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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 September 2021, Volume 53 Issue 9 Previous Issue    Next Issue

    Reports of Empirical Studies
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    Reports of Empirical Studies
    Evidence for neural re-use hypothesis from the processing of Chinese emotional words
    SUN Tianyi, HAO Xiaoxiao, HE Anming, WANG Caiyu, XU Yuanli, GUO Chunyan, ZHOU Wei
    2021, 53 (9):  933-943.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00933
    Abstract ( 1945 )   HTML ( 277 )  
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    The two main theoretical views of emotional word processing are conflicting. According to standard psycholinguistics, emotions are elicited within the reading network itself after semantic activation. However, neural reuse theories suggest that emotional words can be directly processed by the brain region that is activated in emotional information processing, similar to how emotional images, smell, and faces are processed. This means that emotional effects to words occur before semantics, which benefits human adaptability. The processing of emotional words in phonetic characters supports the view of neural reuse, but the processing of emotional words in ideographic texts has no evidence. An event-related potential experiment and a behavioral experiment were conducted to explore the processing of emotional information while reading at an implicit level.

    A total of 262 Chinese words were selected from the Chinese Affective Stimulus System. Among these words, 128 were disgust-related words, 100 were neutral words, and 34 were transportation-related words. We then selected 35 neutral words, 35 disgust-related words, and 24 transportation-related words that were matched on the basis of valence and arousal. Twenty Chinese college students (10 female) participated in the EEG experiment. They were asked to press the response button using their right index finger when the words they read were related to transportation (Go trials). Otherwise, they should not respond (No-go trials). Another 30 healthy individuals (15 female) participated in the behavioral experiment. However, they were asked to silently read the presented words and press the response button using their right index finger only when a given word was not related to transportation (Go trials). Otherwise, they should not respond (No-go trials).

    The EEG experiment showed that differences between disgust and neutral words appeared as early as 170 ms after the onset of stimulus. No significant effect of emotion was found on P100 (the early ERP component). However, a significant main effect of emotion was found for the early posterior negativity (EPN). Disgust-related words evoked a larger right EPN than neutral words did. A negative going wave reflecting the processing of meaning was found at approximately 400 ms, and source localization indicated a cortical generator of emotion effect near the left anterior insula. The inhibition response to disgust-related words generated greater late positive component than the response to neutral words. Specifically, disgust-related words evoked a much larger P600 amplitude compared with neutral words. Behavioral experiment results showed a significant difference between the reaction time to disgust-related words and neutral words. Participants responded faster to disgust-related words than to neutral words.

    Results indicate that negative emotional words have an advantage in processing over neutral words. Emotional response to negative emotional words occurs before the processing of their semantics. The processing of negative emotional words supports theory of neural reuse. This finding shows that the nervous system is highly flexible and can process information in an appropriate manner according to the needs in an actual situation. Moreover, when processing emotional information, ideographic Chinese emotional words start earlier and activate a wider range of brain regions than phonetic Western emotional words.

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    Language evolution and ethnic group/dialect name affecting ethnic information processing: Three major Chinese dialects in Guangdong
    WU Limei, ZHANG Jijia, MENG Le, ZHANG Xiaolin, HUANG Nanxin, ZHANG Jinqiao
    2021, 53 (9):  944-959.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00944
    Abstract ( 1357 )   HTML ( 160 )  
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    There are three major dialects in Guangdong: Cantonese, Chaoshan, and Hakka. These dialects mainly formed during the southward migration of the Han people in the Central Plains, but they are different in language source, evolution history, and name. From the perspective of language itself, the Hakka dialect is the smallest variation of Mandarin, Cantonese medium, and Chaoshan the largest. In terms of language-variation completion time, the Hakka dialect occurred most recently, followed by Cantonese, with Chaoshan occurring the earliest. Regarding the dialect names, a morpheme of “Ke” exists in the name Hakka, which always reminds its speakers that their ancestors are from the Central Plains, while Cantonese and Chaoshan are named after each locality. An interesting question has been whether these differences among the three dialects affect the speaker’s information processing of the Central Plains group.

    Guangdong college students who speak only one dialect of Hakka, Cantonese, and Chaoshan were grouped according to their language background in the present study. One hundred and eighty participants took part in two experiments, 90 per experiment. In experiment 1, the group reference R/K paradigm was used to investigate whether speakers of different dialects had a different memory effect on the Central Plains group compared with that on an unrelated group. Experiment 2 adopted the “starting stroop paradigm”; that is, using different group names as the starting stimulus, and personality adjectives with different valences as target stimuli, the participants were asked to judge the color of the target stimuli.

    Experiment 1 found that the participants had a superior memory of their own group, but only Hakka dialect speakers experienced a group reference effect on the information processing of the Central Plains group, which resulted in a better memory effect on the Central Plains group than that on the unrelated group. The results of experiment 2 showed that the participants had the longest reaction time under the condition that their own ethnic group name was activated, but only the Hakka participants responded more slowly to the Henan ethnic group than to the unrelated ethnic group. The results of both experiments indicated that all the three dialect groups had processing advantages regarding the information of their own groups that manifested in the obvious referential effect of their own groups and the attention bias of their own information. Moreover, the Hakka participants’ cognition regarding the Central Plains group represented by “Henan people” is significantly different from that of Cantonese and Chaoshan dialect speakers.

    The research results suggested that language evolution affected ethnic information processing. The identity of ethnic groups with the same ancestry could be enhanced by keeping the characteristics of ancestral language completely and strengthening the relationship between dialect and ancestral language. The results have important implications for the construction of Chinese Community Consciousness.

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    Dynamic adaptation of the Inventory of Piaget's Developmental Task (IPDT) and the application for children with low socioeconomic status
    ZHANG Lijin, BAO Qing, CHEN Lei, LIANG Yuan
    2021, 53 (9):  960-975.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00960
    Abstract ( 1083 )   HTML ( 85 )  
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    Low socioeconomic status (SES) has an adverse effect on children’s cognitive development and academic achievement. The dynamic test is based on the concept of Vygotsky's “Zone of Proximal Development” (ZPD), which is an effective and necessary supplement to the conventional intelligence test. It can identify the cognitive potential especially for children with low SES, more comprehensively and accurately. This assessment can classify high-potential children who have not yet shown good cognitive performance but are likely to perform well through the intervention and assessment process. The domains of conservation and relations in the Inventory of Piaget’s Developmental Task (IPDT) have been proved to be applicable to children’s cognitive potential assessment in the lower grade of elementary school. Purpose of this study was to construct a dynamic test based on the representation, classification, and regulation domains of the IPDT in senior primary school children. Furthermore, the newly developed IPDT dynamic test was applied to the cognitive intervention study of low SES children to examine the improvement of cognitive ability and academic achievement of low SES children with different potentials after the inferential cognitive intervention.

    In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the dynamic test, ninety-one children in the fifth grade of a primary school were randomly selected as participants. The dynamic assessment consisted of four steps: pre-test, intervention, migration, and post-test, with each step having a set of questions. According to the theoretical basis and operation methods of the formulating intervention steps in the conservation and relations domains of IPDT, the intervention steps were divided into six levels, and the participants were prompted to answer step by step. The results showed that the passing rate of the participants increased with the interventional levels, indicating that the intervention was appropriate and effective at all levels.

    The study further distinguished the SES of 320 fifth-grade children from two primary schools, and evaluated children’s cognitive potentials through the adapted dynamic test of IPDT. Furthermore, the procedure of “pretest-inference cognitive intervention-posttest” was used to explore the cognitive changes and mathematical academic promotion of the low SES children with different potential. On the basis of controlling the pre-test scores, an ANCOVA was performed on the post-test scores of Raven’s inference test in children of different potential groups. The results showed that the post-test scores among the groups were significantly different. In the intervention group, the scores of the low SES children with high potentials were significantly higher than that of other three low SES groups, but withoutsignificant differences with the performance of middle SES children having high potentials. The post-test scores of math achievement also showed similar results. The scores of low SES children in control groups were significantly lower than those of middle SES children. In addition, the growth scores on Raven’s test of the two intervention groups were significantly higher than the other groups.

    In summary, according to the results of our research, two conclusions can be drawn: Firstly, the revised IPDT dynamic test in the domains of representation, classification, and regulation can effectively evaluate children’s cognitive potentials. Secondly, according to the revised IPDT dynamic test, it is inferred that cognitive intervention has different effects on low SES children with different potentials. After the intervention, children’s cognitive ability and math performance were improved in varying degrees. Low SES children with high potentials benefited more than children with low potential.

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    The relationship between positive parenting and adolescent prosocial behaviour: The mediating role of empathy and the moderating role of the oxytocin receptor gene
    ZHANG Wenxin, LI Xi, CHEN Guanghui, CAO Yanmiao
    2021, 53 (9):  976-991.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00976
    Abstract ( 2671 )   HTML ( 307 )  
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    Prosocial behaviour, that is, behaviour intended to benefit others, has been linked to a variety of desirable traits, including positive relationships, better academic performance and lower levels of antisocial behaviours. As such, the origins and the mechanisms underlying the remarkable individual differences in prosocial behaviour are the focus of an increasing number of studies, with numerous research consistently documenting the important role of positive parenting and empathy. Notably, differentiating between cognitive and emotional components of empathy may help further clarify the processes by which parenting eventuates in prosocial behaviour. Although all children may be impacted by parenting, some children benefit more than others from good-quality rearing. Recent research has suggested that the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene rs53576 polymorphism could determine the degree to which a child is influenced by environment. The biological function of rs53576 polymorphism has yet to be delineated, and the literature is mixed with regard to heterozygote (AG) grouping; thus, the implications for AG grouping are not well understood. Therefore, the dummy coding, additive coding, dominant coding and recessive coding models were all investigated in this study to test the nature of gene effect. This study aimed to extend previous studies on the association between parenting and prosocial behaviour by examining the mediating role of cognitive and emotional empathy and the moderating role of the OXTR gene.

    The participants were 1082 mother-offspring dyads (adolescents’ mean age: 12.32 ± 0.48 years, 50.3% females) recruited from the community. At Time 1, mothers reported their positive parenting via the Chinese version of the Child-Rearing Practices Report (CRPR) and peer-rated adolescents’ prosocial behaviours. At Time 2, adolescent-reported perspective-taking and empathic concern, peer-rated prosocial behaviours and saliva samples were collected. All measures showed good reliability. Genotyping at OXTR gene was performed with MassARRAY RT software version 3.0.0.4 and analysed using the MassARRAY Typer software version 3.4 (Sequenom).

    Results showed that adolescents who received higher levels of maternal positive parenting exhibited more prosocial behaviours. However, the direct effect of positive parenting on prosocial behaviour became nonsignificant after controlling for baseline prosocial behaviour. Cognitive empathy, but not emotional empathy, mediated the association between positive parenting and prosocial behaviour. Specifically, positive parenting was positively associated with cognitive empathy, which in turn was positively associated with adolescent prosocial behaviour. Further, this mediation was moderated by the OXTR gene rs53576 polymorphism. For adolescents with AA and GG genotypes, positive parenting was related to higher levels of cognitive empathy, which increased prosocial behaviour. However, this mediation effect was not observed among adolescents with AG genotype. In addition, the results revealed evidence for an overdominance model for OXTR rs53576. Moreover, the G × E term predicted cognitive empathy but not prosocial behaviour. This finding suggests that cognitive empathy may be an endophenotype closer along the causal chain to the genotype and that the strength of the G × E effects was greater for empathy than for distal behavioural outcomes.

    These findings add to our understanding of how empathy and genetic factors contribute to adolescents’ prosocial behaviour within the family context. In addition, these results suggest that cognitive and emotional aspects of empathy are likely to be involved—in somewhat different psychosocial mechanisms—in the development of prosocial behaviour. Notably, the overdominance effect of OXTR should be interpreted with caution until replicated. However, when a three-category polymorphic genotype is used, as is commonly applied when modelling a dominant or recessive effect, both false positive and false negative results can occur, and the nature of the interaction can be misrepresented.

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    The double-edged-sword effect of empathy: The secondary traumatic stress and vicarious posttraumatic growth of psychological hotline counselors during the outbreak of COVID-19
    LAI Lizu, REN Zhihong, YAN Yifei, NIU Gengfeng, ZHAO Chunxiao, LUO Mei, ZHANG Lin
    2021, 53 (9):  992-1002.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00992
    Abstract ( 2186 )   HTML ( 247 )  
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    The novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak increases public mental stress and pandemic-related trauma. Timely and comprehensive online mental health services have been deployed across China. Hotline counselors can be exposed to the stress and trauma experienced by callers indirectly. They may experience secondary traumatic stress (STS) as a result of their empathetic engagement with traumatized clients, and they may also experience vicarious posttraumatic growth (VPTG). The present study examined negative and positive change in hotline counselors concurrently and explored the mechanisms of both positive and negative outcomes.

    Participants were 776 counselors (81% female, average age = 42.57 ± 7.90, average years of experience = 12.44 ± 5.92) recruited from MOE-CCNU Mental Health Service Platform, the biggest official telephone-based and online psychological support platform in China during COVID-19 period. Empathy and VPTG were measured by revised Chinese versions of self-report questionnaires. STS was assessed by the corresponding subscale of the Professional Quality of Life Scale. The Chinese Meaning in Life Questionnaire was used to assess participants’ search for life meaning. Mindfulness was evaluated by Mindful Attention Awareness Scale. Latent variable structural equation modeling was applied.

    After controlling age, trauma cases and total cases, counselors’ empathy was positively associated with STS and VPTG. Results revealed that empathy was positively associated with STS and VPTG. Mindfulness mediated this association between empathy and STS. Search for meaning mediated the relationship between empathy and VPTG. Additionally, the association between empathy and VPTG was also mediated through other four significant mediating pathways: (a) secondary trauma stress, (b) secondary traumatic stress and search for meaning, (c) mindfulness and search for meaning, and (d) mindfulness and secondary trauma stress and search for meaning.

    Our findings support that empathy lead to both positive and negative outcomes among hotline counselors during COVID-19 period in China, highlighting dialectical insights into trauma workers’ experiences. When counselors engage in others’ traumatic experience, their vicarious negative emotional experience may be a pathway to growth, and search for life meaning is an important factor in that growth.

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    Psychological structure of social mindfulness in Chinese culture
    TIAN Yi, WANG Li, XU Yan, JIAO Liying
    2021, 53 (9):  1003-1017.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01003
    Abstract ( 2422 )   HTML ( 249 )  
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    Social mindfulness refers to the ability of an individual to sense others’ states during interpersonal interactions, his or her willingness to respect others’ choices, and his or her ability to transfer rights. Exploring the psychological structure of social mindfulness against the background of Chinese culture is important for cultivating a friendly and harmonious society.

    This study explored the psychological structure of social mindfulness with a lexical method. In Study 1, 59 high- and 24 low-social mindfulness words were selected by word frequency analysis and multiple rounds of discussions. After being evaluated by 43 professionals and 232 nonprofessionals, 40 social mindfulness words were selected. In Study 2, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with Sample 1 (n = 351) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with Sample 2 (n = 307) were conducted to obtain a three-factor structure for social mindfulness; these structures include kindness and respect, tolerance and understanding, and optimism and open-mindedness. Additionally, a social mindfulness lexical rating scale (SMLRS) with 18 words was formed. In Study 3, we used the same method as in Study 2 to explore the structure of social mindfulness (EFA: Sample 1, n = 377; CFA: Sample 2, n = 220) through scenario descriptions. Then, a new 17-item social mindfulness self-report scale (SMSRS) and a model with two second-order factors and four first-order factors for the internalization of social mindfulness were generated. Both the SMLRS and SMSRS have good reliability and validity and can be used as measurement tools in follow-up research.

    Through lexical analysis and psychometric analysis, we explored the psychological structure of social mindfulness, which contains two second-order factors and four first-order factors, in Chinese culture. In this model, the two second-order factors were agreeableness and extraversion, and the four first-order factors were kindness and respect, humility, optimism and open-mindedness, and tolerance and understanding.

    From a theoretical point of view, we established a vocabulary of social mindfulness, verified social mindfulness’s second-order four-factor psychological structure, provided a new empirical basis for the higher- order factor theory of personality, and enriched our knowledge of personality and social behavior against the background of Chinese culture. From a practical point of view, the definition of social mindfulness plays a positive role in moral education in the field of education, in the training of employees in the field of organization and in the construction of mentality in the sociology field.

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    The double-edged sword effects of leader workaholism on team performance
    SHE Zhuolin, LI Quan, YANG Baiyin, YANG Bin
    2021, 53 (9):  1018-1031.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01018
    Abstract ( 1639 )   HTML ( 180 )  
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    Currently, workaholic leaders are prevalent in the workplace, and the relevant research has substantially increased. However, regarding the effectiveness of leader workaholism, researchers have found inconsistent and even contradictory results. In addition, prior research has mostly centered on the effects of leader workaholism at the employee or firm level while ignoring its impacts at the team level. To address these gaps, the current research aims to investigate the double-edged sword effects of leader workaholism on team performance. Based on social information processing theory, we propose that leader workaholism influences team performance through two distinct mechanisms: on the one hand, leader workaholism enhances team job involvement, which has a subsequent positive effect on team performance, and on the other hand, leader workaholism induces team negative affect, which in turn negatively influences team performance. In addition, we also expect that team task significance can mitigate the negative effects and enhance the positive effects of leader workaholism.

    We conducted a multitime, multisource questionnaire survey on a property management company in China. Before collecting the data, all participants were assured that their responses would be confidential and used only for academic research. In Wave 1, the team leader rated his or her workaholism, and team members rated team task significance. In Wave 2 (one month later), team members were asked to complete the questionnaire containing questions on team job involvement and team negative affect. In Wave 3 (one month after Wave 2), general managers were invited to evaluate each team’s performance. The three rounds of data collection resulted in 105 matched team leader-team member responses (105 team leaders, 512 team members), with a 69.08% overall response rate for team leaders and a 61.03% overall response rate for team members.

    Before testing the hypotheses, we conducted a measurement model assessment to verify whether the manifest variables could accurately measure the theoretical constructs. Then, we performed a path analysis through Mplus 7.0. The results showed that leader workaholism was positively related to team job involvement, resulting in higher team performance. However, leader workaholism also heightened team negative affect, thus decreasing team performance. Moreover, team task significance moderated the above two mediating paths. Specifically, when team task significance was higher, the negative mediating effect of team negative affect was attenuated, and the positive mediating effect of team job involvement was enhanced.

    The current research makes essential theoretical contributions and has practical implications. First, this study is among the first to examine the relationship between leader workaholism and team performance, answering the call for more research on the effects of leader workaholism at the team level (Clark et al., 2016). Second, based on social information processing theory, we examine two mechanisms through which leader workaholism affects team performance and demonstrate the coexistence of opposite effects in this process, which is helpful for understanding the complicated relationship between leader workaholism and team performance. Third, we elaborate on the moderating role of team task significance, which provides important insights about the contingency factors that shape the effectiveness of leader workaholism. Practically, we suggest that organizations take a dialectical perspective to consider the role of leader workaholism in team management and adopt selection procedures to identify qualified managers.

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    Nonparametric methods for cognitive diagnosis to multiple-choice test items
    GUO Lei, ZHOU Wenjie
    2021, 53 (9):  1032-1043.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01032
    Abstract ( 377 )   HTML ( 32 )  
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    Cognitive diagnostic assessment (CDA) focuses on evaluating students' advantages and disadvantages in knowledge mastering, providing an opportunity for individualized teaching. Therefore, CDA has attracted attention of many scholars, teachers, and students at domestic and overseas. In CDA and a large number of standardized tests, multiple-choice (MC) are typical item types, which have the advantages of not being affected by subjective errors, improving test reliability, being easy to review, scoring quickly, and meeting the needs of content balance. To fulfil the potential of MC items for CDA, researchers proposed the MC-cognitive diagnosis models (MC-CDMs). However, these MC-CDMs pertain to parameter methods, which need a large sample size to obtain accurate parameter estimation. They are not suitable for small samples at class level, and the MCMC algorithm is very time-consuming. In this study, three nonparametric MC cognitive diagnosis methods based on hamming-distance are proposed, aiming at maximizing the diagnostic efficacy of MC items and being suitable for the diagnosis target of a small sample.

    Simulation study 1 considered four factors: sample size (30, 50, 100), test length (10, 20, 30), item quality (high and low), and the true model (MC-S-DINA1, MC-S-DINA2). Three nonparametric MC methods and two parametric models were compared. The results showed that in most conditions, the pattern accuracy rates and average attribute accuracy rates of the nonparametric MC method(${{d}_{\text{h}-\text{MC}}}$) were higher than those of parametric models, especially when the test length was short or item quality was low.

    In a real test situation, the quality of different items in a test may vary greatly. Based on this, simulation study 2 set the first half of the items at high quality and the remaining items at low quality. The results showed that the pattern accuracy rates and average attribute accuracy rates of the nonparametric MC method (${{d}_{\text{ph}-\text{MC}}}$) were higher than those of the parametric models in all conditions.

    In an empirical study, the nonparametric MC methods and the parametric models were used to analyze a set of real data simultaneously. The results showed that nonparametric MC methods and parametric models presented high classification consistency rates. Furthermore, the ${{d}_{\text{ph}-\text{MC}}}$ method had satisfactory estimations.

    In sum, ${{d}_{\text{h}-\text{MC}}}$ was suitable in most conditions, especially when the test length was short or the item quality was low When the quality of different items was quite diverse, ${{d}_{\text{ph}-\text{MC}}}$ was a better choice compared with parameteric approaches.

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    Two new termination rules for multidimensional computerized classification testing
    REN He, CHEN Ping
    2021, 53 (9):  1044-1058.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01044
    Abstract ( 396 )   HTML ( 29 )  
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    Computerized classification testing (CCT) is a subset of computerized adaptive testing (CAT), and it aims to classify examinees into one of at least two possible categories that denote results such as pass/fail or non-mastery/partial mastery/mastery. Therefore, CCTs focus on increasing the accuracy of classification which is different from CATs designed for precise measurement. The termination rule is one of the key components of CCT. However, as pointed out by Nydick (2013), most CCTs (i.e., UCCTs) were designed under unidimensional item response theory (IRT), in which the unidimensionality assumption is easily violated in practice. Thus, researchers then began to construct multidimensional CCT termination rules (i.e., MCCT) based on multidimensional IRT. To date, however, these rules still have some deficiencies in terms of classification accuracy or test efficiency.

    Most current studies on termination rules of MCCT are based on termination rules of UCCT. In UCCTs, termination rules require setting a cut point, ${{\theta }_{0}}$, of the latent trait to calculate the statistics; and when they are extended from UCCT to MCCT, the cut point will become a classification bound curve or even a surface (i.e., $g(\theta )=0$). At this time, a question is how to convert the curve or surface into ${{\theta }_{0}}$. To this end, the projected sequential probability ratio test (P-SPRT), constrained SPRT (C-SPRT; Nydick, 2013), and multidimensional generalized likelihood ratio (M-GLR) were respectively proposed to solve the problem in different ways. Among them, P-SPRT and C-SPRT choose specific points on g(θ) as the approximate cut point, ${{\hat{\theta }}_{0}}$, by projecting into Euclidean space or constraining on g(θ) respectively; as for M-GLR, because the generalized likelihood ratio statistic can be calculated without a cut point, it can be directly employed in MCCT. To overcome the limitation that P-SPRT may lead to unstable results at the beginning of the test, this study proposed the Mahalanobis distance-based SPRT (Mahalanobis-SPRT).

    In addition, stochastic curtailment is a technique for shortening the test length by predicting whether the classification of participants will change as the test continues. This article also combined M-GLR with the stochastic curtailment and proposed M-GLR with stochastic curtailment (M-SCGLR).

    A full-scale simulation study was conducted to (1) compare both the Mahalanobis-SPRT and M-SCGLR with the P-SPRT, C-SPRT, M-GLR, and multidimensional stochastically curtailed SPRT (M-SCSPRT) under varying conditions; (2) compare the classification performance of the above six termination rules for participants with specific abilities to explore whether there is a significant difference in the sensitivity of various rules to classify specific participants. To achieve the first research objective, three levels of correlation between dimensions (ρ=0, 0.5, and 0.8), two item bank structures (within-item multidimensionality and between-item multidimensionality), and two kinds of classification boundary (compensatory boundary and non-compensatory boundary) were considered; to achieve the second objective, 36 specific ability points $({{\theta }_{1}},{{\theta }_{2}})$ were generated where ${{\theta }_{1}},{{\theta }_{2}}\in \{-0.5,-0.3,-0.1,0.1,0.3,0.5\}$. The results showed that: (1) when the compensatory classification function was used, the Mahalanobis-SPRT led to higher classification accuracy and similar test length to the rules without stochastic curtailment; (2) under almost all conditions, the M-SCGLR not only possessed higher precision but also maintained the short test length, compared to M-SCSPRT that also uses stochastic curtailment; (3) the six termination rules showed a consistent change in the sensitivity of the precision and test length to specific participants.

    To sum up, two new MCCT termination rules (Mahalanobis-SPRT and M-SCGLR) are put forward in this article. Although the simulation results are very promising, several research directions merit further investigation, such as the development of MCCT termination rules for more than two categories, and the construction of MCCT termination rules by incorporating process data like the response time.

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