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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 February 1959, Volume 3 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    SOME EXPERIENCES IN ATTEMPT AT PROMOTION OF INVENTION AND CREATION
    Division of Industrial Psychology, Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1959, 3 (01):  38-43. 
    Abstract ( 184 )  
    The present paper gives an account of a joint study undertaken by the Division of Industrial Psychology of Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica and Hua Tung Switch Factory of Shanghai. It represents some preliminary experiences in applying psychological principles to developing the creative thinking on the part of workers to realize invention and creation.Having undergone series of hardworks and bitter fights, the workers of Hua Tung Switch Factory, using a technique of concentrated attacks on a problem, achieved in creating 140 sets of automatic and semi-automatic dies. As a result, the efficiency of work production has been greatly increased.From the viewpoint of psychology, three works must be done in order to promote invention and creation: (1) the analysis of contradictions and the formulation of problems, (2) the use of a "prototype" to stimulatethe solution of contradictions, and (3) the advantageous exploration of the chain-reactive nature of creation and invention. In this paper, actions against obstacles to invention and creation are also proposed. They are (1) the removal of "superstition" and inferiority feelings, (2) the study on selection of suitable "prototype" and on breaking from it i.e. to remove the confining function of the "prototype", (3) the emancipation from the confining framework of the knowledge of the engaged profession, and (4) the break-up of old work methods and habits.The experiences obtained from Hua Tung Switch Factory also confirm the following three points: An inventive and creative work can be effected (1) by Collective efforts,; (2) by conceived plans and (3) by concentrated attacks.
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    SOME PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE TRAINING OF FINE TEXTILE WEAVERS
    CHEN LI AND CHU TSO-JEN (Chekiang Normal College)
    1959, 3 (01):  44-52. 
    Abstract ( 535 )  
    The present paper comprises a conclusion of the authors' experimental studies on the training of fine textile weavers (women), conducted from the end of 1957 to the beginning of 1958, at the fine textile shop of Hang-Chou Cotton Spinary. The goal, procedures and methods of this experiment have been introduced therein in detail. The results of this experimental study have revealed some psychological problems; they are as follows: 1. The influence of the awareness of goals or aimsupon the production cannot be sufficiently explained by means of any physiological mechanism. Evidently, the great activating function of the consciousness of goals is determined by social conditions. 2. Concerning the correction of erroneous movements, starting from Pavlor's theories and from the viewpoint of determinism, the authors adopted the method of alternative exercises to correct errors. This method differs radically from Dunlap's method of passive exercises. 3. The utilization of motor sensation constitutes one of the central links in the chain of formation of habits and skills. 4. Many theories preoccupied in man's mind, such as the theories of relative goals, the understanding of the percentage, etc. may appear correct from subjective speculation but cannot stand the test in actual practice.
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    A PRELIMINARY STUDY IN METHODS FOR IMPROVING OPERATIONS ON PUNCH
    Division of Industrial Psychology, Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1959, 3 (01):  53-58. 
    Abstract ( 205 )  
    The Division of Industrial Psychology of Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica, with the collaboration of Technical Research Institute of Department of First Mechanical Industry, has chosen as a study project the search for improvement on workers' operations on punch in the punch shop of Peking Motor Vehicle Factory.Through some actual observations and analysis, several principles concerning rational operations have been found. They are: (1) localization by means of sensory estimation, (2) elimination of superfluous movements, (3) ambidextrous coordination of operations and (4) suitability of punch-die installation for man's operations.With the practice of these principles the methods of operations were found improved. As a result, the efficiency of production of this shop was raised by 43% to 100%, or by 56% in ayerage.
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