ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (8): 1039-1049.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01039

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

观点采择:基于自我的推理及其个体差异

王雨晴1;游旭群1;焦健2;谌鹏飞3   

  1. (1陕西师范大学心理学院暨陕西省行为与认知心理学重点实验室, 西安 710062) (2东北师范大学心理系, 长春 130000)
    (3陕西师范大学现代教学技术教育部重点实验室, 教师专业能力发展中心, 西安, 710062)
  • 收稿日期:2014-12-19 出版日期:2015-08-25 发布日期:2015-08-25
  • 通讯作者: 游旭群, E-mail: youxuqun@snnu.edu.cn; 王雨晴, E-mail: wyq1994@snnu.edu.cn.
  • 基金资助:

    教育部哲学社会科学研究重大课题攻关项目(11JZD044)、教育部人文社会科学青年项目(14YGC190020)、陕西师范大学校级社科项目(10SYB08)和陕西师范大学2014年度校级重点教学改革研究项目(14JG12)资助。

Perspective Taking: Making Inferences Based on Oneself and Related Individual Differences

WANG Yuqing1; YOU Xuqun1; JIAO Jian2; CHEN Pengfei3   

  1. (1 School of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062, China) (2 Department of Psychology, Northeast Normal University, Chang chun 130000, China) (3 Center for Teacher Professional Ability Development, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062, China)
  • Received:2014-12-19 Online:2015-08-25 Published:2015-08-25
  • Contact: YOU Xuqun, E-mail: youxuqun@snnu.edu.cn; WANG Yuqing, E-mail: wyq1994@snnu.edu.cn.

摘要:

在自我观点和他人观点一致或不一致的条件下, 人们对自我角度和他人角度的信息加工优势和影响因素是厘清心理理论推理过程的重要问题。本研究选取了100名在校大学生作为被试, 采用E-prime程序在两个视觉采择实验中, 要求被试对特定场景中的信息基于自己的角度或他人的角度(两种角度的信息可能一致, 也可能不一致)进行判断, 同时探索了被试的文化、性别、专业背景对不同角度推理的影响。研究结果发现:(1)当进行他人角度观点采择时, 被试很难忽略自己角度的信息干扰。在其他实验情境相同, 只需要被试采择他人观点时(实验2), 也能观察到相同的现象。(2)比较而言, 被试对自己角度的信息加工显著快于采择他人角度的观点, 并且更有效。(3)男女对自我角度的信息加工无性别差异, 而在采择他人观点时, 男性比女性显著慢; 但是, 文科生对两种角度信息的加工均要慢于理科被试。对比中西方文化背景下的结果说明, 对两种角度的观点采择可能受到被试的文化背景、性别和专业因素的影响和调节。本研究为进一步解释成人心理理论的推理机制提供了不同的实验证据。

关键词: 心理理论, 观点采择, 社会认知, 自我, 个体差异

Abstract:

One remarkable feature of our social ability is that we are not only able to reason about our own mental states, but also have some insights into others' mental life. Our awareness of our own and other?s perspectives as well as our ability to shift between the two are fundamental processes in guiding how to people interact with each other. One question that interests researchers is how perspective taking is achieved when inferring what others are seeing, feeling, wanting, or thinking in situations where they themselves hold a different point of view. Being able to put their own perspective aside is thus a fundamental facet of our ability to read other people’s minds. Previous studies have shown that participants can not easily ignore what others see when making self-perspective judgments, or resist interference from one’s own perspectives. It would be helpful to understand the mechanism of Theory of Mind by exploring how people judge their own or others perspectives and the related individual differences. One hundred college students (50 males and 50 females)were selected as participants, with half of them majoring in liberal art and the other half in science. In two visual perspective-taking experiments, participants were asked to judge their own or someone else’s visual perspective in situations where the two perspectives were either the same or different. In Experiment 1, trials in which participants had to judge their own perspectives and trials in which they had to judge the other’s perspectives were mixed within the same block. In Experiment 2, trials in which participants had to judge their own perspectives and trials in which they had to judge the other’s perspectives were in separated blocks to help reduce interference from taking the other’s perspectives when it was unnecessary to do so. The results showed that: (1) Participants can not easily ignore what they themselves saw when taking other's perspectives judgments. This was observed even when participants were only required to take the other's perspectives within the same block of trials (Experiment 2) under the condition that it was unnecessary to do so. (2) Participants were more efficient in judging their own self perspectives than taking other's perspectives. (3) Men and women showed no gender differences when they judged their own perspectives. However, men were significantly slower than women when take other’s perspectives. Arts students were lower than students majoring in science whenever judging their own perspectives or taking others' perspectives. In summary, these results suggest that adults make use of more rapid and efficient processes to judge their own perspective than judging what other people see. Some results were different from those provided by Samson et al. (2010), which possibly suggests that the fast and efficient calculation of what the other people see is unlikely certain, that is, it may depend on some other factors, such as culture, gender and participants’ background. These findings provide further evidence for understanding the reasoning mechanism of the theory of mind.

Key words: theory of mind, perspective taking, social cognition, self, individual differences