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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 40 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Phonological Encoding in Monosyllabic and Bisyllabic Mandarin Word Production: Implicit Priming Paradigm Study
    Zhang Qingfang
    . 2008, 40 (03): 253-262.  
    Abstract   PDF (1689KB) ( 1646 )
    A number of different models have been proposed to account for how a word is processed at the stage of phonological encoding. Based on speech error data, Dell’s model assumes that the phonological unit includes a phoneme, segment, and syllable. In contrast, Levelt et al.’s model postulates that the phonological unit might include an onset, nucleus, and coda. Previous studies suggest that different languages might have different phonological encoding units in speech production. Moreover, the role of the syllable in production across different languages is still a rather controversial issue. Speech error data in Chinese indicate that the syllable plays a more important role in production in Chinese than it does in English or Dutch. Therefore, using an implicit priming paradigm, the present study investigated the stage of phonological encoding, especially focusing on the role of the syllable in Chinese word production.
    Four sets of word pairs served as experimental stimuli. Each set consisted of four pairs. The first word of a pair was the cue word, while the second was the response word. In the homogeneous conditions, four response words in a set shared certain phonological properties. For instance, the four response words in a set were 夕阳 (sunset, /xi1yang2/), 媳妇 (wife, /xi2fu1/), 喜事 (good news, /xi3shi4/), and 细胞 (cell, /xi4bao1/), which shared the first syllable. The heterogeneous conditions used the same word pairs, but assigned them to sets in which there were no shared properties. Participants were asked to memorize the sets of four pairs of associated words, after which they were presented with cue words, and were required to produce the response words. Five different homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions were used in experiments 1 to 5, respectively.
    Experiments 1 and 2 examined implicit priming for the shared onset and shared rime and tone, respectively, in monosyllabic word production. The results indicated that a reliable shared rime and tone inhibition effect was obtained, but no onset shared facilitation or inhibition effect was observed. Experiments 3, 4, and 5 examined implicit priming for the shared syllable, shared tone, and shared syllable and tone, respectively, in bisyllabic word production. The results showed that the shared syllable and the shared syllable and tone produced a significant facilitation effect compared to the heterogeneous condition, whereas no significant priming effect was found in the shared tone homogeneous condition.
    The results suggest that the syllable alone and the combination of syllable and tone are units of phonological encoding in Chinese word production. The syllable priming effect might occur at the stage of phonological encoding, rather than at the phonetic encoding stage in word production. The tone alone is not one of the units of the phonological encoding stage, and tone functions like stress in English or Dutch and is only a part of the metrical frame in Chinese
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    Phonological Encoding in the Silent Speech of Persons Who Stutter
    Zhang Jijia,Xiao Erping
    . 2008, 40 (03): 263-273.  
    Abstract   PDF (2033KB) ( 1189 )
    The difference in the phonological encoding in silent speech between persons who stutter (PWS) and persons who do not stutter (PNS) is one of the most convincing evidences of the abnormal phonological processing among PWS. Thus far, the most influential theory concerning the potential link between phonological encoding and stuttering is the Covert Repair Hypothesis (CRH), in which the primary symptoms of stuttering represent overt manifestations of covert corrections of speech plan errors that are caused by the delayed phonological encoding of speech sounds. The present study intended to investigate the role of phonological encoding in silent speech.
    The participants were 12 PWS who were matched in gender, age, educational attainment, and handedness with 12 PNS. Each participant performed 3 parallel experiments: monitoring target phonemes (including Shengmu (initial consonants of Chinese syllables), Yunmu (simple or compound vowels of Chinese syllables), and Tones in Chinese phonetics) during concurrent silent picture naming. In addition, each participant performed 3 extra tasks to control the extraneous variables: an overt picture naming task, a task of monitoring target pure tones in aurally presented tonal sequences, and a simple motor task requiring finger button clicks in response to an auditory tone.
    The results indicated that the response time of PWS was almost the same as that of the PNS in Shengmu monitoring, but was significantly slower in Yunmu and Tone monitoring than that of the PNS. No significant between-group differences emerged for response time during the picture naming, auditory monitoring, or simple motor tasks. The findings were interpreted to suggest a specific deficiency at the level of phonological monitoring, rather than a general monitoring, reaction time, or auditory monitoring deficit in PWS. Further, the findings supported the Covert Repair Hypothesis.
    The following conclusions can be drawn. First, there was no lack of attention resources when the Chinese PWS monitored the target Shengmu, while the PWS were significantly slower than the PNS in monitoring the target Yunmu and Tone. Second, the Chinese PWS had a deficit in the Chinese phonological monitoring, and the deficit was probably caused by the delayed phonological encoding of the PWS
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    Modality Effect of Cross-Language False Memory among Less Proficient Chinese-English Bilinguals
    Mao Weibin,Yang Zhiliang,Wang Linsong,Yuan Jianwei
    . 2008, 40 (03): 274-282.  
    Abstract   PDF (1654KB) ( 1856 )
    Over the past decade, there has been an explosion of research on false memory. Although linguistic stimuli have always been used in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm in research on false memory, surprisingly few of these studies have involved bilingual participants and cross-language effects in false memory. In the present experiment, language was utilized as a new variable to explore whether false memory of less proficient Chinese-English bilinguals can cross language boundaries just like in the case of proficient bilinguals, as demonstrated by recent studies. Furthermore, Chinese and English belong to different language systems; therefore, the modality effect reported by Smith and Hunt (1998), Maylor and Mo (1999), and Gallo et al. (2001) deserves more careful scrutiny. In this experiment, we also tested whether false memory with respect to Chinese characters has the same modality effect as it does on English words in order to enrich the explanations for this effect.
    The research materials included 16 lists from Stadler, Roediger, and McDermott’s (1999) article (8 English and 8 Chinese lists). Each list consisted of the 12 most common associates to a critical lure. The recognition list comprised of 96 randomly arranged items, including 48 studied words, 16 nonstudied critical lures from each list, and 32 unrelated words, which were all presented in the same language or a different language used at study.
    A mixed design was used, with two between-subject variables (study and test modalities) and one within-subject variable (the same and different languages between study and test). The participants were 112 undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to 4 experimental conditions (visual-visual, visual-auditory, auditory-visual, and auditory-auditory). The study lists and recognition lists were presented visually (English list: lowercase letters; Chinese list: Song font) in the center of the computer screen or auditorily (by a male voice) over headphones.
    The results are reported in terms of the mean of true and false recognition proportions as well as the corrected recognition scores Pr for each language condition and modality condition. A 2 (language: English, Chinese) × 2 (study modality: visual, auditory) × 2 (test modality: visual, auditory) repeated measures ANOVA on different conditions indicated that there were main effects of language, study modality, test modality, and interactions among language, study modality, and test modality.
    False memory of less proficient Chinese-English bilinguals can cross language boundaries, but false memory is higher in the same language than in a different language, and in the Chinese lists than in the English ones. Remarkably, in the present experiment, visual study led to significantly more false memory than auditory study, which was different from the findings reported in the existing Western studies. These findings are important to understand the mechanism of false memory
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    Conflict Adaptation under the SNARC Effect: An ERP Study
    Zhu Xiangru,Liu Chang
    . 2008, 40 (03): 283-290.  
    Abstract   PDF (1722KB) ( 1441 )
    The human anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is active during many conflict-monitoring tasks, is believed to participate with the prefrontal cortex in a distributed network for conscious self-regulation. The hypothesis of this study predicts that conflict-related ACC activation will occur only when the conflicting stimuli are consciously perceived. Consistent with this view, Dehaene found that subliminal conflicts are resolved without ACC contribution under the subliminal conflict paradigm. Other studies have also found that the awareness of conflict is a precondition for conflict adaptation. However, other researchers have challenged this tight relation between awareness of conflict and conflict control. To clarify the relation between the awareness of conflict and conflict adaptation, we investigate conflict in the absence of consciousness by relying on the SNARC effect. Participants are probably not explicitly aware of conflict on the parity judgment task. In our study, the SNARC compatible trial is a congruent trial and the SNARC incompatible trial is an incongruent one. For the purposes of analysis, we divide the incongruent trials into two categories: those that follow compatible trials (labeled here as cI), and those that follow incompatible ones (labeled here as iI).
    High-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to examine the electrophysiological correlates of conflict adaptation. The stimuli consisted of the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 9. Each trial began with the presentation of an Arabic number; the number was presented for 300 ms at the center of the screen, after which it disappeared. After a varied interval of 1200–1800 ms, the next trial began. The study consisted of 640 trials, with the number of iI and cI trials being the same. The experiment consisted of two separate sessions in which the mapping of parity to the response side was varied.
    The results indicated that the interaction between magnitude and side of response was significant, suggesting a clear SNARC effect on RTs. The RTs for the cI trials were significantly slower than those for the iI trials, indicating a clear conflict adaptation effect. For stimulus-locked waveforms, the N2 showed peak differences—between the cI and iI conditions—to be maximal at Fcz in the 260–300 ms interval after the target. No significant difference emerged between congruent and incongruent trials. A voltage map of the difference wave showed strong activity at the frontocentral region. The dipole analysis (BESA software) localized the generator of the difference wave (cI minus iI) in the dorsal ACC.
    The study found the conflict adaptation effect in the SNARC effect, which is inconsistent with the classic conscious monitoring view. Since there may be some debate on defining the parity judgment task as a conflict task, we are aware that caution needs to be exerted in drawing firm conclusions from our study, which adds to the ongoing debate of the role of the ACC in cognition
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    The Interaction Effect of Connection Strength and Relevance Similarity in Feature Induction
    Wang Moyun
    . 2008, 40 (03): 291-300.  
    Abstract   PDF (1882KB) ( 1026 )
    There are two kinds of conventional accounts for category-based feature inductions: similarity accounts and knowledge accounts. The former claim that feature inductions are based on overall similarities between premise and conclusion categories, and that inductive strength increases with overall similarity. The latter accounts emphasize the role of the knowledge of feature relevance in feature inductions, regardless of the role of similarities. The two accounts are separate from each other. Wang (2006) proposed a relevance similarity model of feature induction to describe an inductive reasoning based on similarity in terms of features relevant to induction features (namely relevance similarity). The model integrates similarity with the knowledge of feature relevance, and claims that size orders of inductive strength can be predicted by the product of relevance similarity and the connection strength between induction features and the relevance features of induction features.
    According to the claim that size orders of inductive strength can be predicted by product of relevance similarity and connection strength between induction features and relevance features of induction features, there would be an interaction effect of connection strength and relevance similarity on inductive strength in feature induction. Three experiments with college students used two within-subject factors (connection strength and relevance similarity) designed to examine the interaction effect. In Experiment 1, each induction feature had one definite relevance feature. Experiment 1 used a 2 (connection strength: weak vs. strong connection) × 2 (relevance similarity: 0/1 vs. 1/1) within-subject design. In Experiment 2, each induction feature had four relevance features. Experiment 2 used a 2 (connection strength: weak vs. strong connection) × 3 (relevance similarity: 1/4, 2/4, and 3/4) within-subject design. In Experiment 3, each induction feature had ten relevance features. Experiment 3 used a 2 (connection strength: weak vs. strong connection) × 5 (relevance similarity: 8/10, 6/10, 5/10, 4/10, and 2/10) within-subject design.
    The results of these three experiments showed the presence of the interaction effect of connection strength and relevance similarity on inductive strength in feature induction, based on relevance similarity. The influence of relevance similarity on inductive strength increased with connection strength. The influence of connection strength on inductive strength depended on relevance similarity: in high relevance similarity (above 60%), inductive strength increased with connection strength; in middle relevance similarity (40% to 60%), connection strength did not influence inductive strength; and in low relevance similarity (below 40%), inductive strength decreased as connection strength increased.
    The above phenomena are new findings in the studies on feature induction
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    The Effects of Positive Emotions on Task Switchin
    Wang Yanmei,Guo Dejun
    . 2008, 40 (03): 301-306.  
    Abstract   PDF (1044KB) ( 3078 )
    The generation of appropriate behavioral responses requires the ability to understand the global rules governing stimulus classification, to select the most fitting response from among competing possibilities, and to inhibit task-inappropriate prepotent responses. Cognitive flexibility refers to the ability to shift to a different thought or action according to the changes in a situation. Task switching is the most important component of cognitive flexibility. In task switching paradigms, subjects are assigned two or more tasks and are asked to perform each when certain conditions are met. In some trials, the subjects repeatedly perform each task, whereas in others, they switch from one task to another. Response times (RTs) on repeated-task trials are typically shorter than those in “switch” trials. Switch cost is empirically defined as the reaction time difference between switch trials and repeat trials. According to the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, these kinds of emotions do not typically arise in life-threatening circumstances, and perhaps by consequence, they broaden a person’s momentary thought-action repertoire and especially enhance cognitive flexibility. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of emotional responses on task switching.
    Two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, the participants performed a digit-categorization task in the following three moods: positive emotion, negative emotion, and neutral mood. The task involved two conditions: maintaining condition and switching condition. In the maintaining condition, participants were required to respond to a target digit appearing in a pre-specified color, while ignoring a distracter digit appearing in a different color. In the switching condition, the participants had to respond to the stimuli in a new color, while the distracters appeared in the color of the previous target. Experiment 2 further explored the facilitating effect of positive emotions upon task switching by the addition of another switching condition.
    The results of Experiment 1 indicated that emotional conditions influenced the performance of task switching. Compared with the neutral condition, positive emotions always reduced the switching cost, while negative emotions increased it. In Experiment 2, the results indicated that positive emotions biased attention toward novel stimuli, thus facilitating the switch to a new stimulus category.
    These results demonstrated that compared with neutral or negative emotions, positive emotions promoted cognitive flexibility and reduced perseveration. These results are consistent with those of other studies on the effects of positive emotions on cognitive control. This study supports and extends Fredrickson’s broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. In addition, the results of the present study also provide a possible explanation for positive emotions reducing the switching cost
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    Attentional Bias of High Trait Anxious Individuals
    Gao Pengcheng,Guang Miner
    . 2008, 40 (03): 307-318.  
    Abstract   PDF (2257KB) ( 2495 )
    Previous literatures demonstrate that clinically anxious patients are very sensitive to threatening stimuli. Further, it is easier for them to be engaged in threatening stimuli, after which they find it hard to shift their attention to other kinds of stimuli in the situation. However, not many studies have been conducted to demonstrate the attentional bias of high trait anxious (HTA) individuals, which was the subject of the present study. Are these individuals more sensitive to threat? Is it easy for them to be engaged in threat, and is it hard to distract their attention? What is the underlying mechanism in such cases of attentional bias?
    Two experiments were designed according to the paradigm “odd-one-out search task” to test whether HTA individuals are more vigilant to threats or whether it is hard to distract their attention from the threat. In experiment 1, 20 HTA individuals and 20 low trait anxious (LTA) individuals selected from among 400 college students by using the Chinese version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T) 1983, developed by Spielberger et al. They participated in the test under peaceful conditions (no anxiety-eliciting task). The participants were asked to ascertain whether there was any different face in the square containing 12 faces as soon as possible. In order to test attentional sensitivity to threatening (or unthreatening) stimuli, the participants were required to discriminate an angry face (or a happy face) from among 12 faces in a square (1 emotional face with 11 neutral faces). In order to test attentional distraction from threatening (or unthreatening) stimuli, the participants were required to discriminate a neutral face from among 12 faces in a square (1 neutral face with 11 angry or happy faces). The experiment measured the time of judgment and emotional change in the meanwhile. In experiment 2, 19 HTA and 19 LTA participants selected from among 300 college students by using the STAI-T were tested through the “odd-one-out search task” after an anxiety-eliciting task.
    The results revealed the following. (1) Under peaceful conditions, both the HTA and LTA groups were found to be more susceptible to a happy face than to an angry face. It was difficult to distract both groups from angry faces. However, as compared to the LTA group, it was more difficult to disengage the attention of the HTA group from angry faces. (2) It was more difficult to disengage the HTA group’s attention from the angry faces than from happy faces when they were in highly anxious mood. On the other hand, it was harder to disengage the attention of the LTA group from the happy faces than from the anger faces. There was no significant difference in the HTA group’s attentional sensitivity to happy and angry faces; meanwhile, the LTA group was more sensitive to happy face than to anger face.
    It can be concluded that HTA individuals were not particularly attention-sensitive to threatening stimulus, but they were much more difficult to disengage their attention from threatening stimuli. Meanwhile, the LTA individuals were more attention-sensitive to pleasant stimuli and were easily engaged in pleasant stimuli. The study further suggested that a higher degree of anxiety and the fact that is easier to elicit an anxious mood in HTA subjects would play a key role in the attentional bias
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    The Effect of Hot Executive Function on Children’s Test with the Standard Windows Task
    Wu Wenjie,Zhang Li,Feng Tingyong,Li Hong
    . 2008, 40 (03): 319-326.  
    Abstract   PDF (1490KB) ( 1336 )

    The windows task, a nonverbal measure, which was first used by Russell in 1991, is used to test children’s strategic deception. Investigators such as Russell J, Hala S, and Carlson S M explored how the inhibitory control skill influenced 3- to 4-year-old children’s performance on the windows task. Their results revealed that younger children were incapable of strategic deception. Moreover, reducing the difficulty of the executive demands could make the children improve performance on all 20 of their trials but not the first one. However, some researchers suggested that it was the ability to rule inference or theory of mind that challenged the young children. Thus, there were different arguments about why the children could not succeed in the windows task. In our opinion, the hot executive function may play an important role in children’s performance on the test, because in the windows task, candies constitute the treat and encourage the children to compete with the opponent, who was played by experimenter 2. Our study tried to separate hot executive function factors from cool executive function factors concerning the windows task to examine whether and how the hot executive function factors affected children’s performance on the task test. Further, it was hypothesized that emphasizing on the competition would cause the children to perform much worse.
    The experiment used a 3 × 3 between-group design. There were three experimental conditions as follows: standard condition, emphasized competition condition, and no-opponent condition. The experiment involved 270 participants, who were divided into 3 age groups. The experiment aimed to explore the cognitive development of 3- to 4-year-old children. Each condition included a training phase and a testing phase. Only the participants who passed the training phase could participate in the testing phase. The training phase was included to ensure that the children understood both the required response modes and the rules for winning the treat from the opponent. The response modes of the training phase matched those of the experimental conditions.
    Chi-Square analyses revealed that there were significant differences among the first trial performance of the three age groups as well as three conditions (age groups: x2 (2) = 28.665, p < 0.001; conditions: x2 (2) = 8.305, p < 0.05); however, the non-group performed higher than the random level on the first trial.
    The 3 (age groups) × 3 (experimental conditions) two-way ANOVA analyses revealed that the main effects of both age groups and experimental conditions were significant (p < 0.001), and the interaction between them was salient (p < 0.05). Further, the simple effect analyses displayed that the three age groups performed differently in each condition, and the three conditions revealed differences in performance in each age group.
    The following conclusions were drawn: (1) hot executive function factors such as competition, treat, and emotions/motivation challenged the young children on the windows task; (2) the late 3-year-olds (about 3 years and 9 months old) represented the age boundary between 3- to 4-year-olds with regard to the windows task test; and (3) 3- to 4-year-old children demonstrated some cognitive development tendencies in the windows task, such as the capacity of rule inference and inhibitory control skill

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    An Extension of etic-emic Hypothesis of Chinese-Western Personality Constructs: Evidences From QZPS and NEO PI-R
    Wang Dengfeng,Cui Hong
    . 2008, 40 (03): 327-338.  
    Abstract   PDF (1978KB) ( 2460 )
    This article was aimed at extending the etic-emic hypothesis of cross-cultural differences of personality structure. The essentials of the differences between Chinese-Western personality structures was clarified by (1) hackling the theoretical hypothesis and empirical methods of the establishment of Big Five and Five Factor Model of Western personality, and the confirmation of Big Seven Model of Chinese personality model, and differences of Chinese-Western personality structures were explained by lexical and behavior classification hypothesis; (2) Attributing the etic-emic explanation of Chinese-Western personality differences as results of different standards of behavior classification for Chinese and Westerners, as the process of classification were influenced significantly by cultures; and (3) Reviewing empirical evidences for the etic-emic components of Chinese-Western personality structures. Further research directions in personality was also discussed.
    In the first part of the article, a process model combined lexical and behavior classification hypothesis was proposed and was explained as underlying basis of both Chinese and Western personality structure exploration. After the complete collection of personality trait adjectives, personality structure were extracted along the ratings of subjects, and factor analysis were usually applied to extract the dimensions of personality. This process of personality exploration was a “bottom-up” fashion, and the Big Five model of Western personality was established this way. Another fashion of personality exploration was essentially “top-down”, that is, theorists proposed dimensions of, and factors included and typical behaviors for each factors of personality were also proposed. The Five Factor Model of Western personality was established this way. Meanwhile, the Chinese Seven Factor Model of personality were also established in the way of “bottom-up”.
    It was proposed that implicit principles of behavior classification in “bottom-up” ways of personality exploration were adopted, while explicit principles of behavior classification was adopted in “top-down” ways. Both implicit and explicit principles could make the structure of Chinese-Western personality different significantly. Principles of behavior classification were influenced by the nature of cultures, and was discussed extensively elsewhere.
    Accordingly, in the second and third part of the article, etic-emic components of Chinese-Western personality structure was proved theoretically and empirically. Behavior classification was based on the recognition of the meaning of specific behavior, and each behavior may have etic and emic meanings for both Chinese and Western subjects. Therefore, behaviors in each factors (dimensions) of personality implied sum of etics and sum of emics, and then means quite different descriptions of behavior patterns for Chinese and Western subjects. It was proposed, then, that the Chinese-Western personality structure might differed for every dimension (factor). Empirical evidences supported these inferences. For example, Chinese subjects fulfilled NEO PI-R and factor analysis revealed seven factors, which were quite similar with the Big Seven Model of Chinese personality.
    In the final part of the article, behavior classification was discussed theoretically, and the implications of Chinese-Western personality difference were referred as models of indigenous psychological research
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    The Impact of the First Offer on Negotiation Impasse: Negotiating Roles Matter
    Wang Min,Zhang Zhixue,Han Yulan
    . 2008, 40 (03): 339-349.  
    Abstract   PDF (1961KB) ( 1876 )
    This paper aims to examine the impact of negotiators’ first offers on negotiation impasse as well as the moderating effect of negotiating roles.
    Even though first offers can have significant effects on the process and outcome of negotiations, this topic has been largely overlooked in existing literature on negotiation impasse. Two studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between first offers and negotiation impasse. In Study 1, we predicted that extreme first offers can lead to impasse in that such offers might narrow the possible negotiation zone and elicit competitive behaviors from the counterparts. Study 2 focuses on whether negotiating parties with different powers can moderate the relationship between the first offers and the negotiation impasse. Since negotiation situations are characterized by uncertainty and information asymmetry, the negotiating parties will rely on schema or heuristics to predict and judge their opponent’s behaviors. For negotiators with less power, making an extreme offer could violate the schema or the other party’s expectations toward them, and thus, the negotiating parties would be likely to feel dissatisfied and offended and finally quit negotiations. In contrast, powerful negotiators’ extreme first offers are consistent with the schema possessed by negotiators, and high first offers are more likely to be accepted by the opposing parties, thus leading to agreements. We also propose that the powerful party’s perception mediates the relationship between the weak party’s first offer and the negotiation impasse.
    Study 1 used a two-party, single-issue, distributive negotiation simulation to investigate the effect of first offers. The exercise described a bonus negotiation between an MBA student in the job market (job candidate) and a personnel manager from a consulting company. Study 2 used a similar exercise, but the power discrepancy was manipulated with the personnel manager having more power than the candidate. Study 1 comprised 116 MBA students who formed 58 negotiating dyads, and Study 2 comprised 266 students forming 133 dyads. They were required to participate in the studies as part of a negotiation class. ANOVA and hierarchical regression analysis were used to test the hypotheses.
    In Study 1, 37 dyads (64%) arrived at agreements and 21 dyads ended with impasse. An ANOVA showed that the higher the first offers, the more likely was it that the negotiation dyads reached an impasse. In Study 2, 100 dyads (75%) reached agreements and 33 dyads failed to reach agreements. This showed that when power asymmetry existed, the negative impact of the first offer on impasse was moderated by the negotiating role. In particular, the high first offer proposed by the weak party was more likely to result in impasse. Mediation analysis revealed that when low-power negotiators made extreme first offers, they were perceived as being too aggressive, which finally led to a negotiation impasse.
    This research demonstrates that the first offer is a significant predictor of the negotiation impasse. In addition, we discovered the moderating effect of negotiation roles on the relationship between the first offer and the impasse, providing a deeper understanding of the power dynamics involved in negotiation.
    The practical implications of this research are as follows: Although high first offers are often advised to obtain an advantage in negotiations, our results suggest that while a high first offer could improve benefits, it could also increase the possibility of an impasse. Negotiators should pay attention to such an effect, particularly those negotiators who are in a relatively less powerful position
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    The Structure and Measurement of Enterprise Staffs’ Knowledge-Sharing Behavior in China
    Yang Yuhao,Long Junwei
    . 2008, 40 (03): 350-357.  
    Abstract   PDF (1286KB) ( 1589 )
    A growing body of studies has focused on knowledge-sharing behavior, especially on the factors that affect enterprise staffs’ knowledge sharing. Some Western researchers have compiled questionnaires on knowledge-sharing behavior with different dimensions; however, there are few coherent questionnaires that can be used. Moreover, little empirical research has been conducted on this topic in China. Chinese culture is considerably different from Western culture, and it is unknown whether the same questionnaire that is used in the Western context can be used in the Chinese context. In this study, the structure of enterprise staffs’ knowledge-sharing behavior was explored in China, and the Enterprise Staffs’ Knowledge-Sharing Behavior Questionnaire (ESKSBQ) was developed.
    First, by the content analysis of data collected from 52 staffs (using structured interviews) and from 217 staffs (using open-ended questionnaires) from various enterprises, the primary ESKSBQ was established in China. Then, data collected from a diverse sample of 407 staffs was used to explore the primary ESKSBQ’s reliability and validity by exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Lastly, using item analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), data from another sample of 428 staffs was used to confirm the validity and reliability of the formal ESKSBQ.
    The results indicated that enterprise staffs’ knowledge-sharing behavior contains three dimensions in the Chinese context; these dimensions are the quality of sharing, cooperative spirit, and the behavior of active participation. The validity of the formal ESKSBQ was acceptable with the factor loading of each item above 0.55. The Cronbach α coefficients of the three factors were 0.85, 0.82, and 0.81, respectively. The Cronbach α coefficient of the entire ESKSBQ was 0.83.
    The factors that constitute staffs’ knowledge-sharing behavior vary from culture to culture. This study found that three dimensions, namely, the quality of sharing, cooperative spirit, and the behavior of active participation, constitute Chinese staffs’ knowledge-sharing behaviors, which are different from the dimensions of the knowledge-sharing behavior of Western staffs. Based on these three dimensions, the ESKSBQ in China has been found to have suitable reliability and high validity
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    A Meta-Analysis Concerning the Mental Health Status of Members of the Chinese Army
    Feng Zhengzhi,Dai qin
    . 2008, 40 (03): 358-367.  
    Abstract   PDF (1643KB) ( 4008 )
    Although the mental health status of members of the Chinese army has been highlighted by many researchers, the results of these researches are contradictory. Although some researches have reported that the members of the Chinese army have good mental health, others have reported it to be quite poor. Thus, their mental status remains unclear. This article aims to investigate the mental health status of the members of the Chinese army using a new approach.
    In this study, 77 articles pertaining to the mental health status of the members of the Chinese army were used, and 56164 army members in China were surveyed. A meta-analysis was conducted on these articles in which the SCL-90 was used as a tool. Further, the researches were divided into two groups, one group comprising subjects under military stress and the other comprising subjects that were not under military stress.
    The results revealed that the mental health status of members not under military stress was on par with the norm set by the army; the mental health status of members under military stress was higher than the army norms, but lower than army norms in terms of military stress and on par with army norms after stress. Further, the mental health of army members in town garrisons was higher than that of members in plateau garrisons and much higher than that of members in frontier defense garrisons. In addition, the mental health of members of the army who were under stress was lower than that at a stage after stress and much lower than that at a stage before stress; moreover, some factors such as the zone, rank seniority, and stress level had significant influences on the SCL-90 scores. The sensitivity and publication bias analyses showed that the stability of this research was good and that it had no publication bias.
    Therefore, it can be concluded that the mental health status of members of the Chinese army was not poor; moreover, compared with civilian norms and national military standards, the choice of personnel norms as a criteria was beneficial; further, some factors such as the zone, rank seniority, and stress level had significant influences on the SCL-90 scores
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    A Qualitative Psychological Analysis of the Retirement Process of Athletes: Successful and Unsuccessful Case Studies
    Wang Jin
    . 2008, 40 (03): 368-379.  
    Abstract   PDF (2205KB) ( 2038 )
    With the revamping of the reemployment scheme for retired athletes—where they select a new career by self-determination—gradually replacing the government decision, there has been concern that retired athletes might have less job opportunities. Relevant research pertaining to these issues in China often focuses on the external causes of unemployment among retired athletes but not on the internal causes. In particular, there is a lack of field research on this topic in China. Therefore, by using a qualitative approach, this study aims to explore why some Chinese athletes are able to restart new careers and others are unable to do so, while they are in the process of retirement.
    On the basis of the model proposed by Torregrosa et al., this study employed the multiple-case design to select cases of successful and failed retirement. Data was collected through interviews, personal observations, and media reports. With discourse and text analyses, this case study investigated retirement awareness and coping behaviors in eight cases (four cases of successful and failed retirement, each).
    The results revealed differences in the psychological states, retirement awareness, retirement plans, self-regulation, social support, and life contentment between the successful retirement cases and the failed ones. Specifically, successfully retired athletes were often aware that they were going to retire and had made plans to start new careers; athletes who failed to start new careers after retirement often used avoidance coping mechanisms. This article discusses the implications of these findings and provides suggestions for future research using quantitative research
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