when processing incongruent pseudowords both in the learning and test phase, and also showed facilitatory effect of word spacing in the learning phase, but not at test. Most importantly, these two characteristics exerted independent influences on word segmentation. In Experiment 2, three analogous types of pseudowords were created whilst controlling for orthographic neighborhood size. The results of the two experiments were consistent, except that the effect of character positional frequency was absent in the test phase in Experiment 2. We argue that the positional frequency of a word's constituent characters may influence the character-to-word assignment in a process that likely incorporates both lexical segmentation and identification.

Liang F. F., Blythe H. I., Zang C. L., Bai X. J., Yan G. L., & Liversedge S. P . ( 2015).

Positional character frequency and word spacing facilitate the acquisition of novel words during Chinese children's reading

Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 27( 5), 594-608.

URL     [本文引用: 6]

Children's eye movements were recorded to examine the role of word spacing and positional character frequency on the process of Chinese lexical acquisition during reading. Three types of two-character novel pseudowords were constructed: words containing characters in positions in which they frequently occurred (congruent), words containing characters in positions they do not frequently occur in (incongruent) and words containing characters that do not have a strong position bias (balanced). There were two phases within the experiment, a learning phase and a test phase. There were also two learning groups: half the children read sentences in a word-spaced format and the other half read the sentences in an unspaced format during the learning phase. All the participants read normal, unspaced text at test. A benefit of word spacing was observed in the learning phase, but not at test. Also, facilitatory effects of positional character congruency were found both in the learning and test phase; however, this benefit was greatly reduced at test. Furthermore, we did not find any interaction between word spacing and positional character frequencies, indicating that these two types of cues affect lexical acquisition independently. With respect to theoretical accounts of lexical acquisition, we argue that word spacing might facilitate the very earliest stages of word learning by clearly demarking word boundary locations. In contrast, we argue that characters' positional frequencies might affect relatively later stages of word learning.

Liang F. F., Wang Y. S., Zhang M. M., Yan G. L., & Bai X. J . ( 2016).

The familiarity of morphemes modulating word spacing effects on the acquisition of novel Chinese vocabulary

Journal of Psychological Science, 39( 2), 258-264.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

为考察词素熟悉性是否会影响视觉词切分线索在新词学习中的作用,本研究中新词由两类假词构成第一类假词由两个高频字(高熟悉性词素)组成,第二类假词由两个低频字(低熟悉性词素)组成。实验采用学习一测试范式,将新词镶嵌在句子中供大学生被试阅读。结果发现,相比由低熟悉性词素构成的新词,词间空格在由高熟悉词素构成的新词中起到的促进作用更大。表明在汉语阅读过程中,词素熟悉性可能作为一种线索参与词切分。

[ 梁菲菲, 王永胜, 张慢慢, 闫国利, 白学军 . ( 2016).

新词词素熟悉性影响视觉词切分线索在新词学习中的促进作用

心理科学, 39( 2), 258-264.]

URL     [本文引用: 1]

为考察词素熟悉性是否会影响视觉词切分线索在新词学习中的作用,本研究中新词由两类假词构成第一类假词由两个高频字(高熟悉性词素)组成,第二类假词由两个低频字(低熟悉性词素)组成。实验采用学习一测试范式,将新词镶嵌在句子中供大学生被试阅读。结果发现,相比由低熟悉性词素构成的新词,词间空格在由高熟悉词素构成的新词中起到的促进作用更大。表明在汉语阅读过程中,词素熟悉性可能作为一种线索参与词切分。

Liang F. F., Zhang P., Zhang Q. H., Wang Y. S., & Bai X. J . ( 2017).

Different performance of word learning capability between children and adults in natural reading: Evidence from eye movements

Journal of Psychological Science, 40( 4), 863-869.

URL     [本文引用: 7]

从读者重复学习新词时眼动行为经历的变化,揭示儿童和成人自然阅读中新词学习能力的差异。构造双字假词作为新词,将其嵌在五个语境中,记录儿童和成人阅读时的眼动轨迹。结果发现:随着新词学习次数的递增,儿童和成人在新词上的首次注视时间呈相同变化;在对新词的凝视时间和再注视概率上,成人在第二次阅读时就大幅下降,而小学生在第四次阅读时才开始下降。表明成人新词学习能力高于儿童体现在词汇加工的相对晚期阶段。

[ 梁菲菲, 章鹏, 张琪涵, 王永胜, 白学军 . ( 2017).

自然阅读中儿童和成人新词学习能力的差异比较: 基于眼动的证据

心理科学, 40( 4), 863-869.]

URL     [本文引用: 7]

从读者重复学习新词时眼动行为经历的变化,揭示儿童和成人自然阅读中新词学习能力的差异。构造双字假词作为新词,将其嵌在五个语境中,记录儿童和成人阅读时的眼动轨迹。结果发现:随着新词学习次数的递增,儿童和成人在新词上的首次注视时间呈相同变化;在对新词的凝视时间和再注视概率上,成人在第二次阅读时就大幅下降,而小学生在第四次阅读时才开始下降。表明成人新词学习能力高于儿童体现在词汇加工的相对晚期阶段。

Lin C. D. & Zhang, H. C. , ( 1986) . The Chinese revision of WISC-R [in Chinese]. Beijing, China: Beijing Teachers College Press.

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[ 凌文辁, 滨治世 . ( 1988). 心理测验法. 北京: 科学出版社.]

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Lyon G. R., Shaywitz S. E., & Shaywitz B. A . ( 2003).

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Annals of Dyslexia, 53( 1), 1-14.

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Meng X. Z., Cheng-Lai A., Zeng B., Stein J. F., & Zhou X. L . ( 2011).

Dynamic visual perception and reading development in Chinese school children

Annals of Dyslexia, 61( 2), 161-176.

URL     PMID:21240572      [本文引用: 4]

The development of reading skills may depend to a certain extent on the development of basic visual perception. The magnocellular theory of developmental dyslexia assumes that deficits in the magnocellular pathway, indicated by less sensitivity in perceiving dynamic sensory stimuli, are responsible for a proportion of reading difficulties experienced by dyslexics. Using a task that measures coherent motion detection threshold, this study examined the relationship between dynamic visual perception and reading development in Chinese children. Experiment 1 compared the performance of 27 dyslexics and their age- and IQ-matched controls in the coherent motion detection task and in a static pattern perception task. Results showed that only in the former task did the dyslexics have a significantly higher threshold than the controls, suggesting that Chinese dyslexics, like some of their Western counterparts, may have deficits in magnocellular pathway. Experiment 2 examined whether dynamic visual processing affects specific cognitive processes in reading. One hundred fifth-grade children were tested on visual perception and reading-related tasks. Regression analyses found that the motion detection threshold accounted for 11% and 12%, respectively, variance in the speed of orthographic similarity judgment and in the accuracy of picture naming after IQ and vocabulary size were controlled. The static pattern detection threshold could not account for any variance. It is concluded that reading development in Chinese depends to a certain extent on the development of dynamic visual perception and its underlying neural pathway and that the impact of visual development can be specifically related to orthographic processing in reading Chinese.

Nagy, W., & Scott, J. A . ( 2000).

Vocabulary processes. In M. L. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Bar (Eds.), Handbook of reading research

(Vol. 3, pp. 269-284). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

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Nagy W. E., Herman P. A., & Anderson R. C . ( 1985).

Learning words from context

Reading Research Quarterly, 20( 2), 233-253.

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Närhi V., Ahonen T., Aro M., Leppäsaari T., Korhonen T. T., & Tolvanen A., & Lyytinen H . ( 2005).

Rapid serial naming: Relations between different stimuli and neuropsychological factors

Brain and Language, 92( 1), 45-57.

URL     PMID:15582035      [本文引用: 1]

We report two studies on rapid serial naming (RSN). Study 1 addressed the relations among RSN tasks comprising different stimuli. Separate components for RSN of alphanumeric and non-alphanumeric stimuli, as well as for tasks in which the stimuli alternated between categories were identified. In Study 2, phonological skills, processing speed, motor dexterity, and verbal fluency were found to explain RSN performance. The studies indicate: (1) that RSN tasks vary in their properties according to the stimuli used and according to the way the tasks are arranged, and (2) that RSN tasks are multi-componented.

Norton, E. S.,& Wolf, M. , ( 2012).

Rapid automatized naming (RAN) and reading fluency: Implications for understanding and treatment of reading disabilities

Annual Review of Psychology, 63( 1), 427-452.

URL     PMID:21838545      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Fluent reading depends on a complex set of cognitive processes that must work together in perfect concert. Rapid automatized naming (RAN) tasks provide insight into this system, acting as a microcosm of the processes involved in reading. In this review, we examine both RAN and reading fluency and how each has shaped our understanding of reading disabilities. We explore the research that led to our current understanding of the relationships between RAN and reading and what makes RAN unique as a cognitive measure. We explore how the automaticity that supports RAN affects reading across development, reading abilities, and languages, and the biological bases of these processes. Finally, we bring these converging areas of knowledge together by examining what the collective studies of RAN and reading fluency contribute to our goals of creating optimal assessments and interventions that help every child become a fluent, comprehending reader.

Pan J. G., Yan M., Laubrock J., Shu H., & Kliegl R . ( 2014).

Saccade-target selection of dyslexic children when reading Chinese

Vision Research, 97, 24-30.

URL     PMID:24508073      [本文引用: 2]

This study investigates the eye movements of dyslexic children and their age-matched controls when reading Chinese. Dyslexic children exhibited more and longer fixations than age-matched control children, and an increase of word length resulted in a greater increase in the number of fixations and gaze durations for the dyslexic than for the control readers. The report focuses on the finding that there was a significant difference between the two groups in the fixation landing position as a function of word length in single-fixation cases, while there was no such difference in the initial fixation of multi-fixation cases. We also found that both groups had longer incoming saccade amplitudes while the launch sites were closer to the word in single fixation cases than in multi-fixation cases. Our results suggest that dyslexic children inefficient lexical processing, in combination with the absence of orthographic word boundaries in Chinese, leads them to select saccade targets at the beginning of words conservatively. These findings provide further evidence for parafoveal word segmentation during reading of Chinese sentences.

Paterson, K. B., & Jordan, T. R . ( 2010).

Effects of increased letter spacing on word identification and eye guidance during reading

Memory & Cognition, 38( 4), 502-512.

URL     PMID:20516230      [本文引用: 1]

The effect of increasing the space between the letters in words on eye movements during reading was investigated under various word-spacing conditions. Participants read sentences that included a high- or low-frequency target word, letters were displayed normally or with an additional space between adjacent letters, and one, two, or three spaces were present between each word. The spacing manipulations were found to modulate the effect of word frequency on the number and duration of fixations on target words, indicating, more specifically, that letter spacing affected actual word identification under various word-spacing conditions. In addition, whereas initial fixations landed at the preferred viewing position (i.e., to the left of a word center) for sentences presented normally, landing positions were nearer the beginnings of words when letter spacing was increased, and even nearer the beginnings of words when word boundary information was lacking. Findings are discussed in terms of the influence of textual spacing on eye movement control.

Perea, M., &Acha, J. ( 2009).

Space information is important for reading

Vision Research, 49( 15), 1994-2000.

URL     PMID:19463847      [本文引用: 2]

Reading a text without spaces in an alphabetic language causes disruption at the levels of word identification and eye movement control. In the present experiment, we examined how word discriminability affects the pattern of eye movements when reading unspaced text in an alphabetic language. More specifically, we designed an experiment in which participants read three types of sentences: normally written sentences, regular unspaced sentences, and alternatingbold unspaced sentences. Although there was a reading cost in the unspaced sentences relative to the normally written sentences, this cost was much smaller in alternatingbold unspaced sentences than in regular unspaced sentences.

Perea M., Panadero V., Moret-Tatay C., & Gómez P . ( 2012).

The effects of inter-letter spacing in visual-word recognition: Evidence with young normal readers and developmental dyslexics

Learning and Instruction, 22( 6), 420-430.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Recent research has demonstrated that slight increases of inter-letter spacing have a positive impact on skilled readers' recognition of visually presented words. In the present study, we examined whether this effect generalises to young normal readers and readers with developmental dyslexia, and whether increased inter-letter spacing affects the reading times and comprehension of a short text. To that end, we conducted a series of lexical decision and continuous reading experiments in which words were presented with the default settings or with a small increase in inter-letter spacing. Increased spacing produced shorter word identification times not only with adult skilled readers (Experiment 1), but also with young normal readers (Grade 2 and Grade 4 children; Experiment 2) and, even to a larger degree, with readers with dyslexia (Experiments 3 and 4). These experiments suggest that slight increases in inter-letter spacing would improve the readability of texts aimed at children, especially those with dyslexia.

Pulido,D. ( 2004).

The relationship between text comprehension and second language incidental vocabulary acquisition: A matter of topic familiarity?

Language Learning, 54( 3), 469-523.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The study examines the relationship between second language (L2) passage comprehension and intake (form recognition), gain (meaning recognition and production), and retention of new lexical items from the passages. The effect of topic familiarity on the above relationships is also examined. Participants were a cross‐sectional sample of L2 learners. All participants read more and less familiar script‐based narratives containing nonsense words. After reading they performed a free‐written recall in their first language. Two days after reading, an intake and 2 gain measures were administered. Twenty‐eight days after reading, the 2 gain measures were repeated. Analyses reveal a generally robust consistent role of passage comprehension in lexical gain and retention, but differential patterns of relationships in intake due to effects of topic familiarity.

Rayner K., Fischer M. H., & Pollatsek A . ( 1998).

Unspaced text interferes with both word identification and eye movement control

Vision Research, 38( 8), 1129-1144.

URL     PMID:9666972      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract Subjects read either normal text, text in which the space information between words was absent (either spaces were removed filled with x), or text in which spaces were preserved but the words were flanked by x. In two experiments, reading rate decreased by approx. 50% when space information was not available, suggesting that reading unspaced text is relatively difficult. The removal of space information increased the effect of word frequency on the fixation times for selected target words, indicating that word identification was interfered with by the lack of spaces. In addition, removal of space information influenced the initial landing positions on words, indicating that eye movement control was affected by the absence of spaces. Further analyses were conducted that explored the relationship between these two effects.

Reichle E. D., Liversedge S. P., Drieghe D., Blythe H. I., Joseph H. S. S. L., White S. J., & Rayner K . ( 2013).

Using E-Z reader to examine the concurrent development of eye-movement control and reading skill

Developmental Review, 33( 2), 110-149.

URL     PMID:3774954      [本文引用: 2]

Compared to skilled adult readers, children typically make more fixations that are longer in duration, shorter saccades, and more regressions, thus reading more slowly (Blythe & Joseph, 2011). Recent attempts to understand the reasons for these differences have discovered some similarities (e.g., children and adults target their saccades similarly; Joseph, Liversedge, Blythe, White, & Rayner, 2009) and some differences (e.g., children fixation durations are more affected by lexical variables; Blythe, Liversedge, Joseph, White, & Rayner, 2009) that have yet to be explained. In this article, the E-Z Reader model of eye-movement control in reading (Reichle, 2011; Reichle, Pollatsek, Fisher, & Rayner, 1998) is used to simulate various eye-movement phenomena in adults vs. children in order to evaluate hypotheses about the concurrent development of reading skill and eye-movement behavior. These simulations suggest that the primary difference between children and adults is their rate of lexical processing, and that different rates of (post-lexical) language processing may also contribute to some phenomena (e.g., children slower detection of semantic anomalies; Joseph et al., 2008). The theoretical implications of this hypothesis are discussed, including possible alternative accounts of these developmental changes, how reading skill and eye movements change across the entire lifespan (e.g., college-aged vs. older readers), and individual differences in reading ability.

Sainio M., Hyönä J., Bingushi K., & Bertram R . ( 2007).

The role of interword spacing in reading Japanese: An eye movement study

Vision Research, 47( 20), 2575-2584.

URL     PMID:17697693      [本文引用: 1]

http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0042698907002556

Shen D., Liversedge S. P., Tian J., Zang C. L., Cui L., Bai X. J., … Rayner K . ( 2012).

Eye movements of second language learners when reading spaced and unspaced Chinese text

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 18( 2), 192-202.

URL     PMID:22545927      [本文引用: 3]

The effect of spacing in relation to word was examined for four groups of non-native Chinese speakers (American, Korean, Japanese, and Thai) who were Chinese as second language. Chinese sentences with four types of spacing information were used: unspaced text, word-spaced text, character-spaced text, and nonword-spaced text. Also, participants' native languages were different in terms of their basic characteristics: English and Korean are spaced, whereas the other two are unspaced; Japanese is character based whereas the other three are alphabetic. Thus, we assessed whether any spacing effects were modulated by native language characteristics. Eye movement measures showed least disruption to reading for word-spaced text and longer reading times for unspaced than character-spaced text, with nonword-spaced text yielding the most disruption. These effects were uninfluenced by native language (though reading times differed between groups as a result of Chinese reading experience). Demarcation of word boundaries through spacing reduces non-native readers' uncertainty about the characters that constitute a word, thereby speeding lexical identification, and in turn, reading. More generally, the results indicate that words have psychological reality for those who are to read Chinese as a second language, and that of text into words is more beneficial to successful comprehension than is separating individual Chinese characters with spaces.

Shu H., McBride-Chang C., Wu S., & Liu H. Y . ( 2006).

Understanding Chinese developmental dyslexia: Morphological awareness as a core cognitive construct

Journal of Educational Psychology, 98( 1), 122-133.

[本文引用: 3]

Tasks representing 9 cognitive constructs of potential importance to understanding Chinese reading development and impairment were administered to 75 children with dyslexia and 77 age-matched children without reading difficulties in 5th and 6th grade. Logistic regression analyses revealed that dyslexic readers were best distinguished from age-matched controls with tasks of morphological awareness, speeded number naming, and vocabulary skill; performance on tasks of visual skills or phonological awareness failed to distinguish the groups. Path analyses further revealed that a construct of morphological awareness was the strongest consistent predictor of a variety of literacy-related skills across both groups. Findings suggest that morphological awareness may be a core theoretical construct necessary for explaining variability in reading Chinese.

Shu H., Meng X. Z., Chen X., Luan H., & Cao F . ( 2005).

The subtypes of developmental dyslexia in Chinese: Evidence from three cases

Dyslexia, 11( 4), 311-329.

URL     PMID:16355750      [本文引用: 1]

This study investigated subtypes of developmental dyslexia in Chinese by assessing three cases of Chinese dyslexic children. A battery of screening measures, a character naming and meaning task, and metalinguistic awareness tasks were administered to each child. One of the three children demonstrated characteristics of developmental surface dyslexia, and the other two showed characteristics of developmental deep dyslexia. Moreover, the children's reading problems were found to be specifically related to their deficits in metalinguistic awareness. The dissociation between developmental surface and deep dyslexia provides support to Weekes et al .'s ( Neurocase 1997; 3 : 51-60) model that a semantic and a nonsemantic pathway exist independently in Chinese reading. The results also suggest that deficits in morphological and phonological awareness may cause developmental delays in the semantic and the nonsemantic pathway. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Wang X. C . ( 2010).

The cognitive process foundation of the Chinese developmental dyslexia with phonological and orthographic deficit (Unpublished doctoral dissertation)

East China Normal University.

[本文引用: 1]

[ 王晓辰 . ( 2010).

汉语发展性阅读障碍语音及正字法缺损的认知过程基础——基于PASS理论的研究(博士学位论文)

华东师范大学.]

[本文引用: 1]

Wang X. L. & Tao, B. P. , ( 1996) . Chinese character recognition test battery and assessment scale for primary school children. Shanghai, China: Shanghai Education Press.

[本文引用: 1]

[ 王孝玲, 陶保平 . ( 1996). 小学生识字量测试题库及评价量表. 上海: 上海教育出版社.]

[本文引用: 1]

Winskel H., Radach R., & Luksaneeyanawin S . ( 2009).

Eye movements when reading spaced and unspaced Thai and English: A comparison of Thai-English bilinguals and English monolinguals

Journal of Memory and Language, 61( 3), 339-351.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0749596X09000722

Wolf M., Bowers P. G., & Biddle K . ( 2000).

Naming-speed processes, timing, and reading: A conceptual review

Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33( 4), 387-407.

URL     PMID:15493099      [本文引用: 1]

Re-examines the role of naming-speed deficits in developmental reading disabilities. Presentation of cross-sectional, longitudinal, and cross-linguistic research; Exploration of two nonconsecutive hypotheses on putative links between naming speed and reading processes; Demonstration of naming speed differences among dyslexic readers.

Xue J., Shu H., Yang J. F., & Lu J. P . ( 2008).

Underlying problems in research on subtypes of developmental dyslexia

Chinese Journal of Special Education, ( 3), 48-52.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

本文从被试取样以及测试任务、筛选标准差异、信度和效度以及理论的适用性等方面详细综述了阅读障碍亚类型研究的现状,提出阅读障碍亚类型研究结果的可推论性受到质疑不仅是由于理论视角的差异,也是实验操作的问题,为未来阅读障碍亚类型的深入研究提供借鉴.

[ 薛锦, 舒华, 杨剑锋, 陆建平 . ( 2008).

发展性阅读障碍亚类型研究中的问题

中国特殊教育, ( 3), 48-52.]

URL     [本文引用: 1]

本文从被试取样以及测试任务、筛选标准差异、信度和效度以及理论的适用性等方面详细综述了阅读障碍亚类型研究的现状,提出阅读障碍亚类型研究结果的可推论性受到质疑不仅是由于理论视角的差异,也是实验操作的问题,为未来阅读障碍亚类型的深入研究提供借鉴.

Yan G. L., Xiong J. P., Zang C. L., Yu L. L., Cui L., & Bai X. J . ( 2013).

Review of eye-movement measures in reading research

Advances in Psychological Science, 21( 4), 589-605.

URL     [本文引用: 4]

Saccade and fixation are the elementary ocularmotor activities during reading. The eye-movement measures in reading research can be classified into two different categories. One category is temporal dimension measure related to the time course of eye movements and it includes the measures in area of interest of character or word (such as single fixation duration, first fixation duration, second fixation duration, gaze duration, regression time and total fixation duration and so on.) and the measures in area of interest of phrase or sentence (such as first-pass reading time, forward reading time, second-pass reading time, regression path reading time, re-reading time and so on.). The other category is spatial dimension measure related to the location of eye movement and it includes saccade amplitude, landing position, number of fixations, skipping rate, refixation rate and regression count. Finally, when using the eye movement measures we should pay attention to the classification of oculomotor measures, the cutoff criterion of raw data, the psychological interpretation of the measures and so on.

[ 闫国利, 熊建萍, 臧传丽, 余莉莉, 崔磊, 白学军 . ( 2013).

阅读研究中的主要眼动指标评述

心理科学进展, 21( 4), 589-605.]

URL     [本文引用: 4]

Saccade and fixation are the elementary ocularmotor activities during reading. The eye-movement measures in reading research can be classified into two different categories. One category is temporal dimension measure related to the time course of eye movements and it includes the measures in area of interest of character or word (such as single fixation duration, first fixation duration, second fixation duration, gaze duration, regression time and total fixation duration and so on.) and the measures in area of interest of phrase or sentence (such as first-pass reading time, forward reading time, second-pass reading time, regression path reading time, re-reading time and so on.). The other category is spatial dimension measure related to the location of eye movement and it includes saccade amplitude, landing position, number of fixations, skipping rate, refixation rate and regression count. Finally, when using the eye movement measures we should pay attention to the classification of oculomotor measures, the cutoff criterion of raw data, the psychological interpretation of the measures and so on.

Yan M., Pan J. G., Laubrock J., Kliegl R., & Shu H . ( 2013).

Parafoveal processing efficiency in rapid automatized naming: A comparison between Chinese normal and dyslexic children

Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 115( 3), 579-589.

URL     PMID:4020918     

Dyslexic children are known to be slower than normal readers in rapid automatized naming (RAN). This suggests that dyslexics encounter local processing difficulties, which presumably induce a narrower perceptual span. Consequently, dyslexics should suffer less than normal readers from removing parafoveal preview. Here we used a gaze-contingent moving window paradigm in a RAN task to experimentally test this prediction. Results indicate that dyslexics extract less parafoveal information than control children. We propose that more attentional resources are recruited to the foveal processing because of dyslexics less automatized translation of visual symbols into phonological output, thereby causing a reduction of the perceptual span. This in turn leads to less efficient preactivation of parafoveal information and, hence, more difficulty in processing the next foveal item.

Zhang M. L., Xie W. Y., Xu Y. Z., & Meng X. Z . ( 2018).

Auditory temporal perceptual learning and transfer in Chinese-speaking children with developmental dyslexia

Research in Developmental Disabilities, 74, 146-159.

URL     PMID:29413429      [本文引用: 1]

Perceptual learning refers to the improvement of perceptual performance as a function of training. Recent studies found that auditory perceptual learning may improve phonological skills in individuals with developmental dyslexia in alphabetic writing system. However, whether auditory perceptual learning could also benefit the reading skills of those learning the Chinese logographic writing system is, as yet, unknown. The current study aimed to investigate the remediation effect of auditory temporal perceptual learning on Mandarin-speaking school children with developmental dyslexia. Thirty children with dyslexia were screened from a large pool of students in 3th-5th grades. They completed a series of pretests and then were assigned to either a non-training control group or a training group. The training group worked on a pure tone duration discrimination task for 7 sessions over 2 weeks with thirty minutes per session. Post-tests immediately after training and a follow-up test 2 months later were conducted. Analyses revealed a significant training effect in the training group relative to non-training group, as well as near transfer to the temporal interval discrimination task and far transfer to phonological awareness, character recognition and reading fluency. Importantly, the training effect and all the transfer effects were stable at the 2-month follow-up session. Further analyses found that a significant correlation between character recognition performance and learning rate mainly existed in the slow learning phase, the consolidation stage of perceptual learning, and this effect was modulated by an individuals' executive function. These findings indicate that adaptive auditory temporal perceptual learning can lead to learning and transfer effects on reading performance, and shed further light on the potential role of basic perceptual learning in the remediation and prevention of developmental dyslexia.

Zhou X. L., Cheng Y. H., Li Y. X., Han C. X., & Li H . ( 2016).

The role of oral reading fluency in Chinese children’s reading development

Psychological Development and Education, 32( 4), 471-477.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

本研究对八个班的二年级汉语儿童进行了长达一年的追踪,深入探索了朗读流畅性在儿童阅读发展中的作用。结果发现,篇章朗读流畅性与学生的多项言语和阅读能力正相关;在控制了年龄、瑞文推理、汉字识别和口语词汇量之后,只在三年级时发现了篇章朗读流畅性对同时期的阅读理解有独特解释作用,但未能在二年级时找到类似的横断证据;但在排除了自回归效应和其他变量的作用之后,二年级时的朗读流畅性对一年后的阅读理解具有独特的预测作用。这表明朗读流畅性在汉语儿童阅读能力发展中具有重要预测作用,今后的理论研究和教学实践都应对此给予足够重视。

[ 周雪莲, 程亚华, 李宜逊, 韩春翔, 李虹 . ( 2016).

朗读流畅性在儿童阅读发展中的预测作用

心理发展与教育, 32( 4), 471-477.]

URL     [本文引用: 1]

本研究对八个班的二年级汉语儿童进行了长达一年的追踪,深入探索了朗读流畅性在儿童阅读发展中的作用。结果发现,篇章朗读流畅性与学生的多项言语和阅读能力正相关;在控制了年龄、瑞文推理、汉字识别和口语词汇量之后,只在三年级时发现了篇章朗读流畅性对同时期的阅读理解有独特解释作用,但未能在二年级时找到类似的横断证据;但在排除了自回归效应和其他变量的作用之后,二年级时的朗读流畅性对一年后的阅读理解具有独特的预测作用。这表明朗读流畅性在汉语儿童阅读能力发展中具有重要预测作用,今后的理论研究和教学实践都应对此给予足够重视。

Zhou Y. L., Mcbride-Chang C., Law A. B. Y., Li T., Cheung A. C. Y., Wong A. M. Y., & Shu H . ( 2014).

Development of reading-related skills in Chinese and English among Hong Kong Chinese children with and without dyslexia

Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 122, 75-91.

URL     PMID:24530801      [本文引用: 1]

This 2-year longitudinal study sought to identify a developmental pattern of Chinese and English reading skills in children with and without dyslexia from 6 to 8years of age. Three groups of 15 children each hose with dyslexia, age-matched (AM) controls, and reading-matched (RM) controls articipated. Dyslexia was diagnosed at 8years of age. All children were tested on phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), morphological awareness, word reading, and vocabulary knowledge in both Chinese and English and also speed of processing skill. AM controls outperformed the group with dyslexia on all measures except for phonological awareness, English word reading, and vocabulary. However, those with dyslexia and AM controls developed at a similar rate across all reading-related skills from 6 to 8years of age. Compared with the RM controls, the group with dyslexia scored higher in phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and vocabulary knowledge in both Chinese and English and also in English word reading but scored similarly in RAN. Children with dyslexia, thus, manifested clear difficulties in Chinese vocabulary knowledge, morphological awareness, and RAN as well as general speed of processing, representing a developmental lag in cognitive skills. Among these, RAN deficits are likely to be the most severe deficits in Chinese children with dyslexia.

Zorzi M., Barbiero C., Facoetti A., Lonciari I., Carrozzi M., Montico M., … Ziegler J. C . ( 2012).

Extra-large letter spacing improves reading in dyslexia

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109( 28), 11455-11459.

PMID:22665803      [本文引用: 1]

Although the causes of dyslexia are still debated, all researchers agree that the main challenge is to find ways that allow a child with dyslexia to read more words in less time, because reading more is undisputedry the most efficient intervention for dyslexia. Sophisticated training programs exist but they typically target the component skills of reading, such as phonological awareness. After the component skills have improved, the main challenge remains (that is, reading deficits must be treated by reading more vicious circle for a dyslexic child). Here, we show that a simple manipulation of letter spacing substantially improved text reading performance on the fry (without any training) in a large, unselected sample of Italian and French dyslexic children. Extra-large letter spacing helps reading, because dyslexies are abnormally affected by crowding, a perceptual phenomenon with detrimental effects on letter recognition that is modulated by the spacing between letters. Extra-large letter spacing may help to break the vicious circle by rendering the reading material more easily accessible.

Zou, Y. C . ( 2003).

Information processing of developmental dyslexia in Chinese children (Unpublished doctoral dissertation)

South China Normal University.

[本文引用: 1]

[ 邹艳春 . ( 2003).

汉语学生发展性阅读障碍的信息加工特点研究(博士学位论文)

华南师范大学.]

[本文引用: 1]

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