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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 September 1980, Volume 12 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    THE NATURE OF INTELLIGENCE
    Wu Tian-min(Beijing University)
    1980, 12 (03):  12-19. 
    Abstract ( 424 )  
    This paper is simply to hurry psychologists who are interested in mental tests to end up the long history of the lack of a general definitionof INTELLIGENCE by presenting a viewpoint concerning it as "a piece ofstone that might earn me pieces of jade". We can hardly expect that intelligence can be explained with anytheory of a bundle of abilities or a bundle of tiny fragments, for intellige-nce is a unitary psychological phenomenon. It is believed that intelligence is the coordinating reflection of certaincharacteristics such as keeping the aim, associating widely and deeply, andthe flexibility of the cortical activities which transforms immediatly into itscorresponding psychological activities characterised by differences in intel-ligence as a result of various interactions. Whether the dendritic spines in the cortex are the physiological basesof intelligence needs further research.
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    SOME PROBLEMS IN COMPILING A TEXT OF PSYCHOLOGY FOR TEACHERS COLLEGE STUDENTS
    Wu Tang-ti(Institute of Pedagogical Sciences, Beijing Teachers College)
    1980, 12 (03):  20-24. 
    Abstract ( 426 )  
    The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to enumerate some principles guiding the work of eompiling a text of psychology, a required course fornon-education department students of the teachers college, and second,emphatically to clarify the views on some of the confronted theoreticalproblems as follows: (1) the classification of mental activities, (2) the nature of such a course or psychology, (3) the evaluation of Pavlov's theory of higher nervous activity, (4) the integration or basic psychological theories and educationalpractices, (5) the class character of mental phenomena.
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    A MEASUREMENT OF THE VISUAL DEPTH DIFFERENTIAL LIMEN AMONG CHINESE MALE YOUNG PEOPLE Ⅰ
    Yu Ji-sheng,Fang Li-luo,Zhang Jia-tang (Institute of Psychology. Academia Sinica)
    1980, 12 (03):  51-55. 
    Abstract ( 510 )  
    The purpose of this measurement is to study the distribution of static depth DL and the interrelation of stereoscopic vision and depth DL among.Chinese male young people. Active depth DL determining apparatus (controlled by electrical means)and adjusting method were used. 1293 young people, aged 18 to 25, wereexamined on seven opthalmological tests. It is found that 1159 Ss were nor-mal; 134 abnormal (including 51 abnormal stereoscopic vision patients). The results showed that the mean of the static depth DL of 1159normal Ss is 2.95 sec(arc) (SD 1.79 sec(arc))and the distribution range is0.45-5 45 sec (arc). The meam of the static depth DL of the abnormal subjects is biggerthan that of the normal. The difference between these two means is verynotable.
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    A MEASUREMENT OF THE VISUAL DEPTH DIFFERENTIAL LIMEN AMONG CHINESE MALE YOUNG PEOPLE Ⅱ
    Fang Li-luo,Yu Ji-sheng,Gao Jing(Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    1980, 12 (03):  56-59. 
    Abstract ( 510 )  
    The purpose of this experiment is to study the dynamic depth DL among Chinese male young people and the interrelation of static depth DL anddynamic depth DL. Active depth DL determining apparatus (controlled by electrical means)and adjusting method were again used. 435Ss attended experiment (Ⅱ). The mean of the dynamic depth DL is4.46 sec (arc), SD1.89 sec(arc). The difference between the static and dynamic depth DL is marked butthere exists positive correlation between these two. The regression equation we found is Y=0.29X+3.72.
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    A SERIAL STUDY ON THE RELATIVE SPECTRAL LUMINOSITY AMONG CHINESE PEOPLE Ⅲ THE EFFECT OF THE DIFFERENT VISUAL FIELDS ON V(λ)
    Ji Gui-Ping,He Bao-yuan et al.(Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    1980, 12 (03):  60-63. 
    Abstract ( 450 )  
    This experiment was undertaken by using flicker method with 5 normal vision adult experienced subjects. Four visual fields were used(20′, 2°, 7°40′,10°). Level of luminance was 30cd/m~2. Test points of wavelength wereselected in the range from 420 to 700nm. The results indicated that in all different visual fields, the V(λ) valuesare basically similar in the long wave region of the spectrum, but system-atically increased with the increment of the visual field in the short waveegion of the spectrum
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    THE INFLUENCE OF LENGTH OF MATERIAL AND PRESENTATION RATE ON SIMULTANEOUS VISUAL AND AUDITORY IMMEDIATE MEMORY
    H.Yeh,J.C.Tsao,G.S.Cheng,S.H.Yeh(Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    1980, 12 (03):  64-75. 
    Abstract ( 681 )  
    Synchronous presentation of visual and auditory wordpair of different lengths(2-16 words) and in different presentation rates (1″,0.5″) were usedfor simultaneous memorization. The results indicated that, in comparison with control tests (singlechannel), the efficiency of simultaneous memorization of visual and auditoryword-pair is lower, the № of errors is greater when only one word-pair istested; the efficiency of simultaneous memorization either becomes greateror shows no change and the № of errors becomes less as the amount oflearning material is increased around the sum of memory span; the efficiencyof simultaneous memorization is higher, the № of errors is less as the amountof words exceeds the sum of memory span. The variations or reaction time and the variations of the efficiency ofsimultaneous memorization were related (under some conditions of materialwas either at the short or long section). Visual immediate memory predominates as the amount of V-A words isless than the sum of memory pan; auditory immediate memory predominates as the amount of learning material exceeds the sum of memory span. The analysis of the order of recall, the difficulty of discovering theinserted meaning ful connection between V-A words even there were nomeanignful connections within channel and the comparison of the relativelarge № of errors of displacement with the much lesser amount of confusionbetween V-A words revealed that the tag of sensory channels is the mostsalient processing tag. The direction of the variation of the efficiency ofsimultaneous immediate memory and the variation of memory dominanceseemed to show that the processing of simultaneous immediate memory isdifferent according as the amount of laarning material is below or exceedsthe sum of memory span. The influence of presentation rate is relatinely slight. The results also inclined to indicate that practice may elevate theefficiency of simultaneous memorization.
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    EFFECTS OF PREFRONTAL RESECTION ON OBJECT DISCRIMINATION REVERSAL IN RHESUS MONKEYS.
    Yang Yi-chien,Yang cheng-chuan and Hsu Ping-hsuan(Shanghai Institute of Physiology, Academia Sinica)
    1980, 12 (03):  76-80. 
    Abstract ( 518 )  
    1. Five normal rhesus monkeys were trained on object discrimination reversal, cylinder and cone were used as the discrimination throughout theexperiment. The rate of discrimination reversal learning, the immediatediscrimination after reversal (reversal phase) and the retention of discrimi-nation reversal (retention phase, 11 days) were observed. The results showedthat the rate of reversal learning and the percentage of correct reponses inreversal phase were improved in repeated training. Animals had also a goodperformance on discrimination task in retention phase. 2. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lesions impaired discrimination reversal.Bilateral lesions would result in impaired performance more severely thanunilateral ones. The prefrontal resected monkeys made more error trials inreversal phase and so decreased the rate of reversal learning retrainingtasks.
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    THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL ISOLATION ON BEHAVIOR IN RATS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO MONOAMINE NEUROTRANSMITTERS CONTENT IN THE BRAIN
    Tang Ci-mei,Lin Wen-juan(Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    1980, 12 (03):  81-87. 
    Abstract ( 501 )  
    Observations were made on the changes of behavior in rats such as free activity in the open field, muricide and shock-induced fighting behaviorafter social isolation for 10-12 weeks. Furthermore, the changes of monoa-mine neurotransmitters contents in the brain of the rat were determined and the effect of d-amphetamine and reserpine on shock-induced fighting beha-vior was observed. It was found that there was no obvious influence on freeactivity in the open field and muricide after social isolation. But the shock-induced fighting behavior increased significantly. No significant changes weredetected on monoamine neurotransmitters contents in the brain of sociallyisolated rats. After shock-induced fighting, the DA contents decreased bothin the brain of isolated rats and gregarious rats. NE contents increasedin the telencephalon of gregarious rats, and the 5-HIAA contents in thebrain stem decreased. But no such changes were detected in the brain ofisolated rats. Shock-induced fighting behavior lessened ter reserpine injection upon isolated rats. The probable explanations of the above-men- tioned phenomena are discussed.
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    EARLY NONDIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT LIGHT(OR DARK)ENVIROMENT AND ITS INFLUENCE ON LEARNING OF DARK BOX AVOIDANCE MODEL OF ALBINO RATS
    Li De ming(Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    1980, 12 (03):  88-93. 
    Abstract ( 413 )  
    Albino rats were divided into 3 groups at 25 days of age. and were reared in three different enviroments for a certain time. Three group animals returned to normal rearing enviroment and beganto learn Dark Box Avoidance model (DBA model) at 80 days of age. Thelearning period was 15 days. Total experiment rats were 49. Results indicated that the first group (group of nondifferential reinfor-cement light compartment) learned DBA model more rapidly than thecontrol. The second group (group of nondifferential reinforcement darkcompartment) learned more slowly than the control. It showed that earlynondifferential reinforcement light (or dark) enviroment had transfer effecton learning DBA model of albino rats.
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