心理科学进展, 2019, 27(1): 96-105 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00096

研究前沿

区分适应性自恋和非适应性自恋:多视角的证据

余震坤, 刘云芝, 罗宇, 蔡华俭

中国科学院大学心理学系, 北京 100049

Adaptive narcissism and maladaptive narcissism: Diverse evidences for the distinction

YU Zhenkun, LIU Yunzhi, LUO Yu, CAI Huajian

Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

通讯作者: 蔡华俭, E-mail: caihj@psych.ac.cn

收稿日期: 2018-04-10   网络出版日期: 2019-01-15

基金资助: * 本文系2017年度国家社会科学基金重大招标项目“中国社会变迁过程中的文化与心理变化” 的阶段性成果.  17ZDA324

Received: 2018-04-10   Online: 2019-01-15

摘要

近40年来, 正常人的自恋得到了越来越多的关注.日益增加的证据显示正常人的自恋可以按照适应功能进一步区分为适应性自恋和非适应性自恋两类.本文对揭示两类自恋差异的证据进行了全面梳理, 包括二者的成分构成,适应功能,人格基础,发展规律和遗传基础.这些结果促进了对自恋复杂性的认识, 加深了对现有研究的理解, 同时也突出了未来区分二者的重要性.将来需要从理论上进一步澄清二者的差异, 编制相应的量表, 探讨二者在其它方面的不同, 特别是二者是否具有不同的神经基础.

关键词: 自恋 ; 适应性自恋 ; 非适应性自恋 ; 适应

Abstract

Recently, researchers have proposed to distinguish between adaptive narcissism and maladaptive narcissism. We reviewed the existing evidence that support this distinction, showing that two kinds of narcissism differ from each other in 1) constitutive components; 2) associations with intrapersonal and interpersonal adaptions; 3) personality nomologic networks; 4) developmental trajectories; 5) genetic and environmental bases. Distinguishing between adaptive and maladaptive narcissism may help us better understand the complexity of narcissism as well as narcissists on one hand; on the other hand, improve future research and intervention practice.

Keywords: narcissism ; adaptive narcissism ; maladaptive narcissism ; adaption

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本文引用格式

余震坤, 刘云芝, 罗宇, 蔡华俭. (2019). 区分适应性自恋和非适应性自恋:多视角的证据 . 心理科学进展, 27(1), 96-105

YU Zhenkun, LIU Yunzhi, LUO Yu, CAI Huajian. (2019). Adaptive narcissism and maladaptive narcissism: Diverse evidences for the distinction. Advances in Psychological Science, 27(1), 96-105

1 引言

自恋一词源于希腊传说中的纳西索斯(Narcissus).据说纳西索斯是一个非常英俊的少年, 因为爱上了水中自己的倒影而无法自拔, 最后因不可得以致抑郁而终, 并变成了水中的一朵水仙花.因此, 除了指水仙花外, 后人也以Narcissus来形容那些自恋的人.1914年, 弗洛伊德把自恋作为精神分析理论的一个核心概念引入心理学(Freud, 1914).自此, 自恋正式成为科学心理学的研究主题.在随后的半个多世纪, 自恋主要作为一种人格障碍被临床心理学家所关注.上个世纪70年代, 由于个人主义在美国的上升, 人们开始意识到正常人也会表现出自恋的倾向(Lasch, 1979).其后不久, 第一个用于测量正常人的自恋的量表——自恋人格调查表(Narcissistic Personality Inventory, NPI)问世(Raskin & Hall, 1979; Raskin & Terry, 1988), 以正常人群为主要关注对象的自恋研究开始蓬勃发展.近年来, 由于对全球范围内人们自恋水平不断上升的觉察(Cai, Kwan, & Sedikides, 2012; Twenge, Konrath, Foster, Campbell, & Bushman, 2008), 老百姓和研究者对自恋的兴趣和关注日益高涨.

本文中, 我们主要关注的是人格心理学取向的自恋.从人格心理学的视角来看, 在正常人群中, 自恋是一种以极度自大为核心特征的人格特质(Morf, Horvath, & Torchetti, 2011; Thomaes, Brummelman, & Sedikides, 2016).从80年代初至今, 研究者对自恋的认识经历了一个从表面到深入,从单维到多维,从简单到复杂的历程.特别地, 随着研究的深入, 研究者越来越认识到, 自恋并不是一个单一的特质, 而是存在很多不同的类别, 可以从许多不同角度对自恋进行区分, 比如:显性自恋(Overt Narcissism)和隐性自恋(Covert Narcissism) (Wink, 1991),自大型自恋(Grandiosity)和特权性自恋(Entitlement) (Brown, Budzek, & Tamborski, 2009),主体性自恋(Agentic Narcissism)和集体性自恋(Communal Narcissism) (Gebauer, Sedikides, Verplanken, & Maio, 2012)等等.近年来, 基于自恋构成因素适应功能的不同, 有研究者提出自恋还可以从适应性的角度区分成适应性自恋(Adaptive Narcissism)和非适应性自恋(Maladaptive Narcissism), 前者对个体的适应有利, 而后者则不利(Barry, Frick, Adler, & Grafeman, 2007).这也是本文拟深入探讨的两种自恋.对于这两种自恋的存在, 研究者早在上个世纪80年代就有所认识(Raskin & Terry, 1988), 近期有研究者建议对其进行区分(Barry et al, 2007; Cai & Luo, in press).但迄今学术界并未给予足够的重视.我们认为之所以会出现这种情况, 一种可能的原因是研究者对适应性自恋和非适应性自恋的不同缺乏全面系统的认识, 因而不能充分认识对二者进行区分的重要性.本文的基本目的就是对从上个世纪80年代至今能够揭示两种自恋不同的证据进行全面整理.

需要特别指出的是, 在下文中, 我们综述的绝大部分都是以NPI作为自恋测量工具的研究.这主要有以下几个原因.首先, NPI是自上个世纪80年代来以来在自恋领域被研究最多,应用最为广泛的测量工具; 其次, 由于对自恋的含义一直缺乏一个统一的认识, 在实际研究中, 很多时候大家都把自恋直接理解为NPI所测量的人格特质; 最后, 当然也是最为重要的是, 绝大多数关于区分适应性自恋和非适应性自恋的证据都是源于对NPI本身的研究或以NPI为自恋测量的研究.

由于对两类自恋的最早认识是源于对NPI的因素成分及其特性的研究, 本文中, 我们将首先对NPI量表的因素分析研究进行介绍, 在展示NPI的构成因素中实际已经包含了适应性和非适应性两类不同的成分的同时, 也为接下来其它方面的内容奠定基础.接着, 我们对能够反映两类自恋不同适应功能的多方面证据进行归纳和介绍.然后, 我们分三个方面对两类自恋其它更广泛的差异进行介绍, 包括两类自恋的人格基础,发展轨迹和遗传基础.最后, 我们将对现有证据进行总结, 并对区分适应性自恋和非适应性自恋的意义和未来研究方向进行讨论.

2 两类自恋的成分构成:基于NPI的因素分析研究

NPI的编制始于1979年(Raskin & Hall, 1979).最初的NPI包括220道题, 之后经过多次测试和筛选, 逐步精简为54道题(Raskin & Hall, 1979)和40道题(Raskin & Terry, 1988)等.目前应用最为广泛的是40道题的版本.NPI的编制之初, 研究者认为自恋是一个单维同质的结构.但随着研究的深入, 研究者们发现NPI其实是由许多相对独立的成分或因素构成的复杂结构(Raskin & Hall, 1979; Raskin & Terry, 1988).自1984年开始, 研究者对NPI的成分构成进行了一系列研究, 并提出了很多不同的因素结构模型.常见的有二因素模型,三因素模型,四因素模型和七因素模型等.我们把这些因素模型及其对应的因素按照时间顺序整理在表1中.

表1   自恋的不同因素模型

因素模型 因素内容
四因素模型 剥削性/特权感(Exploitativeness/Entitlement),领导力/权威(Leadership/Authority),优越性/自大(Superiority/Arrogance)和自我吸引/自我崇拜(Self-Absorption/ Self-Admiration) (Emmons, 1984, 1987)
七因素模型 权威(Authority),自我满足(Self-Sufficiency),优越感(Superiority),自我表现(Exhibitionism),剥削性(Exploitativeness),虚荣(Vanity)和特权感(Entitlement) (Raskin & Terry, 1988)
二因素模型 权利(Power)和自我表现(Exhibitionism) (Kubarych, Deary, & Austin, 2004)
自我表现(Exhibitionism)和特权感(Entitlement) (Corry, Merritt, Mrug, & Pamp, 2008)
三因素模型 权力(Power),自我表现(Exhibitionism)和特殊感(Specialness) (Kubarych et al., 2004)
领导力/权威(Leadership /Authority),自夸/自我表现(Grandiose/Exhibitionism)和特权感/剥削性(Entitlement / Exploitativeness) (Ackerman et al., 2011)

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这些模型中, 七因素模型由于揭示了自恋较为丰富的特点, 因而得到了较为广泛的应用.后来的许多研究除了进行基于自恋总分的分析外, 还会对不同因素分别进行分析.也正是这些基于各个具体因素的分析, 使得研究者发现自恋的各构成成分在功能上不尽相同, 有些成分是积极的, 对自恋者是有益且有利于个体适应, 比如:领导力,权威和自我满足等; 而另外一些则是有害的,不利于个体适应性, 比如特权感,剥削性和自我表现等(Emmons, 1984; Raskin & Terry, 1988; Watson & Biderman, 1993).近期有研究者以七因素模型为基础, 提出了适应性自恋和非适应性自恋的概念, 并认为前者主要包括权威和自我满足两个成分, 后者则主要包括特权感,剥削性和自我表现三个成分(Barry et al., 2007)(1 如果没有特别说明, 下文中提到的适应性自恋和非适应性自恋都是以此为基础.).

总之, 关于NPI因素结构的研究已经初步显示:自恋包含适应性和非适应性两类成分.

3 两类自恋的适应功能

关于两类自恋的适应功能已经有了大量研究.下面, 我们从三个方面对有关研究进行介绍.

3.1 两类自恋与个体内(intrapersonal)适应的关系

自恋和个体适应一直是自恋研究的核心问题之一.个体内适应的主要指标涉及情绪,自我认识和调控,幸福感和心理病态等方面.在情绪方面, 现有研究表明, 剥削性和特权感上得分较高的个体对外界刺激情绪反应强烈(Emmons, 1987),神经质水平高,情绪稳定性低(Emmons, 1984),烦恼更多(Watson & Morris, 1991); 但是也有研究报告剥削性和特权感与焦虑,抑郁,悲观等负性情绪没有显著的关系(Watson & Bidderman, 1993; Brown et al., 2009).与此相对, 在领导力/权威维度上得分较高的个体通常表现出较低的神经质水平(Emmons, 1984; Rhodewalt & Morf, 1995), 较少感到悲观,焦虑,抑郁和烦恼等负性情绪, 同时更加乐观(Brown et al., 2009; Emmons, 1984; Watson & Biderman, 1993; Watson & Morris, 1991).

3.2 两类自恋与人际间(interpersonal)适应的关系

关于自恋和人际适应的关系, 目前的研究主要涉及两个方面:攻击性和共情.基于总体自恋的研究显示, 自恋者的一个重要特征是具有较高的攻击性(Rasmussen, 2016).当遭遇失败,被拒绝或者受到威胁时, 自恋者会比一般人的反应更强烈, 会采取一些攻击性的行为进行回应(综述见Lambe, Hamilton-Giachritsis, Garner, & Walker, 2016).比如, 他们会贬低评价者,惩罚竞争对手,甚至对无辜的人实施敌对举措(Krizan, & Johar, 2015; Martinez, Zeichner, Reidy, & Miller, 2008).更极端的是, 即使在没有威胁存在的情况下, 他们也会表现出攻击性(Park & Colvin, 2015).尽管总体自恋和攻击性的关系非常确定, 但是这种关系并不一定存在于自恋的所有成分和攻击性之间.研究表明, 自满和优越感等与攻击性行为无关, 而特权感和利用他人则可以显著预测日常生活中发生的敌对和冲突等攻击性指标(Moeller, Crocker, & Bushman, 2009; Reidy, Zeichner, Foster, & Martinez, 2008).有研究探讨了青少年的自恋与攻击性的关系, 结果发现, 剥削性可以预测青少年的攻击性表现, 自恋的其它成分与青少年的攻击行为均无关系(Washburn, McMahon, King, Reinecke, & Silver, 2004).另一项针对青少年的研究也有类似的发现, 即只有非适应性自恋(特权,剥削和自我表现)可以正向预测关系性攻击(relational aggression), 而适应性自恋(权威和优越)与这种攻击行为无关(Barry et al., 2007).综上所述, 虽然总体上看自恋和攻击性之间存在显著的正相关, 但并不是所有的自恋成分都和攻击性有关.

关于自恋和共情, 研究显示, 总体自恋与共情存在显著的负相关, 自恋水平越高, 人际共情水平则越低(Fan et al., 2011; 何宁, 朱云莉, 2016).但是, 具体到自恋的各个具体成分, 自恋与共情之间的负相关主要存在于自恋的非适应性成分与共情(共情可以划分为共情性关心,观点采择,共情幻想和个人苦恼四个维度, Davis, 1980)之间.例如, Watson和Morris (1991)发现, 剥削性和特权感与共情性关心和观点采择之间存在负相关, 但是自恋的其它成分则和二者没有显著相关.有研究考察了自恋的适应性成分(比如:特权,剥削)和非适应性成分(比如:权威,自足)的关系, 结果发现:非适应性成分和与冷漠无情相关的一些特质有关, 具体表现为在非适应成分上得分高的人往往无法共情, 在情绪表达上也存在障碍; 但是, 自恋的适应性成分与这些问题之间没有关系(Barry et al., 2007).近来, 一系列研究还考察了自恋的适应性成分和非适应性成分与状态性共情之间的关系(Hepper et al., 2014).结果发现, 当面对他人的困难时, 非适应性自恋水平高的被试表现出较低的共情水平; 这一效应不仅表现在自我报告的结果中, 还表现在一些生理反应指标上, 但是, 该研究并未发现适应性自恋与共情存在相关.

综上所述, 关于自恋和攻击性以及共情的研究都表明, 不利于人际适应的主要是自恋的非适应性成分, 而不是适应性成分.

3.3 两类自恋与问题行为的关系

问题行为是一种典型的外化(externalized)适应性问题.关于自恋与问题行为, 目前的研究主要涉及了冲动性购买和青少年问题行为两类.关于自恋和冲动性购买, 一个典型的发现是总体自恋和冲动性购买之间存在显著的正相关, 即高自恋的人通常也表现出较高的冲动性购买倾向(Rose, 2007).但是, 新近的一项研究发现不是所有的自恋成分都与冲动性购买有关(Cai, Shi, Fang, & Luo, 2015).该研究把适应性自恋和非适应性自恋分开考察, 首先通过一个网络样本发现非适应性自恋与冲动性购买行为存在显著的正相关, 而适应性自恋和冲动性购买却不存在这种关系; 然后, 研究者采用双生子样本进一步重复了这种关系, 并进一步通过行为遗传学的分析揭示:非适应性自恋与冲动性购买行为二者之间的关系存在遗传基础.由此可见, 自恋与冲动性购买之间的关系主要是由自恋的非适应性成分导致的, 自恋的适应性成分和冲动性购买之间没有显著的关系.

关于自恋与青少年问题行为, 一项横断研究发现, 非适应性自恋与青少年的冷漠无情(问题行为的具体指标)等具有正相关, 但是适应性自恋与这些不良表现之间没有关系(Barry, Frick, & Killian, 2003).另一项横断研究也表明, 剥削性显著预测攻击性, 无论是基于自我报告,同伴报告还是老师的报告的结果均显示适应性自恋与攻击性之间没有关系(Washburn et al., 2004).此外, 一项追踪研究表明, 非适应自恋可以预测个体一年,两年, 甚至三年后的问题行为(比如犯罪和被举报行为), 而适应性自恋与问题行为之间并无关联; 并且非适应自恋与这些问题行为之间的关系在控制了许多其它相关变量后(如早期的问题行为,父母的教养方式,冲动性和冷漠无情性等)依然显著存在(Barry et al., 2007).

虽然现有关于自恋的适应性和非适应性成分与问题行为的研究还比较有限, 但是总的来看, 既往研究都发现只有非适应性自恋可以预测问题行为, 而适应性自恋则与问题行为之间没有明显关系.

4 两类自恋不同的其它证据

是否有利于适应是区分适应性自恋和非适应性自恋的最基本标准, 目前已经有大量的证据支持这一区分.此外, 还有大量研究显示, 两类自恋在适应性以外的其它很多方面也表现出差异.下面我们分别予以介绍.

4.1 两类自恋和大五人格的关系

通过对自恋和其它人格结构的关系进行研究可以揭示自恋的人格基础.过去20多年来, 已经有大量这样的研究.这些研究中, 绝大多数研究都是以大五人格模型为基础.按照该模型, 人格包括五个基本维度:外倾性(extraversion),神经质(neuroticism),宜人性(agreeableness),尽责性(conscientiousness)和开放性(openness) (Costa & MacCrae, 1992).在探讨自恋和人格的关系的研究中, 大部分关注的是总体自恋和大五人格各维度的关系.一项元分析研究曾对25个实证研究的结果进行了汇总, 结果发现:自恋与外倾性(r = 0.39),尽责性(r = 0.08)和开放性(r = 0.17)存在显著正相关, 而与神经质(r = -0.17)和宜人性(r = -0.28)存在显著负相关(Miller & Maples, 2012).从这些结果可以看出, 即使对于总体自恋而言, 自恋的两面性也很明显:自恋水平高的人会更外向,更开放,更有责任心, 但同时也会更神经质,更不容易相处.

4.2 两类自恋的发展

研究者通常从两个方面来描述人格特征的发展:均数的变化和秩序(rank-order)的变化.前者反映群体的平均水平如何随着年龄的变化而变化, 后者则反映一个人在群体中的相对位置或排名如何随着年龄的变化而变化.一项横断研究在全球范围内考察了从8岁到83岁的3000多名个体的自恋水平(Foster, Campbell, & Twenge, 2003).结果发现:总体自恋与年龄之间存在显著的负相关, 即随着年龄的增长个体的自恋水平呈下降趋势; 但是, 自恋的适应性成分和非适应性成分却有着不同的变化轨迹:自恋的适应性成分随年龄的增长基本保持稳定, 而非适应性成分却下降的非常明显; 这意味着总体自恋的下降更多的是由其中非适应性成分的下降导致的.一项在中国开展的大样本(超过2万人)横断研究也发现了类似的结果:总体自恋随着年龄的增长而降低; 但是, 其中自恋的适应性成分随年龄增长保持相对稳定, 非适应性成分则随年龄的增长呈现出明显的下降趋势(Cai et al., 2012).另外一项研究特别对比了大学生和家长在自恋的各个成分是否存在差异, 结果发现不论是自恋的总体水平还是各个成分, 其水平都会随年龄增加而下降, 但是适应性成分如领导力/权威的下降幅度(d = 0.16)明显小于自我表现(d = 0.67)和特权感/剥削性(d = 0.40)的下降幅度(Hill, & Roberts, 2012).总之, 这些研究表明:就平均水平而言, 总体自恋随着年龄的增长而下降, 但是这种下降更多是由自恋的非适应性成分下降导致的, 而自恋的适应性成分则相对稳定, 即使有下降, 其程度也比非适应自恋幅度小得多.

自恋的秩序稳定性反映了个体在某一个群体的自恋水平排名是否随着年龄的变化而变化.现有的为数不多的研究表明, 自恋的秩序稳定性很高, 但是不同成分的秩序稳定性有所不同.一项为期13周的追踪研究发现, 不仅总体自恋具有较高的稳定性(0.81), 自恋的适应性成分和非适应性成分也有很高的稳定性(0.57~0.80) (del Rosario, & White, 2005).另外一项针对特权感的短期追踪研究也发现, 特权感在一两个月的时间范围内是很稳定的(.70,.72).在一项为期两年的追踪研究中, 我们同时考察了特权感和自大, 发现虽然两种特征都有较高的秩序稳定性, 但是自大的稳定性 (r = 0.67)略高于特权感(r = 0.50), 这也暗示自恋的适应性和非适应性成分的秩序稳定性是有差异的(Luo, in preparation).最后, 一项跨度10年(从43岁到53岁)的追踪研究发现, 自恋某些非适应性的成分如敏感性(hypersensitivity)是相当稳定的(r = 0.68), 但是执拗(willfulness)这一非适应性成分的稳定性则属于中等(r = 0.40); 适应性的成分如自主性(autonomy)也有中等程度的稳定性(r = 0.49) (Edelstein, Newton, & Stewart, 2012).

综上可见, 随年龄增加, 就平均水平而言, 适应性自恋与非适应自恋的水平有不同的变化趋势, 前者基本不变, 但后者会显著下降.与平均水平的变化相比, 在秩序方面, 无论是短至两个月还是长至10年的纵向追踪研究都发现自恋表现出了较高的稳定性.两种不同的自恋的秩序稳定性可能有所不同, 但是目前证据还很有限.

4.3 两类自恋的遗传与环境基础

上文的各部分从不同方面揭示了自恋的适应性成分和非适应性成分的差异, 那么这种差异是否有基因基础呢?目前已有双生子研究对此进行了探讨.基于总体自恋的双生子研究表明, 不管是基于西方样本(Vernon, Villani, Vickers, & Harris, 2008), 还是东方样本(Luo, Cai, Sedikides, & Song, 2014), 总体自恋都是可以遗传的:大概40%~46%的个体差异是来源于基因, 其余的则主要取决于特异而非共享环境.一项以中国双生子为研究对象的研究考察了自恋的两个成分——自大和特权感的遗传和环境基础(Luo et al., 2014).该研究结果发现:1)自大的个体差异有23%来自遗传的影响, 有77%来自非共享环境的作用; 2)特权感的个体差异有35%来自遗传, 有65%来自非共享环境; 3)影响自大和特权感的遗传因素绝大部分(超过90%)都是不同的, 影响它们的非共享环境因素也基本上是相互独立的(超过90%) (Luo et al., 2014).可见, 由于自大和特权感在遗传和环境基础上都存在很大的差异.自大在内涵上与适应性自恋很接近, 而特权感则与非适应性自恋很接近, 因此自大和特权感在遗传与环境基础上的差异也在一定程度上反映了适应性自恋与非适应性自恋在遗传和环境基础上的差异.

研究者还进一步以NPI为基础, 直接考察了自恋的适应性成分和非适应性成分的遗传与环境基础.同样以双生子为研究对象, 研究者们发现:自恋的适应性和非适应性成分的遗传度分别是37%和44%, 其余的个体差异主要受到非共享环境的影响(分别为63%和56%); 进一步分析发现, 影响适应性自恋和非适应性自恋的遗传因素有54%是不同的, 而影响它们的非共享环境因素更有85%是不同的(Cai et al., 2015).该研究结果表明, 虽然适应性自恋和非适应性自恋在遗传和环境起源上均有一定的相似性, 但两种自恋的遗传,环境基础大部分是相互独立的.综合上述两项双生子研究的结果可以看出, 自恋的适应性成分与非适应性成分的遗传和环境基础大部分都是不同的.换句话说, 自恋的两个成分的发生基础是有差异的, 这为区分两种自恋提供了遗传层面的证据.

5 总结,意义与研究展望

5.1 总结

近年来, 有研究者提出可以从功能上将自恋可以分成两种适应性自恋和非适应性自恋两种类型(Barry et al., 2007).本文中, 我们对支持这一区分的实证依据进行了全面整理.结果发现:1)二者有着不同的成分构成:如果以NPI的七因素结构为基础, 前者则主要包括权威和自我满足两个因素, 后者则主要包括特权感,剥削性和自我表现三个因素; 2)二者有着不同的适应功能:非适应性自恋通常与高神经质,理想-现实自我偏差,抑郁,焦虑,攻击性,冲动性购买和问题行为,较低的自尊与共情相联; 适应性自恋则与以上各指标上不存在或存在相反的联系; 3)二者有不同的人格基础:适应性自恋更多地和健康的人格特征相联, 如高外倾性,低神经质; 而非适应性自恋则更多的和不健康的人格特征相联, 如高神经质,低宜人性; 4)二者有着不同的发展轨迹:非适应性自恋随着年龄的增长而呈现下降趋势, 但是适应性自恋却很少表现出这种趋势; 5)二者有着不同的基因和环境基础:二者的个体差异绝大多数都是由不同的基因和环境导致的, 共有的基因和环境作用几乎可以忽略.这些来自不同方面的证据一致表明, 适应性自恋和非适应性自恋在在很大程度上是不同质的两种自恋, 对二者进行区分是有必要的.

5.2 意义

认识到适应性自恋和非适应性自恋的不同具有重要的意义.首先, 这种区分可以丰富和深化我们对自恋的认识.在过去, 自恋在相当长的时间里都被认为是一种人格障碍; 即便是今天, 自恋依然是临床心理学研究的一个重要问题.这种事实使得很多人都有一种印象, 自恋是非常不好的(Barry et al., 2003), 是个体适应不良的一个重要原因和表现.但是, 本文综述的证据告诉我们, 这种理解是不全面的.不是所有的自恋或自恋的所有特点都是不好的.从功能上看, 自恋其实有非适应性的方面, 也有适应性的方面, 或者说有适应性的自恋和非适应性的自恋两种类型, 一概而论是不准确的.

其次, 对两种自恋进行区分可以帮助我们更好地认识自恋者.由于自恋既可以是适应性的,也可以是非适应性的, 对于那些大家眼中自恋的人, 我们要认识到, 他们可能同时拥有高的适应性自恋和高的非适应性自恋, 也可能仅拥有其中一种类型的高自恋.这意味着被贴上自恋标签的人可能各有各的自恋特点和表现, 不一定都是不好的.

现有的研究从多个不同角度显示了正常人群中的自恋可以进一步区分为适应性自恋和非适应性自恋, 这对未来的研究具有重要启示作用.

第一, 鉴于现有的大部分研究都是把自恋作为一个整体来进行研究, 未来的研究有必要将适应性自恋和非适应自恋予以区分.比如:已有研究发现同样是高自恋者, 但是他们经常会采用非常不同的自我调节策略, 如人际间的调节和人际内的调节(Morf & Rhodewalt, 2001),敬佩(admiration)和竞争(rivalry)策略(Back et al., 2013),原始(primitive)和成熟(mature)策略(Roche, Pincus, Lukowitsky, Ménard, & Conroy, 2013)等, 在探讨自恋和这些自我调节策略的关系时, 对自恋的适应性成分和非适应性成分进行区分可能会发现它们和这些自我调节策略的不同关系.

第二, 现有的针对自恋的两种成分及其不同进行的研究都是行为水平上的, 未来的研究需要探讨二者的神经基础及其不同.现在的研究表明, 自恋和大脑的某些脑区的结构和功能密切相关, 并且还可以调节大脑对外界刺激的反应.比如, 自恋与大脑自我加工区域(例如, 内侧前额叶)和奖赏中枢(例如, 纹状体)的联结性呈负相关(Chester, Lynam, Powell, & DeWall, 2016); 再如, 自恋可以调节和共情相关的多个脑区在共情时的反应, 包括右侧前脑岛(rAI),右背外侧前额叶皮层(rDLPFC),右侧后扣带回皮层(rPCC)和右侧前运动皮层(rPMC) (Fan et al., 2011)等.这些研究考察的都是总体自恋, 那么适应性自恋和非适应性自恋与上述各脑区的联结或活动关系是否存在不同呢?对于这些问题的研究无疑可以帮助我们深入揭示这两种自恋的不同及其神经基础.

第三, 迄今为止的研究中, 关于适应性自恋和非适应性自恋的操作和测量主要是以NPI为基础.鉴于二者在很多方面存在质的不同, 未来需要从理论上对两类自恋的特征进行探讨, 并以此为基础编制相应的专门量表对二者分别进行测量, 从而更好的考察二者和其它心理和行为的关系, 促进对自恋的认识.

最后, 目前揭示自恋中适应性成分和非适应性成分的大部分研究都是在单一文化下完成的, 鉴于文化对自恋的可能影响(e.g., Foster et al., 2003), 未来的研究需要探讨目前在特定文化下获得的结果是否可以推广到其它文化下.

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ABSTRACT Narcissism is characterized by the search for affirmation and admiration from others. Might this motivation to find external sources of acclaim exist to compensate for neuro-structural deficits that link the self with reward? Greater structural connectivity between brain areas that process self-relevant stimuli (i.e., the medial prefrontal cortex) and reward (i.e., the ventral striatum) is associated with fundamentally positive self-views. We predicted that narcissism would be associated with less integrity of this frontostriatal pathway. We used diffusion tensor imaging to assess the frontostriatal structural connectivity among 50 healthy undergraduates (32 females, 18 males) who also completed a measure of grandiose narcissism. White matter integrity in the frontostriatal pathway was negatively associated with narcissism. Our findings, while purely correlational, suggest that narcissism arises, in part, from a neural disconnect between the self and reward. The exhibitionism and immodesty of narcissists may then be a regulatory strategy to compensate for this neural deficit. The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

Corry N., Merritt R. D., Mrug S., & Pamp B . (2008).

The factor structure of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory.

Journal of Personality Assessment, 90(6), 593-600.

URL     PMID:18925501      [本文引用: 1]

In the first study, we administered the 40-item Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988) to 843 female and 843 male college students, most of whom were Euro-American, to comprehensively assess the NPI factor structure using confirmatory factor analysis. Initial exploratory common factor analyses (N = 724) revealed a 2-factor model (Leadership/Authority and Exhibitionism/Entitlement). Subsequently, we used confirmatory factor analysis in a separate sample (N = 724) to evaluate the Emmons (1987) 4-factor model, the Raskin and Terry (1988) 7-factor model, the Kubarych, Deary, and Austin (2004) 2- and 3-factor models, and our 2-factor model. Finally, we assessed construct validity by correlating the scale scores with the Five-factor model of personality in an independent sample (N = 238). The 2-factor models for the NPI we obtained in this study and by Kubarych et al. (2004) appeared to be the most parsimonious models, with both a good fit to the data and satisfactory internal consistency values; so they are recommended for use. However, additional NPI research is needed to rescale, modify, or omit several NPI items and develop gender-equivalent items.

Costa P.T., &MacCrae R.R . (1992).

Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO PI-R) and NEO five-factor inventory (NEO-FFI): Professional manual. Psychological Assessment Resources.

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delRosario P.M., &White R.M . (2005).

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Personality and Individual Differences, 39(6), 1075-1081.

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Edelstein R. S., Newton N. J., & Stewart A. J . (2012).

Narcissism in midlife: Longitudinal changes in and correlates of women's narcissistic personality traits.

Journal of Personality, 80(5), 1179-1204.

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Emmons R.A . (1984).

Factor analysis and construct validity of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory.

Journal of Personality Assessment, 48(3), 291-300.

URL     PMID:16367528      [本文引用: 5]

Abstract Three studies are reported which provide evidence for the validity of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI). Factor analysis of the NPI in Study 1 revealed four factors which were labelled: Exploitativeness/Entitlement, Leadership/Authority, Superiority/Arrogance, and Self-absorption/Self-admiration. In Study 2, scores on the NPI were correlated with basic dimensions of personality, and with relevant self-variables. Narcissism scores were positively related to dominance, exhibitionism, extraversion, self-esteem, and self-monitoring, among others; and negatively related to abasement, deference, and social anxiety, among others. Correlations between the NPI factors and personality variables are also examined. In Study 3, peer ratings of narcissism were obtained and it was found that these were strongly related to scores on the NPI. Taken together, the three studies provide considerable evidence for the construct validity of the NPI, and avenues for future research are suggested.

Emmons R.A . (1987).

Narcissism: theory and measurement.

Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 52(1), 11-17.

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Fan Y., Wonneberger C., Enzi B., De G. M., Ulrich C., Tempelmann C., .. Northoff G . (2011).

The narcissistic self and its psychological and neural correlates: An exploratory fMRI study.

Psychological Medicine, 41(8), 1641-1650.

URL     PMID:21144117      Magsci     [本文引用: 2]

The concept of narcissism has been much researched in psychoanalysis and especially in self psychology. One of the hallmarks of narcissism is altered emotion, including decreased affective resonance (e.g. empathy) with others, the neural underpinnings of which remain unclear. The aim of our exploratory study was to investigate the psychological and neural correlates of empathy in two groups of healthy subjects with high and low narcissistic personality trait. We hypothesized that high narcissistic subjects would show a differential activity pattern in regions such as the anterior insula that are typically associated with empathy. A sample of 34 non-clinical subjects was divided into high (n=11) and low (n=11) narcissistic groups according to the 66th and 33rd percentiles of their scores on the Narcissism Inventory (NI). Combining the psychological, behavioral and neuronal [i.e. functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)] measurements of empathy, we compared the high and low narcissistic groups of subjects. High narcissistic subjects showed higher scores on the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R) and the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) when compared to low narcissistic subjects. High narcissistic subjects also showed significantly decreased deactivation during empathy, especially in the right anterior insula. Psychological and neuroimaging data indicate respectively higher degrees of alexithymia and lower deactivation during empathy in the insula in high narcissistic subjects. Taken together, our preliminary findings demonstrate, for the first time, psychological and neuronal correlates of narcissism in non-clinical subjects. This might stipulate both novel psychodynamic conceptualization and future psychological euronal investigation of narcissism.

Foster J. D., Campbell W. K., & Twenge J. M . (2003).

Individual differences in narcissism: Inflated self-views across the lifespan and around the world.

Journal of Research in Personality, 37(6), 469-486.

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The present investigation examined associations among narcissism, age, ethnicity, world region, and gender, using a large ( n=3445) sample of participants representing several different world regions and ethnicities. The results suggest that (1) reported narcissism declines in older participants, (2) consistent with previous findings, males report being more narcissistic than females, (3) that ethnic differences in reported narcissism are generally comparable to those found in the self-esteem literature, and (4) that world region appears to exert influence on narcissism, with participants from more individualistic societies reporting more narcissism. The results are discussed in terms of how age and culture might impact narcissism and how future research might address this topic.

Freud S. . (1914).

On Narcissism: An Introduction.

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Gebauer J. E., Sedikides C., Verplanken B., & Maio G. R . (2012).

Communal narcissism.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103(5), 854-878.

Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

An agency-communion model of narcissism distinguishes between agentic narcissists (individuals satisfying self-motives of grandiosity, esteem, entitlement, and power in agentic domains) and communal narcissists (individuals satisfying the same self-motives in communal domains). Five studies supported the model. In Study 1, participants listed their grandiose self-thoughts. Two distinct types emerged: agentic ("I am the most intelligent person") and communal ("I am the most helpful person"). In Study 2, we relied on the listed communal grandiose self-thoughts to construct the Communal Narcissism Inventory. It was psychometrically sound, stable over time, and largely independent of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-the standard measure of agentic narcissism. In Studies 3 and 4, agentic and communal narcissists shared the same self-motives, while crucially differing in their means for need satisfaction: Agentic narcissists capitalized on agentic means, communal narcissists on communal means. Study 5 revisited the puzzle of low self-other agreement regarding communal traits and behaviors. Attesting to the broader significance of our model, this low self other agreement was partly due to communal narcissists: They saw themselves as high, but were seen by others as low, in communion.

Hepper E. G., Hart C. M., Meek R., Cisek S., & Sedikides C . (2014).

Narcissism and empathy in young offenders and non-offenders.

European Journal of Personality, 28(2), 201-210.

URL     Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

Understanding the individual factors that predispose persons to criminal behaviour is vital to reducing offending and rehabilitating those who have been sentenced to prison. This study examined the roles of narcissism (at both clinical and subclinical trait levels) and empathy, by comparing levels in young adult males currently serving a prison sentence to those with no history of criminal convictions. Prison participants had significantly higher levels of narcissism—in particular entitlement—than control participants, and this link was sequentially mediated by lower perspective-taking and subsequently lack of empathic concern. Trait narcissism showed stronger effects than narcissistic personality disorder symptoms. Narcissistic young men's feelings of entitlement and ensuing lack of empathy for others may account for their greater likelihood of criminal behaviour. Copyright 08 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Hill P.L., &Roberts B.W . (2012).

Narcissism, Well-being, and observer-rated personality across the lifespan.

Social Psychological & Personality Science, 3(2), 216-223.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Previous studies have noted that narcissists do, in some cases, experience benefits. The current study adds to this discussion by examining whether age might moderate the links between narcissism and a self-reported benefit (life satisfaction) and an observer-reported benefit (observer ratings of personality). In a sample of college students and their family members (N = 807), the authors demonstrate that narcissism positively correlates with life satisfaction for adolescents and emerging adults, but not for adult participants. In addition, the relationship between narcissism and observer-reported neuroticism was weakly negative for undergraduate students, but significant and positive for their mothers. Taken together, these results suggest that narcissism is more beneficial for adolescents and emerging adults than for adults. Both sets of analyses also pointed to the importance of studying narcissism as a multifaceted construct. Findings are discussed with respect to personality development theories that emphasize adult role adoption.

Krizan Z., & Johar O. (2015).

Narcissistic rage revisited.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 108(5), 784-801.

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Kubarych T. S., Deary I. J., & Austin E. J . (2004).

The Narcissistic Personality Inventory: Factor structure in a non-clinical sample.

Personality & Individual Differences, 36(4), 857-872.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is the most widely used measure of the construct of narcissism. Four- and seven-factor solutions have been reported for the instrument. In the present study, 338 undergraduates completed the NPI along with a battery of personality questionnaires that include the NEO-FFI. Exploratory principal components analysis indicated that the NPI had a two- or three-factor structure. Confirmatory factor analyses were undertaken for one-, two- and three-factor models of the instrument. Fit indices were poor, typical of models with many item–level variables. The fits can be improved by allowing plausible correlated error terms in instances where items have very similar content. As a whole, the NPI is measuring a general narcissism construct, with two or three separable, correlated factors relating to ‘power’, ‘exhibitionism’, and being a ‘special person’. A psychometrically improved version of the NPI could be developed based on these factors. In the present study confirmatory factor analysis provided some insights not available from exploratory factor analysis, but was still largely exploratory in nature. NEO correlations with the overall factor were 0.36 for both extraversion and low agreeableness, with additional highly significant correlations for low neuroticism and high openness to experience. NEO correlations for the lower-order factors were similar.

Lambe S., Hamilton-Giachritsis C., Garner E., & Walker J . (2016).

The role of narcissism in aggression and violence: A systematic review.

Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 19(2), 209-230.

URL     PMID:27222500      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract It has long been hypothesized that feelings of inferiority or low self-esteem lead individuals to aggress against those they view as being threatening. However, recent studies suggest that it is not just the level of self-esteem but stability that is relevant to understanding this process. As such, researchers have looked to related constructs, such as narcissism, in trying to understand aggressive behaviors. Narcissism is characterized by a dissociation between an unconscious sense of inadequacy and a conscious feeling of superiority. A large number of studies examining the relationship between narcissism and violence have recently been published within both clinical and student populations. This review aimed to systematically collate the findings of such studies and integrate them within current theories of violence. Electronic literature databases such as Web of Science, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, and LexisNexis (legal database) were searched to identify studies examining the relationship between narcissism and violence. Twenty articles were included in this review, describing 25 separate samples. Findings suggest that narcissism is relevant in understanding aggression and violence. This was consistent across both clinical and nonclinical populations and therefore does not appear to be an artifact of studying either very violent or student samples. Evidence from student samples strongly supported the association between narcissism and aggression following an ego threat, while studies using clinical samples did not examine the effect of an ego threat. These findings may have an impact on how we understand, predict, and reduce violence. The Author(s) 2016.

Lasch C. .(1979).

The culture of narcissism. New York:.

Norton.

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Luo Y. L. L., Cai H. J., Sedikides C., & Song H. R . (2014).

Distinguishing communal narcissism from agentic narcissism: A behavior genetics analysis on the agency- communion model of narcissism.

Journal of Research in Personality, 49(1), 52-58.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

This article examined the genetic and environmental bases of the newly proposed agency–communion model of narcissism. The model distinguishes between agentic narcissism and communal narcissism. The sample comprised 304 pairs of twins. Genes explained 47% and 25% of the variance in agentic and communal narcissism, respectively; shared environments contributed 0% and 15%, respectively, to agentic and communal narcissism, with non-shared environments accounting for the remaining portions. Although some common genes and environments influenced agentic and communal narcissism simultaneously, most genetic (68%) and environmental (94%) influences on agentic and communal narcissism were unique. These findings provide novel evidence for the theoretical plausibility of communal narcissism as well as its relatedness to and distinctiveness from agentic narcissism, supporting the agency–communion narcissism model.

Martinez M. A., Zeichner A., Reidy D. E., & Miller J. D . (2008).

Narcissism and displaced aggression: Effects of positive, negative, and delayed feedback.

Personality & Individual Differences, 44(1), 140-149.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Narcissism is related to direct aggression following negative evaluation or rejection and this link may be explained via the theory of threatened egotism. It is unclear whether narcissism is also related to displaced aggression (DA) – that is, aggression towards an innocent victim uninvolved in the initial provocation. In this study we examined the relation between narcissism and DA following positive, negative, or a delayed evaluation (i.e., evaluation following the completion of the reaction time task) of the participants’ writing skills by an “objective” computer assessment instrument. Participants were undergraduates who competed in a reaction time task against an opponent (i.e., a confederate). Initial provocation in this study was conceptualized as the evaluation feedback the participants received prior to competing in the reaction time task. DA was defined as bogus electric shocks administered by participants to their opponents (who were uninvolved in the prior evaluation) during the reaction time task prior to receiving any shocks from the opponent. Narcissism was significantly positively related to DA and this effect was stronger in the delayed condition than in the negative or positive feedback condition. These findings suggest that narcissistic individuals are likely to act aggressively towards innocent others under conditions where there is uncertainty with regard to potential damage to their self-perceptions of superiority.

Miller J.D., & Maples J. (2012).

Trait personality models of narcissistic personality disorder, grandiose narcissism, and vulnerable narcissism.

In W. K. Campbell, J. D. Miller (Eds.), The handbook of narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (pp.71-88), John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The past 20 years has seen a surge in interest in conceptualizing personality disorders (PDs) using general trait models of personality. By general trait models, we are referring to comprehensive models of “normal” or “general” personality such as the Five Factor Model

Moeller S. J., Crocker J., & Bushman B. J . (2009).

Creating hostility and conflict: Effects of entitlement and self-image goals.

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45(2), 448-452.

URL     PMID:20126295      Magsci     [本文引用: 1]

People who feel entitled to admiration and respect from others do not make good companions. This research shows one reason why. Entitled people adopt self-image goals (goals that aim to construct and defend a positive self-image), which then lead to interpersonal conflict and hostility. Studies 1A and 1B documented a unique relation between entitlement and self-image goals. Study 2 extended these results by showing, via a longitudinal design, that entitlement prospectively predicts chronic self-image goals. These chronic self-image goals then predict chronic relationship conflict and hostility, all averaged over 10 weeks. Further, Study 2 revealed that self-image goals mediate the effect of pretest entitlement on both weekly hostility and conflict. These results suggest that by pursuing self-image goals, entitled people create conflict and hostility in their relationships.

Morf C.C., & Rhodewalt F. (2001).

Unraveling the paradoxes of narcissism: A dynamic self-regulatory processing model.

Psychological Inquiry, 12(4), 177-196.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

We propose a dynamic self-regulatory processing model of narcissism and review supporting evidence. The model casts narcissism in terms of motivated self-construction, in that the narcissist's self is shaped by the dynamic interaction of cognitive and affective intrapersonal processes and interpersonal self-regulatory strategies that are played out in the social arena. A grandiose yet vulnerable self-concept appears to underlie the chronic goal of obtaining continuous external self-affirmation. Because narcissists are insensitive to others' concerns and social constraints and view others as inferior, their self-regulatory efforts often are counterproductive and ultimately prevent the positive feedback that they seek-thus undermining the self they are trying to create and maintain. We draw connections between this model and other processing models in personality and employ these models to further elucidate the construct of narcissism. Reconceptualizing narcissism as a self-regulatory processing system promises to resolve many of its apparent paradoxes, because by understanding how narcissistic cognition, affect, and motivation interrelate, their internal subjective logic and coherence come into focus.

Morf C. C., Horvath S., & Torchetti L . (2011).

Narcissistic self-enhancement: Tales of (successful?) self-portrayal.

In M. D. Alicke & C. Sedikides (Eds.), Handbook of self- enhancement and self-protection(pp. 399-424). New York, NY: Guilford.

URL    

react-text: 315 We investigated the relations between narcissism, self-assessed intelligence and subjective well-being. In three studies, we aimed to replicate previous findings concerning the relationship between narcissism and both objectively and subjectively assessed intelligence (Study 1), as well as to examine whether the latter influenced narcissists’ satisfaction with life (Study 2) and their mood... /react-text react-text: 316 /react-text [Show full abstract]

Park S.W., &Colvin C.R . (2015).

Narcissism and other‐derogation in the absence of ego threat.

Journal of Personality, 83(3), 334-345.

URL     PMID:24934570      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract The relation between narcissism and other-derogation has been examined primarily in the context of ego threat. In three studies, we investigated whether narcissistic individuals derogate others in the absence of ego threat. In Study 1, 79 judges watched four videotaped dyadic interactions and rated the personality of the same four people. In Study 2, 66 judges rated the personality of a friend. In Study 3, 72 judges considered the average Northeastern University student and rated the personality of this hypothetical person. Across the three studies, targets' personality characteristics were described on the 100-item California Adult Q-Sort (CAQ; Block, 2008). Judges' ratings of targets were compared to a CAQ prototype of the optimally adjusted person to assess target-derogation. Judges' narcissism and other-derogation were positively related in Studies 1 and 2. Narcissism positively predicted and self-esteem negatively predicted target-derogation after controlling for each other in Study 3. Narcissistic individuals derogate others more than non-narcissistic individuals regardless of whether ego threat is present or absent. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Raskin R.N., &Hall C.S . (1979).

A narcissistic personality inventory.

Psychological Reports, 45(2), 590-590.

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Raskin R., & Terry H. (1988).

A principal-components analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and further evidence of its construct validity.

Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 54(5), 890-902.

URL     PMID:3379585      [本文引用: 6]

We examined the internal and external validity of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI). Study 1 explored the internal structure of the NPI responses of 1,018 subjects. Using principal-components analysis, we analyzed the tetrachoric correlations among the NPI item responses and found evidence for a general construct of narcissism as well as seven first-order components, identified as Authority, Exhibitionism, Superiority, Vanity, Exploitativeness, Entitlement, and Self-Sufficiency. Study 2 explored the NPI's construct validity with respect to a variety of indexes derived from observational and self-report data in a sample of 57 subjects. Study 3 investigated the NPI's construct validity with respect to 128 subject's self and ideal self-descriptions, and their congruency, on the Leary Interpersonal Check List. The results from Studies 2 and 3 tend to support the construct validity of the full-scale NPI and its component scales.

Rasmussen K. . (2016).

Entitled vengeance: A meta-analysis relating narcissism to provoked aggression.

Aggressive Behavior, 42(4), 362-379.

URL     PMID:26522921      [本文引用: 1]

Narcissism has long been used to predict aggressive or vengeful responses to provocations from others. The strength of this relation can, however, vary widely from study to study. Narcissism and revenge were examined in 84 independent samples ( N =6511297), along with the moderating role of sample type (i.e., child/adolescent, prisoner, undergraduate, or general samples), type of narcissism measure used (i.e., Narcissistic Personality Inventory, Psychological Entitlement Scale, Short D3, etc.), the nature of the provocation, and the type of provoked aggression examined. Narcissism was positively related to provoked aggression across studies ( ρ =65.25), but that relation was stronger in child/adolescent samples ( ρ =65.36) and when measures of entitlement or vulnerable narcissism were employed ( ρ =65.29). Implications for practical research, as well as neglected areas of research on narcissism and provoked aggression are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 42:362–379, 2016. 08 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Reidy D. E., Zeichner A., Foster J. D., & Martinez M. A . (2008).

Effects of narcissistic entitlement and exploitativeness on human physical aggression.

Personality & Individual Differences, 44(4), 865-875.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Research has demonstrated that narcissism is related to the perpetration of aggression. Despite being commonly considered a pathological form of personality, theorists have argued that narcissism represents a mix of adaptive (e.g., Self-Sufficiency) and maladaptive (e.g., Entitlement and Exploitativeness) traits. The current study sought to examine the relationship between narcissistic traits and aggression. Ninety-one men completed a laboratory aggression task in which participants had the opportunity to administer electric shocks to a confederate or to refrain from doing so. General aggression as well as initial and extreme aggression were measured. Results indicated that narcissistic entitlement and exploitativeness were the narcissistic subtraits that best predicted all measures of aggression. The findings support existing research that identifies these traits as particularly maladaptive traits of narcissism, and are discussed in terms of the linkage between narcissism and perpetration of violence and victimization.

Rhodewalt F., &Morf C.C . (1995).

Self and interpersonal correlates of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory: A review and new findings.

Journal of Research in Personality, 29(1), 1-23.

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Abstract The relation between the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI, Raskin & Hall, 1979) and conceptually relevant self and interpersonal variables was examined in three investigations. Based on clinical theory and description, it was proposed that the NPI would be correlated with self-images which were positive but low in complexity and vulnerable to threat. In addition, it was hypothesized that the NPI would be associated with antagonism and hostility, characteristics that should contribute to narcissists frequently observed interpersonal difficulties. As expected, the NPI was associated with extremely positive self-images as well as low self-complexity (Study 1). High NPI scores were also associated with a self-aggrandizing attributional style (Study 1) and higher scores on hostility and antagonism (Study 2). High NPI scorers appeared to benefit the most from the perception of available social support during periods of high stress. The findings are discussed with regard to the construct validity of the NPI and adaptive versus maladaptive aspects of narcissistic behavior.

Roche M. J., Pincus A. L., Lukowitsky M. R., Ménard K. S., & Conroy D. E . (2013).

An integrative approach to the assessment of narcissism.

Journal of Personality Assessment, 95(3), 237-248.

URL     PMID:23451709      [本文引用: 1]

Narcissism research is poorly calibrated across fields of study in part due to confusion over how to integrate normal and pathological descriptions of narcissism. We argue that pathological and normal narcissism can be integrated in a single model that organizes around self-regulation mechanisms. We present theoretical and empirical support for this interpretation, and demonstrate that modeling pathological and normal narcissism as 2 dimensions underlying the narcissistic character can help to resolve some of the inconsistencies in the field regarding how to best assess adaptive and maladaptive expressions of narcissism.

Rose P. . (2007).

Mediators of the association between narcissism and compulsive buying: The roles of materialism and impulse control.

Psychology of Addictive Behaviors Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors, 21(4), 576-581.

URL     PMID:18072841      [本文引用: 1]

Building upon past research about the guiding values and self-regulation difficulties of people with narcissistic personalities, this study tested a model of the association between narcissism and compulsive consumption. In data obtained from a sample of undergraduate consumers (N = 238) with varying degrees of spending problems, positive associations emerged between narcissism, materialism, and compulsive buying. Impulse control was negatively correlated with each of these variables. Mediation tests revealed that both impulse control and materialism accounted for significant portions of the shared variance between narcissism and compulsive consumption. These findings highlight the importance of both personal values and impulse control as correlates of addictive buying. They also add to growing evidence that people who are relatively narcissistic are poor self-regulators who may be at risk of developing a variety of addictive behaviors.

Thomaes S., Brummelman E., & Sedikides C . (2016).

Narcissism: A social-developmental perspective.

In V. Zeigler-Hill & T. Shackelford (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of personality and individual differences(pp. 1-40). New York, NY: Sage.

[本文引用: 1]

Twenge J. M., Konrath S., Foster J. D., Campbell W. K., & Bushman B. J . (2008).

Egos inflating over time: A cross- temporal meta-analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory.

Journal of Personality, 76(4), 875-902.

URL     PMID:18507710      [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT A cross-temporal meta-analysis found that narcissism levels have risen over the generations in 85 samples of American college students who completed the 40-item forced-choice Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) between 1979 and 2006 (total n =16,475). Mean narcissism scores were significantly correlated with year of data collection when weighted by sample size (β=.53, p <.001). Since 1982, NPI scores have increased 0.33 standard deviation. Thus, almost two-thirds of recent college students are above the mean 1979–1985 narcissism score, a 30% increase. The results complement previous studies finding increases in other individualistic traits such as assertiveness, agency, self-esteem, and extraversion.

Vernon P. A., Villani V. C., Vickers L. C., & Harris J. A . (2008).

A behavioral genetic investigation of the Dark Triad and the Big 5.

Personality & Individual Differences, 44(2), 445-452.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This study reports the first behavioral genetic investigation of the three Dark Triad variables (narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy) and their relationships with the Big 5 personality traits. A total of 278 adult twins completed questionnaire measures of the Dark Triad and the Big 5. Consistent with some previous studies, we found significant correlations among some of the Dark Triad variables and between each of the Dark Triad variables and some of the Big 5. To the extent that these variables were correlated at the phenotypic level, these correlations were largely attributable to correlated genetic factors. At the univariate level, all traits showed the influence of genetic and non-shared environmental factors, with heritabilities ranging between .31 and .72; Machiavellianism alone also showed the influence of shared environmental factors.

Washburn J. J., McMahon S. D., King C. A., Reinecke M. A., & Silver C . (2004).

Narcissistic features in young adolescents: Relations to aggression and internalizing symptoms.

Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 33(3), 247-260.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Recent research and theory suggest narcissistic features contribute to aggression in adults. The present study examined the association of narcissistic features with aggression and internalizing symptoms in 233 students of 5th鈥8th grade at three inner-city schools. A factor analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory in this sample revealed three factors: Adaptive Narcissism, Exploitativeness, and Exhibitionism . Regression analyses were used to predict the association of these three narcissistic features with self-, teacher-, and peer-reported aggression and self-reported internalizing symptoms. Results indicate narcissistic exploitativeness positively predicted self-reported proactive aggression, and narcissistic exhibitionism positively predicted internalizing symptoms. Narcissism and self-esteem interacted to predict teacher-reported aggression and self-reported internalizing symptoms. Results are discussed in the context of existing theories of narcissism, threatened egotism, and self-perception bias.

Watson P.J., &Biderman M.D . (1993).

Narcissistic personality inventory factors, splitting, and self- consciousness.

Journal of Personality Assessment, 61(1), 41-57.

URL     PMID:8377102      [本文引用: 3]

Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Emmons, 1984) factors were correlated with Splitting, Self-Consciousness, Depression, Anxiety, and Self-Esteem. Exploitativeness/Entitlement was largely maladaptive, whereas Leadership/Authority, Superiority/Arrogance, and Self-Absorption/Self-Admiration yielded ambiguous outcomes. Partialing out Exploitativeness/Entitlement uncovered stronger ties of the other factors with adjustment, and controlling for the other three dimensions caused Exploitativeness/Entitlement to appear more pathological. Raskin and Terry (1988) NPI factors and a narcissistic Superiority Scale were similarly affected by partialing, appearing healthier when controlling for "maladaptive" narcissism and more unhealthy when removing the more "adaptive" variance. These data suggest that complex entanglements between adaptive and maladaptive forms of self-love may make it difficult to understand and assess pathological narcissism.

Watson P. J., Grisham S. O., Trotter M. V., & Biderman M. D . (1984).

Narcissism and empathy: Validity evidence for the Narcissistic Personality Inventory.

Journal of Personality Assessment, 48(3), 301-305.

Watson P.J., &Morris R.J . (1991).

Narcissism, empathy and social desirability.

Personality & Individual Differences, 12(6), 575-579.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) factors were correlated with empathy and social desirability to clarify the unexpected findings of a previous investigation. Statistical controls for the complex nature of the NPI revealed the Exploitativeness/Entitlement (EE) dimention to predict less emotional and cognitive empathy, more interpersonal distress, less social responsibility and lower social desirability scores. In contrast, Leadership/Authority was associated with less interpersonal distress, as was the Superiority/Arrogance factor, and also greater social responsibility. EE therefore may operationalize a maladaptive trait characterized by a socially undesirable and irresponsible interpersonal insensitivity. Other NPI dimensions may record more adaptive self-functioning.

Wink P. . (1991).

Two faces of narcissism.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(4), 590-597.

[本文引用: 1]

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