心理科学进展, 2018, 26(12): 2113-2128 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.02113

元分析

校园反欺凌项目干预效果及影响因素:元分析和GRADE证据质量

赵陵波1, 赖丽足2, 林羽中1, 赵春晓2, 任志洪,2

1. 福州大学人文社会科学学院, 福州 350108

2. 青少年网络心理与行为教育部重点实验室,华中师范大学心理学院, 湖北省人的发展与心理健康重点实验室, 武汉 430079

The effect and moderators of school-based anti-bullying programs: Meta-analysis and GRADE evidence

ZHAO Lingbo1, LAI Lizu2, LIN Yuzhong1, ZHAO Chunxiao2, REN Zhihong,2

1. School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108, China

2. Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsychology and Behavior (CCNU), Ministry of Education; School of Psychology, Central China Normal University; Key Laboratory of Human Development and Mental Health of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430079, China

通讯作者: 任志洪, E-mail: ren@mail.ccnu.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2018-04-13   网络出版日期: 2018-12-15

基金资助: *福建省社科基金资助.  FJ2017B028

Received: 2018-04-13   Online: 2018-12-15

摘要

通过文献检索和筛选, 选取了43个校园欺凌的干预研究, 使用CMA 3.0分析干预效果及影响因素, 并使用GRADE系统对所有结局指标的证据质量进行评估。结果显示, 针对欺凌者的干预项目具有中等效果量(g = 0.57, p < 0.05); 针对欺凌受害者的干预项目使得受害者的受欺凌行为减少(g = 0.42, p < 0.05), 心理健康得到改善(g = 0.40, p < 0.01); 针对所有学生的欺凌干预项目对其欺凌行为的效果g =0.17 (p < 0.001), 对其受欺凌行为效果g = 0.19 (p < 0.001), 可能存在出版偏差; 学生态度改变的效果g = 0.40 (p < 0.01)。除了态度改变的证据质量为中等, 其他结局指标的证据都为低或者极低质量。对于所有学生干预项目, 干预周期小于1学期的效果量大于干预周期大于1学期的效果量, 教育干预项目效果量小于系统干预效果量, 非随机研究效果量大于随机对照研究。直接针对欺凌者或者欺凌受害者的干预效果量中等, 但是样本量少, 需要进一步的研究证据支持。针对所有学生的欺凌干预项目虽然效果量低, 但是仍具有实践意义, 其效果量受到干预周期和干预特征的影响。

关键词: 校园反欺凌 ; 干预效果 ; 元分析 ; GRADE

Abstract

School bullying has become a public health issue in the past several decades which caused physical and psychological harm on bullies, victims as well as bystanders. Therefore, a series of anti-bullying programs were designed to reduce the bullying or the harmfulness of bullying, but the effectiveness of these programs was inconsistent. Forty-three pre-post randomized controlled trail studies were selected to examine the effect of school-based anti-bullying programs. The evidence quality was screened under the GRADE protocol. Results suggested a significant effect for anti-bullying programs which targets bullies (g = 0.57, p< 0.05), while those who target victims, victimization decreased (g = 0.40, p< 0.05), and overall metal health improved (g = 0.40, p< 0.01). The pooled effect size indicated that school-based anti-bullying programs have a small effect on bullying and victimization (g = 0.17, p< 0.001) and influenced by publication bias. Attitude changed moderately (g = 0.19, p< 0.001). The evidence of attitude change was moderate, other outcome variables have a very low or low evidence quality according to GRADE protocol. For the programs targeting universal students, programs which was less than one semester performed better, and the global intervention showed more effective than education. The effect size of anti-bullying programs targeting bullies or victims was moderate, but more research is needed. Though school-based anti-bullying programs which target universal students have a relatively small effect size, however, they are practical for real-world applications. The dose of intervention and the feature of programs have influence on the effect of anti-bullying programs.

Keywords: school anti-bullying ; intervention effect ; meta-analysis ; GRADE

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本文引用格式

赵陵波, 赖丽足, 林羽中, 赵春晓, 任志洪. (2018). 校园反欺凌项目干预效果及影响因素:元分析和GRADE证据质量. 心理科学进展, 26(12), 2113-2128

ZHAO Lingbo, LAI Lizu, LIN Yuzhong, ZHAO Chunxiao, REN Zhihong. (2018). The effect and moderators of school-based anti-bullying programs: Meta-analysis and GRADE evidence. Advances in Psychological Science, 26(12), 2113-2128

1 背景

校园欺凌可定义为一个或者多个学生对同伴进行身体、心理的反复迫害或者道德攻击, 主要有以下三个特征:欺凌者和受害者力量上的不均等; 攻击行为是故意且敌意的; 欺凌反复发生(Olweus, 1994a)。欺凌的形式不仅仅包括直接的暴力行为, 也包含间接的攻击行为; 内容包括身体欺凌(例如踢打等身体暴力行为), 口头欺凌(例如嘲笑, 取侮辱性的绰号), 关系欺凌(例如散播谣言, 伤害他人名誉), 损坏受害者所有物。并且随着网络技术的发展, 网络欺凌成为新的欺凌渠道, 其包括电子邮件、短信、视频等(Kowalski, Giumetti, Schroeder, & Lattanner, 2014)。

欺凌形式、渠道的多样性提升了欺凌行为的发生率。一项综合了全球80项报告青少年欺凌行为发生率研究的元分析发现:传统的欺凌现象发生率可达到34.5%, 网络欺凌率为15.5% (Modecki, Minchin, Harbaugh, Guerra, & Runions, 2014)。一项整合了大陆、台湾、香港和澳门两岸三地的调查研究发现, 青少年欺凌报告率最高达到68%, 受欺凌报告率最高达到66% (Chan & Wong, 2015)。欺凌行为会严重影响欺凌者、欺凌受害者的身心健康和发展。研究显示, 欺凌者更容易有消极的或者反社会行为(例如逃学, 犯罪, 物质滥用) (Havik, Bru, & Ertesvåg, 2015; McCuddy & Esbensen, 2017; Ttofi, Farrington, Lösel, Crago, & Theodorakis, 2016)。而欺凌受害者与低自尊、低自我价值感正相关, 更容易有焦虑、抑郁、自杀意念等心理问题(Kelly et al., 2015)。因此校园欺凌现象不仅普遍, 并且造成严重的危害, 鉴于此, 欺凌的干预和预防逐渐引起政府、教育部门和公众的重视。

自1983年, Olweus在挪威设计了第一个大规模的校园欺凌干预项目起, 之后的数个效果评估显示校园欺凌/受害现象下降了21%~50%左右(Olweus, 1994b, 2005)。随后, 越来越多研究者根据不同理论设计了校园欺凌干预项目, 并将之应用于中小学学校中。这些干预项目涉及个体层面、学校层面、家庭层面, 乃至社区和社会层面(Farrington, Gaffney, Lösel, & Ttofi, 2016)。在个体层面, 针对学生对欺凌的知识、态度进行教育; 在学校层面, 制定一定的校规, 或者组建委员会处理欺凌事件; 在家庭层面, 增加家长对欺凌的认识, 增强家长和学校的互动; 在社会层面, 制定相应的政策应对欺凌事件。

在干预项目之后, 大量的实证研究对各种反欺凌项目的干预效果进行了检验, 可是得出的结果并不一致, 很多综述和元分析都对其进行了梳理。Vreeman和Carroll (2007)归纳了1996年至2004年共26个学校的欺凌干预研究, 其中有9项研究结果显示干预没有显著降低欺凌或者受欺凌行为。Evans, Fraser和Cotter (2014)将研究更新到2013年, 发现测量欺凌行为的22个研究中, 只有50%显示干预显著有效, 测量受欺凌的27个研究中有67%显示受欺凌行为显著降低。Merrell, Gueldner, Ross和Isava (2008)的元分析计算了校园欺凌干预的效果量, 指出反欺凌项目效果量很低甚至无效(Merrell et al., 2008)。但也有一些元分析得出校园欺凌干预是有效的(JimÉnez-Barbero, Ruiz-HernÁndez, Llor-Zaragoza, PÉrez-García, & Llor-Esteban, 2016; Ttofi & Farrington, 2011)。不难发现, 这些元分析结果的不一致可能源于纳入排除标准和效果量计算的差异, 有以下几点需要进一步考虑。

第一, 纳入研究的实验设计有待考虑。在循证研究中, 一般认为随机对照实验(random control trial, RCT)具有较好的信效度。然而对于学校干预而言, 要考虑学校的意愿, 很难实现随机化的分配。即使随机化, 对参与实验的学校数量也有较高的要求。而实际上很多RCT研究并非大规模的干预研究, 可能并没有达到随机化的效果。较新的一篇元分析, 只关注RCT研究, 纳入了16篇研究, 虽然一定程度上保证了内部效度, 但却忽视了其他的实证证据(JimÉnez-Barbero et al., 2016)。而前后测实验组-控制组非RCT设计控制了因变量在基线水平上的差异, 一定程度上可以减少非随机带来的弊端, 这部分的证据也是重要的。尽管也有元分析纳入了非RCT的对照研究, 但是在计算效果量的时候却只采用了后测数据, 忽视了两组的基线水平上的异质性。考虑干预前测数据, 计算两组前后测变化量的标准化差异, 是更加合理的效果量计算方式(Hoyt & Del Re, 2017)。即便对于RCT研究而言, 前后测的重复测量也能够有效提高统计效力和检验力(Carlson & Schmidt, 1999)。

第二, 对干预项目的分类没有细化。根据干预对象, 反欺凌干预可以划分为三类, 一类是直接指向欺凌者, 旨在减少他们的攻击性或者欺凌行为(Şahin, 2012); 一类是直接指向欺凌受害者, 通过心理健康辅导、社交技能训练等提高他们的心理健康水平, 降低受欺凌频率(Fox & Boulton, 2003); 还有一类是更为广泛的欺凌干预, 针对所有学生, 通过教育、纪律、和家长社区的合作等增强学生对欺凌的认识, 提升求助的意识, 进而学生的态度和行为(Saarento et al., 2015)。以上三类干预中, 对于特定对象的干预而言, 干预和测量都是直接命中目标对象, 需要在干预前进行有效的识别。而对于普遍干预而言, 面向的是所有学生, 是“预防+干预”的结合。因此, 在计算效果整体效果量的, 三种类型的干预是有必要分开的。

第三, 未对证据质量强度作评估或者评价不全面。尽管元分析是综合证据结果的强有力工具, 但是并非所有的整体效果量都是有意义的, 对于证据质量的强度的评价是必要的。文献质量评价有多种工具, 例如Cochrane风险偏倚评估、Jadad量表等, 这些评估主要集中于研究设计的质量(Zeng et al., 2015)。GRADE工作组于2004年正式推出一套循证医学证据质量分级和推荐系统, 不仅可以评估RCT证据, 也可用于评估非RCT研究证据, 已经成为国际接受的标准之一。作为系统评价的一部分, GRADE不只关注研究的局限性, 还关注研究的不一致性、间接证据、结果的精确性、发表偏倚, 更加全面的对元分析结果的证据强度进行评估, 有利于指导临床实践(Alonso-Coello et al., 2016)。此外, GRADE系统不仅仅关注单一结果, 还关注其他重要的效果衡量指标。因此, 本研究纳入了欺凌行为、受欺凌行为、心理健康、态度等因变量作为衡量反欺凌干预项目效果的结局指标(outcome variables)。

综上, 本研究除了更新已有的反欺凌干预研究, 还将考虑纳入前后测实验组-控制组干预效果研究, 运用前后测数据进行干预效果量的计算。根据测量对象的不同, 我们分别计算针对欺凌者的干预, 针对欺凌受害者的干预, 及针对所有学生的干预效果, 并采用GRADE证据等级评价对所有的结果变量的证据质量强度进行分级评估。此外, 我们还将考察被试年级、干预周期、干预特征、实验设计对干预效果的影响。

2 研究方法

2.1 文献检索

在英文数据库PubMed、ISI Web of Science、EMBASE、Science Direct、ProQuest中, 使用关键词组合(Bully*/cyberbully*/anti-bully*) and (school) and (intervention/prevention/program/outcome/evaluation/effect/tackling)进行检索。同时在中国知网、万方和维普数据库中, 使用关键词组合(欺凌/反欺凌/网络欺凌/霸凌/欺负And学校/校园And干预/预防/效果)检索。检索的截止时间为2018年2月。

2.2 文献纳入排除

对于检索到的文献, 根据以下9条标准进行筛选和排除。具体的纳入排除流程见图1

图1

图1   文献纳入排除流程图


(1)纳入主题为反欺凌干预项目的效果研究, 针对其他暴力行为(例如枪支使用)的项目研究予以排除。

(2)根据欺凌的明确定义。欺凌形式包括口头的、身体的或者心理的攻击, 虽然是攻击的一种形式, 但是不等完全同于攻击或者校园暴力。

(3)干预项目应用于社区、学校、班级、学生或者家长中, 关注的是学生对欺凌行为的态度、欺凌和受到欺凌行为的变化。

(4)随机对照实验或者准实验设计, 包含控制组。

(5)结果变量包括学生对欺凌行为的态度, 以及欺凌他人或者受欺凌行为结果。结果报告方式包括自评报告、同伴评分、教师或者家长评分及外显的行为观察。

(6)对结果变量的测量时间点至少包括干预前测, 干预后测。

(7)研究中必须包含能够计算效果量大小的统计信息, 如样本量, 均值和标准差, F值, p值等。如果缺少该信息, 则先尝试联系作者, 尽可能获取关键变量的统计值。

(8)审查使用同一个研究项目中同一批数据发表的不同期刊论文, 相同的结果不再重复纳入。

(9)所选研究不仅仅包括同行评审期刊论文, 还包括学位论文、书的章节等。

2.3 文献编码

详细阅读和编码每一篇纳入元分析的文献, 包括以下信息:(1)出版特征:出版年份; (2)干预特征:干预周期; 干预措施(a.教育; b.系统干预, 包括制定纪律, 家长、学生教育等); (3)干预对象:年龄或者年级; 主要对象(a.欺凌受害者; b.欺凌者; c.所有学生) (4)结果测量:结果报告方式(a.自评; b.他评, 包括同伴评价, 老师评价, 实验者观察)。

对于结果变量, 我们根据干预项目针对的具体对象进行区分。有的反欺凌干预项目直接针对欺凌者或者欺凌受害者, 这种类型的干预直接命中目标, 通常有较好的干预效果。而另外一些针对广大学生的干预项目, 是普遍型干预, 通常有着较低的效果量, 但仍然被认为是有效的, 因为在普遍干预的学生中发生欺凌行为的比例是相对较低的。已有元分析没有具体划分不同类型的干预项目, 可能混淆反欺凌干预效果。因此, 我们分别计算了针对欺凌者的干预项目对其欺凌行为的改善结果; 针对欺凌受害者干预项目对其受欺凌及心理健康的效果; 针对所有学生的干预项目对欺凌行为和受欺凌行为的干预效果。

2.4 数据分析

首先计算每篇研究每个结果变量的标准化均数差(standard mean difference, SMD)。和以往大部分元分析不同的是, 为了减少实验组和控制组基线水平的差异, 纳入研究为包含控制组的前后测实验设计(pre-post with control, PPWC) (Hoyt & Del Re, 2017)。计算效果量时考虑了干预前测的数据, 先计算两组在结果变量上的前后测变化量的差异, 再参照前测数据的标准差进一步标准化(a), 其中Spre表示的是前测的合并方差, 通过实验组和对照组样本量和标准差求得(b)。

${{\text{d}}_{PPWC}}\text{=}\frac{\left( {{T}_{post}}-{{T}_{pre}} \right)-\left( {{C}_{post}}-{{C}_{pre}} \right)}{{{S}_{pre}}}$

${{S}_{pre}}={{\left( \frac{{{n}_{T}}-1S_{T1}^{2}-\left( {{n}_{C}}-1 \right)S_{C1}^{2}}{{{n}_{T}}+{{n}_{C}}-2} \right)}^{0.5}}$

当样本量小时, SMD估计存在偏差, Hedges建议使用校正后的标准化均数差作为效果量, 即Hedges’g值(Cooper, Hedges, & Valentine, 2009)。本研究采用CMA 3.0软件对研究的异质性进行检验, 计算Hedges’ g, 同时进行出版偏差和亚组分析。

异质性检验采用Q值和I2评估纳入研究结果的差异性(Huedo-Medina, SÁnchez-Meca, Marín-Martínez, & Botella, 2006)。Q统计量效应量的加权离均平方和, 服从自由度为k-1的卡方分布, Q值越大, p值越小, 说明元分析纳入研究的异质性越大。I2反应了异质性部分在效应量中总的变异中所占的比重。一般认为p < 0.05或者I2 > 50%研究间存在显著的异质性。在异质性较大的情况下, 建议计算效果量时使用随机效应模型(Hedges & Vevea, 1998)。为了进一步分析效果量的异质性来源, 对元分析结果还进行了敏感性分析和亚组分析。敏感性分析采取逐一剔除每个纳入的研究再进行效应量的合并, 可以找出效应量异常的研究。亚组分析从临床异质性和方法学异质性的角度来探讨异质性的来源。本研究分析的亚组变量包括干预周期、干预特征、被试年龄、实验设计。

发表偏倚指的是在同类研究中, 阳性结果的论文比阴性结果的论文更容易被接受和发表的现象, 对元分析结果的推广具有重要影响。本研究采用漏斗图(funnel plots)对发表偏倚进行评估。漏斗图是以效果量为横轴, 样本量为纵轴作散点图。理论上认为小样本研究估计的效果量差异较大, 分散在漏斗图的底部, 大样本的研究估计的效果量的变异程度逐渐降低, 因而趋于密集在漏斗图顶部。如果漏斗图不对称或者不完整则说明元分析结果可能存在较大的发表偏倚。由于漏斗图呈现结果较为粗糙, 主观性较强, 因而进一步采用剪补法(trim and fill)检验结果的稳定性(Duval & Tweedie, 2000)。此外, Egger’s检验也被运用于发表偏倚的检验(郑辉烈, 王忠旭, 王增珍, 2009)。

2.5 GRADE系统证据质量

GRADE系统是一套证据评价系统, 是当前证据质量和推荐强度分级的国际标准之一(Alonso-Coello et al., 2016)。由于相对于其他证据评价系统更具有代表性, 在系统评价、卫生技术评估及指南制作中被广泛运用。GRADE将证据质量分为四个等级:高, 中, 低, 极低。质量高低显示的是进一步研究是否会影响或者改变该疗效的评估结果。

在GRADE中, 基于RCT得出的证据被定为高质量, 非RCT研究属于低质量证据。但是二者证据质量还要结合具体的标准进行调整。其中, 可能降低证据质量的因素共有4个:(1)研究的局限性; (2)结果的不一致; (3)间接证据; (4)结果的精确度; (5)发表偏倚。可能提高证据质量的因素包括:(1)大效应值; (2)可能的混杂因素会降低疗效; (3)存在剂量-效应关系。

根据这套定量的证据分级系统, 采用GRADEpro 3.6软件对本研究中结果变量的RCT研究证据及非RCT研究证据结果进行评估, 呈现元分析结果的证据质量。

3 结果

3.1 纳入研究基本信息

共纳入43个反欺凌干预效果研究, 有效样本51个, 总样本量41363人(实验组N = 23582, 控制组N = 17781)。其中, 中文文献4篇, 英文文献39篇。针对欺凌者的干预样本4个, 随机对照样本2个; 针对欺凌受害者干预样本6个, 随机对照样本3个; 针对所有学生干预样本42个, 随机对照样本20个。学生年龄6~16岁之间, 包括小学生、初中生和高中生。详细信息见表1

表1   纳入文新年基本信息

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3.2 反欺凌项目干预效果

异质性检验结果显示, 反欺凌干预研究间差异性大。对于针对欺凌者的干预样本, 欺凌行为Q = 48.23 (p < 0.001), I2 = 93.79。对于针对欺凌受害者的干预样本, 受欺凌行为Q = 18.45 (p < 0.01), I2 = 73.04, 心理健康Q = 7.95 (p > 0.05), I2 = 49.66 (见表2)。针对所有学生的反欺凌干预样本中, 态度干预研究的Q = 131.79 (p < 0.001), I2 = 93.05; 行为干预研究Q = 330.23 (p< 0.001), I2 = 87.58; 其中欺凌行为改变的Q = 123.96 (p < 0.001), I2 = 70.15; 受欺凌状况改变的Q = 354.73 (p < 0.001), I2 = 89.57 (见表3)。敏感性分析结果显示, 不存在效果异常研究。

表2   针对欺凌者或欺凌受害者的干预效果

干预对象 结果 N G 95%CI Z Q I2
欺凌者 欺凌行为 4 0.57 0.08, 1.05 2.30* 48.23*** 93.79
欺凌受害者 受欺凌行为 6 0.42 0.10, 0.74 2.60** 18.55** 73.04
心理健康 5 0.40 0.14, 0.65 3.04** 7.95 49.66

注:*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001。下同

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表3   针对所有学生的反欺凌项目预防干预效果

结果 N G 95%CI Z Q I2
态度 11 0.40 0.19, 0.61 3.79*** 131.79*** 94.41
行为 42 0.21 0.15, 0.26 7.09*** 330.23*** 87.58
欺凌 38 0.17 0.12, 0.22 6.91*** 123.96*** 70.15
受欺凌 38 0.19 0.12, 0.26 5.27*** 354.73*** 89.57

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针对欺凌者干预项目对其欺凌行为的干预效果g = 0.57 (95%CI: 0.08, 1.05; Z = 2.30, p < 0.05);针对欺凌受害者干预项目对其受欺凌行为干预效果g = 0.42 (95%CI: 0.10, 0.74; Z = 2.30, p < 0.05), 对其心理健康干预效果g = 0.40 (95%CI: 0.14, 0.65; Z = 3.04, p < 0.01) (见表2)。对于所有学生的干预项目, 对态度的影响效果g = 0.40 (95%CI: 0.19, 0.61; Z = 3.79, p < 0.001), 对行为的改变效果g = 0.21 (95%CI: 0.15, 0.26, Z = 7.09, p < 0.001), 其中对于欺凌行为的效果g = 0.17 (95%CI: 0.12, 0.22; Z = 6.91, p < 0.001), 对于受欺凌行为的效果g = 0.19 (95%CI: 0.12, 0.26; Z = 5.27, p < 0.001) (见表4)。

表4   欺凌干预对欺凌行为改变效果量的亚组分析

亚组变量 N G 95%CI Z Q I2 p
年级 0.228
小学 17 0.14 0.09, 0.18 6.18*** 21.37 25.14
初高中 21 0.20 0.11, 0.29 4.27*** 100.77*** 80.15
干预周期 0.004
<=1学期 20 0.26 0.18, 0.35 5.96*** 64.08*** 70.35
>1学期 18 0.11 0.05, 0.17 3.69*** 45.60*** 62.72
干预特征 0.001
多水平 22 0.30 0.20, 0.40 5.97*** 26.89* 44.22
个体水平 16 0.10 0.07, 0.17 4.73*** 62.90*** 66.61
实验设计 0.016
随机 19 0.12 0.08, 0.17 5.08*** 47.99*** 62.49
非随机 19 0.28 0.16, 0.39 4.67** 60.86** 70.43

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3.3 发表偏倚

漏斗图2~图4分别检验了针对所有学生的反欺凌干预项目对态度、欺凌行为及受欺凌行为的干预效果研究是否存在发表偏倚。针对所有学生的干预研究显示, 学生态度改变漏斗图经过剪补法校正后, 新增研究为0, 结果较为稳健。以0.05为检验水准, Egger’s 检验(p = 0.100)提示本次纳入研究的发表偏倚较小, 和漏斗图及剪补法分析结果一致。但是, 不管是欺凌行为还是受欺凌行为的漏斗图都不对称, 欺凌行为效果经剪补法校正后, 新增研究14个, 校正后随机效应g = 0.08 (95%CI: 0.03, 0.14); 受欺凌行为效果经剪补法校正后, 新增研究13个, 校正后随机效应g = 0.05 (95%CI: -0.02, 0.12), 说明二者可能存在出版偏差。Egger’s 检验(p欺凌= 0.000, p受欺凌= 0.003)提示本次纳入计算欺凌行为和受欺凌行为改变效果的研究存在发表偏倚, 和漏斗图及剪补法分析结果一致。

图2

图2   针对所有学生的态度干预效果漏斗图; 剪补研究 = 0


图3

图3   针对所有学生的欺凌行为干预效果漏斗图; 剪补研究 = 14, 随机效应g = 0.08, 95%CI: 0.03, 0.14


图4

图4   针对所有学生的受欺凌行为干预效果漏斗图; 剪补研究 = 13, 随机效应g = 0.05, 95%CI: -0.02, 0.12


3.4 亚组分析

表4所示, 亚组分析结果显示, 对欺凌行为改变效果量, 干预周期, 干预特征是显著影响效果量的因素。干预周期小于1学期的效果量(g = 0.26, p < 0.001)高于干预周期大于1学期的效果量(g = 0, 11, p < 0.001), 具有统计学意义(p < 0.05)。多水平干预效果量(g = 0.30, p < 0.001)高于单独个体水平干预(g = 0.10, p < 0.001), 差异统计学上显著(p < 0.01)。非随机研究效果量(g = 0, 28, p < 0.001)高于随机对照研究效果量(g = 0, 12, p < 0.01), 差异显著(p < 0.05)。同样地, 如表5所示, 对于受欺凌行为, 干预周期和干预特征为显著地调节变量。干预周期小于1学期的效果量(g = 0.31, p < 0.001)高于干预周期大于1学期的效果量(g = 0.10, p < 0.001), 具有统计学意义(p < 0.01)。单独个体水平干预效果量(g = 0.10, p < 0.001)低于多水平干预(g = 0.39, p < 0.001), 差异统计学上显著(p = 0.001)。非随机研究效果量(g = 0, 28, p < 0.001)高于随机对照研究效果量(g = 0, 12, p < 0.01), 差异显著(p < 0.05)。初高中被试的干预效果高于小学生的干预效果, 但是差异不具有统计学上的显著意义。

表5   欺凌干预对受欺凌行为改变效果量的亚组分析

亚组变量 N G 95%CI Z Q I2 p
年级 0.457
小学 18 0.21 0.14, 0.28 5.93*** 63.73*** 73.33
初高中 20 0.16 0.04, 0.28 2.72* 234.53*** 91.90
干预周期 0.003
<=1学期 17 0.31 0.20, 0.42 5.59*** 98.35*** 83.73
>1学期 21 0.10 0.02, 0.18 2.38* 170.90*** 88.30
干预特征 0.001
多水平 24 0.39 0.24, 0.55 4.88*** 52.19*** 77.09
个体水平 14 0.10 0.03, 0.18 2.78* 232.15*** 90.12
实验设计 0.042
非随机 20 0.28 0.15, 0.41 4.29*** 130.97*** 85.49
随机 18 0.12 0.04, 0.21 2.77** 198.72** 91.45

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3.5 GRADE证据质量及推荐等级

根据GRADE系统对系统评价的证据质量进行评估, 结果显示, 对于欺凌者的干预效果的证据质量为极低。针对欺凌受害者的干预效果, 不管是RCT证据还是非RCT研究证据质量都为低。针对所有学生的干预项目, 欺凌行为或者受欺凌行为RCT证据为低质量, 非RCT研究为极低质量, 不过态度改变RCT研究的证据质量为中等(表6)。

表6   结果变量证据GRADE总结表

干预
对象
结局
指标
实验
设计
纳入
研究
结果的
不一致
间接
证据
结果
不精确
发表
偏倚
实验组 对照组 相对效应 证据
质量
结果
变量
重要性
欺凌者 欺凌行为 RCT1 2 严重2 严重3-4 24 24 0.96(-1.04, 2.95) ÅOOO 关键
受凌者 受欺凌行为 RCT1 2 严重2 209 216 0.79(-0.56, 2.14) ÅÅOO 关键
非RCT 3 104 63 0.33(0.07, 0.59) ÅÅOO 关键
心理健康 RCT1 2 严重2 209 216 0.57(-0.13, 1.27) ÅÅOO 关键
非RCT 2 93 49 0.49(0.15, 0.84) ÅÅOO 关键
所有
学生
欺凌行为 RCT1 14 严重2 严重3 1110 1101 0.12(0.08, 0.17) ÅÅOO 关键
非RCT 10 严重2 严重3 严重 1505 1776 0.28(0.20, 0.40) ÅOOO 关键
受欺凌行为 RCT1 13 严重2 严重3 12630 10731 0.12(0.04, 0.21) ÅÅOO 关键
非RCT 12 严重2 严重3 严重 7697 3791 0.28(0.15, 0.41) ÅOOO 关键
态度 RCT1 6 1479 1589 0.34(0.06, 0.61) ÅÅÅO 重要

注:1盲法和分配隐藏缺失; 2干预措施不同、被试特征差异导致结果不一致; 3单一的问卷自评测量; 4被试数量小

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4 讨论

本研究更新了已有的元分析, 对反欺凌项目的干预效果研究进行了系统分析, 结果发现欺凌干预是有效的, 不同的反欺凌项目效果有所差异。亚组分析显示干预周期越短, 干预水平越多, 反欺凌干预效果越好。不过进一步的证据质量评价显示现有的研究证据质量较差。

直接针对欺凌者或者欺凌者的干预项目具有中等效果量。对于欺凌者的干预包括共情训练、行为矫正, 目的在于减少欺凌者的攻击性和欺凌行为(Garandeau, Vartio, Poskiparta, & Salmivalli, 2016; Şahin, 2012)。对欺凌受害者的干预包括社交技能训练、成年人监管、提供社会支持等, 目的在于减少欺凌带来的负面心理问题, 并且提高个体的社交能力、自信心、求助能力等以降低受到欺凌的频率(Elledge et al., 2010; Fox & Boulton, 2003; van der Ploeg et al., 2016)。尽管研究显示这些干预项目是有效的, 但是由于研究数量有限, 元分析结果可靠性较低。可能的影响干预有效性的原因有以下几个方面:一方面, 及时、准确地识别欺凌存在一定的困难。由于许多欺凌事件是没有被报告的, 因此学校或者教师未能够及时、准确地识别欺凌者和欺凌受害者(Hymel & Swearer, 2015)。另一方面, 这些干预是事后干预, 管理者更加希望能够预防欺凌行为的发生(Zych, Ortega-Ruiz, & Del Rey, 2015)。还有一种观点认为, 欺凌是群体行为, 旁观者或者欺凌行为见证者的态度和行为也至关重要(Forsberg et al., 2018)。

因此, 针对所有学生的干预项目融合了预防和干预, 面对的对象不只是欺凌者或者受欺凌者, 还包括旁观者、家长、教师等, 干预内容包括知识教育、态度影响、纪律、家长参与等, 是更为常见的反欺凌项目(Evans et al., 2014)。元分析显示, (1)干预对学生态度有中等的效果量, 对于欺凌或者受欺凌行为的效果量小但是显著。(2)态度改变效果量高于行为改变效果量。相对于行为, 态度更容易发生转变(Maio & Haddock, 2014)。另外, 对于一部分学生而言, 欺凌或者受欺凌行为的基线水平本身就较低, 因此干预后的变化较小。JimÉnez-Barbero等人(2016)的结果和本研究相对一致, 但是效果量更低, 可能的原因在于本研究计算效果量的时候考虑了基线数据, 根据Carlson和Schmidt (1999)的检验, 只用后测数据计算的效果量可能会低估真正的效果。(3)被试的欺凌行为和受欺凌行为改变效果量没有差别。Merrell等(2008)发现不同测量工具下, 报告的欺凌结果和受欺凌结果并不相同。尽管本研究同时纳入了自评、教师评价、家长评价、观察数据, 但是大部分研究采用的是自评测量, 因而没有对测量方式或者工具进一步细分, 这可能弱化了欺凌改变效果和受欺凌改变效果之间的差异。

对所有学生的干预研究异质性大, 进一步的亚组分析显示, 干预周期和干预特征是欺凌/受欺凌行为改变量的显著调节变量。和一个已有的元分析一样, 干预周期越短, 干预效果越好, 这似乎让人有些匪夷所思(JimÉnez-Barbero et al., 2016)。有一些研究指出, 反欺凌干预也存在量效反应(dose-response), 表现为越密集, 强度越高的干预项目, 效果越好(Ttofi & Farrington, 2011)。可能对于那些短周期的研究, 干预强度更高, 更密集。此外, 对于那些干预周期很长的研究, 可能在干预初期, 起到的教育或者威慑效果更好, 但是, 随着学生的适应, 对欺凌的关注慢慢降低, 导致欺凌事件重新发生。

系统多水平的干预项目的效果量高于单水平的教育干预。从社会生态视角来看, 欺凌不仅仅是“欺凌者”和“受害者”之间的事, 除了个体的人格特质、行为, 家庭、同伴、学校等系统都与欺凌行为的发生密切相关(Hong, Lee, Lee, Lee, & Garbarino, 2014)。多数的教育干预针对的是个体的知识、态度和行为, 只在个体水平上进行干预。越来越多的干预项目不仅仅从个体水平出发, 还延伸到学校、家庭、社区甚至国家政策中。例如芬兰的Kiva反欺凌项目不仅仅向学生提供反欺凌课程, 还向教师提供反欺凌设备材料, 改变旁观者的角色, 给家长提供反欺凌指导, 设置“反欺凌街道”论坛, 积极应对网络欺凌等等, 从不同的水平进行干预(Yang & Salmivalli, 2015)。有的干预项目还借助公共媒体传播反欺凌信息(Albayrak et al., 2016)。不过, 多水平的干预相对地需要投入更多的人力、物力和财力, 但是从效果上来说, 确实有助于欺凌的预防和干预。

随机实验设计和非随机实验设计下的反欺凌项目干预效果也有显著差异。已有研究指出非随机实验设计或者队列设计的效果量会高于严谨的实验设计, 但是无法提供解释(Ttofi & Farrington, 2011)。在控制了基线水平的差异后, 本研究发现非随机对照干预的效果量更高。可能的原因是非随机设计的研究两组被试可能是不同质的, 在没有使用随机化平衡异质性的情况下, 容易获得“好效果” (Hoyt & Del Re, 2017)。

小学生还是中学生从干预项目中获益更多?本研究显示二者没有显著差异, 与本研究结果不同的是, Lee, Kim和Kim (2015)对13个校园欺凌项目的元分析中发现对初中生的干预效果优于小学生, 因为初中生的认知发展更为成熟, 更容易接受干预。而另一些研究又指出对小学生的干预效果更好, 因为他们可塑性更强, 也更会听老师的话(JimÉnez-Barbero et al., 2016)。包括本研究在内的这些元分析的不一致可能在于过于笼统地将学生划分为小学生或者初中生。Yeager, Fong, Lee和Espelage (2015)认为这种研究间的亚组分析(between-study)是有偏差的, 他们对19个反欺凌项目研究采用了多水平的元分析, 其中年龄作为第一个水平, 结果发现干预效果实际上随着年龄的上升而下降。

值得引起重视的是, 根据GRADE证据分级系统对各个结果变量的质量评价结果显示, 不管是来自随机对照实验还是非随机的研究证据质量多数低甚至极低, 只有态度改变的RCT证据质量为中等。尽管心理学的干预和医学研究还是存在一定的差异, 特别是对于大规模学校干预, 随机对照已经是相对困难, 更不用说双盲和隐藏分配等设计, 但是研究者应该致力于尽可能减少干扰因素, 详细说明实验过程, 并尽可能标准化实验设计。总之, 在反欺凌干预领域, 还需要更多严谨的研究对其效果进行检验。

5 局限和展望

本研究存在几个局限:(1)可能存在“灰色”文献检索遗漏; (2)由于测量方式主要以自评为主, 没有对结果变量进行细分, 而测量工具可能是影响效果量的因素之一; (3)干预研究的异质性很大, 尽管亚组分析找到了两个影响效果量的变量, 但是可能存在更多的影响因素有待进一步进行检验。

从研究结果来看, 未来的研究需要进一步考察具体哪些要素影响干预项目的效果, 同时尽可能提升实验设计的质量, 将干预项目应用到更多的地区、人群中, 并根据实际情况进行调整。并且, 在设计干预项目时, 尽可能从多个水平出发, 更加全面和系统地对预防和干预欺凌。此外, 我国校园欺凌也经常发生(张文新, 2002), 越来越多的研究者关注到校园欺凌的不良后果和风险因素(雷雳, 王燕, 郭伯良, 张雷, 2004), 但是干预研究还相对较少, 未来可进一步结合已有的研究结果, 设计符合我国国情的反欺凌项目, 并进行效果检验。

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
作者已声明无竞争性利益关系。

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Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 160( 6), 638-644.

URL     PMID:16754827     

Objective: To evaluate the effects of an antibullying school intervention in elementary schools. Design: Two-year follow-up randomized intervention group-control group. Setting: Forty-seven elementary schools in the Netherlands. Participants: Three thousand eight hundred sixteen children aged 9 to 12 years. Intervention: During the first study year, an antibullying school program was implemented in the schools in the intervention group. Main Outcome Measures: A questionnaire measuring bullying behavior, depression, psychosomatic complaints, delinquent behavior, and satisfaction with school life and peer relationships was filled out by the students at 3 times to obtain the following data: a baseline measurement, a first-effect measurement at the end of the first year, and a second-effect measurement at the end of the second year. Results: The number of bullied children decreased by 25% in the intervention group compared with the control group (relative risk, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.98). The intervention group also showed a decline in the scale scores of victimization (-1.06 vs 0.28; P<.01) and active bullying behaviors (-0.47 vs 0.12, P<.05). Self-reported peer relationships also improved in the intervention schools (0.48 vs 0.11; P<.05), and there was a trend for a decrease in reported depression in the intervention schools (-0.33 vs -0.10; P<.10). At follow-up, there were no differences between the intervention and control groups for the outcome measures. Schools had also lowered their antibullying activities during the second study year. Conclusions: An antibullying school policy can reduce bullying behavior. To keep bullying at a consistently low level, schools must continue antibullying measures every year. Continued counseling may help schools in their efforts to establish a lasting antibullying policy. 2006 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Forsberg C., Wood L., Smith J., Varjas K., Meyers J., Jungert T., & Thornberg R . ( 2018).

Students’ views of factors affecting their bystander behaviors in response to school bullying: A cross-collaborative conceptual qualitative analysis

Research Papers in Education, 33( 1), 127-142.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

(2016). Students’ views of factors affecting their bystander behaviors in response to school bullying: a cross-collaborative conceptual qualitative analysis. Research Papers in Education. Ahead of Print. doi: 10.1080/02671522.2016.1271001

*Fox, C., &Boulton, M . ( 2003).

Evaluating the effectiveness of a social skills training (SST) programme for victims of bullying

Educational Research, 45( 3), 231-247.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Several programmes have been developed to help support victims of bullying, but few have been formally evaluated. On the basis of previous research and from a review of existing programmes, a Social Skills Training (SST) Programme was developed for victims of bullying, and the effectiveness of this intervention was evaluated. Twenty-eight children (aged nine to 11 years) took part in the SST Programme – 15 in the experimental group and 13 in the waiting-list control group. A Peer Nomination Inventory was used to assess social skills problems, peer victimization and friendship/peer acceptance. In addition, a number of psycho02social adjustment variables (i.e. depression, anxiety, self-esteem) were assessed, using self-report. The measures were completed at three time points over the course of an academic year. It was found that there was an increase in ‘global self-worth’ (i.e. self-esteem) for the experimental group (compared to the control group). However, there were no other significant improvements, e.g. in terms of social skills problems or victim status. These findings have important implications for interventions to tackle the negative effects associated with bullying in schools.

*Fraser, C.M. ( 2004).

Bully proofing your school: The effectiveness of a school-wide prevention program with middle school students (Unpublished doctoral dissertation)

Capella University.

*Frey K. S., Hirschstein M. K., Snell J. L., Edstrom L. V. S., MacKenzie E. P., & Broderick C. J . ( 2005).

Reducing playground bullying and supporting beliefs: An experimental trial of the steps to respect program

Developmental Psychology, 41( 3), 479-490.

URL     PMID:15910156     

Abstract Six schools were randomly assigned to a multilevel bullying intervention or a control condition. Children in Grades 3-6 (N=1,023) completed pre- and posttest surveys of behaviors and beliefs and were rated by teachers. Observers coded playground behavior of a random subsample (n=544). Hierarchical analyses of changes in playground behavior revealed declines in bullying and argumentative behavior among intervention-group children relative to control-group children, increases in agreeable interactions, and a trend toward reduced destructive bystander behavior. Those in the intervention group reported enhanced bystander responsibility, greater perceived adult responsiveness, and less acceptance of bullying/aggression than those in the control group. Self-reported aggression did not differ between the groups. Implications for future research on the development and prevention of bullying are discussed.

Garandeau C. F., Vartio A., Poskiparta E., & Salmivalli C . ( 2016).

School bullies’ intention to change behavior following teacher interventions: Effects of empathy arousal, condemning of bullying, and blaming of the perpetrator

Prevention Science, 17( 8), 1034-1043.

URL     PMID:5065969      [本文引用: 1]

This study examines how bullies’ perceptions of how they were treated by a teacher (or other school personnel) during discussions aimed at putting an end to bullying influenced their intention to change their behavior. After each discussion, which took place as part of the implementation of an anti-bullying program, bullies anonymously reported the extent to which they felt that the teacher aroused their empathy for the victim, condemned their behavior, or blamed them. Half of the schools implementing the program were instructed to handle these discussions in a confrontational way—telling the bully that his behavior is not tolerated—while the other half were instructed to use a non-confronting approach. Schools were randomly assigned to one of the two approaches. A total of 341 cases (188 in primary and 153 in secondary schools) handled in 28 Finnish schools were analyzed. Regression analyses showed that attempts at making bullies feel empathy for the victim and condemning their behavior both increased bullies’ intention to stop. Blaming the bully had no significant effect. Bullies’ intention to change was the lowest when both empathy-arousal and condemning behavior were low. The effects of empathy arousal were stronger when condemning the behavior was low (and vice versa), suggesting that teachers tackling bullying should make sure to use at least one of these strategies. When choosing not to raise the child’s empathy, clear reprobation of the behavior is key.

*Gradinger P., Yanagida T., Strohmeier D., & Spiel C . ( 2015).

Prevention of cyberbullying and cyber victimization: Evaluation of the ViSC social competence program

Journal of School Violence, 14( 1), 87-110.

URL    

It is well-documented that cyberbullying and victimization co-occur with traditional forms indicating that they share similar mechanisms. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the general antibullying program ViSC might also be effective in tackling these new forms of bullying. A longitudinal randomized control group design has been applied to examine the program effectiveness in 18 schools. In total, 2,042 students in Grades 5 to 7 (47.3% girls) aged 11.7 (SD = 0.9) attending 105 classes participated in the study. Utilizing a multiple group bivariate latent change score model controlling for traditional aggression, traditional victimization, and age, results demonstrate program effectiveness for cyberbullying (latent d = 0.39) and cyber victimization (latent d = 0.29) indicating that these behaviors reflect a systemic (school) problem.

Havik T., Bru E., & Ertesvåg S. K . ( 2015).

School factors associated with school refusal-and truancy-related reasons for school non-attendance

Social Psychology of Education, 18( 2), 221-240.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The primary aim of this study was to investigate how students’ perceptions of relationships with peers at school and teachers’ classroom management are associated with school refusal-related reasons and truancy-related reasons for school non-attendance. The study included controls for emotional stability and relevant parental variables. A student self-report questionnaire was implemented, and students were recruited from 45 schools in seven municipalities in Norway. The survey was conducted at the end of the autumn term in 2012, with a total of 5,465 students from the 6th–10th grades participating. The sample of students was examined to obtain a subsample consisting of those students who reported that they had been absent from school at some time during the past 302months ( \(\hbox {N}=3{,}629\) ). Multivariate associations were studied in this subsample through the use of structural equation modeling. The findings of this study suggest that poor relationships with peers at school could be an important risk factor for school refusal and could be a moderate risk factor for truancy. Moreover, according to these results, teachers’ classroom management could play a role in school refusal indirectly by preventing bullying and social exclusion by peers. Finally, a direct association of teachers’ classroom management with school refusal-related and truancy-related reasons was found among secondary school students, suggesting that perceived poor support from teachers could increase the risk of school refusal and truancy among these students. The present study underscores the importance of efforts to prevent bullying as a measure to reduce school refusal. Finally, the findings imply that the role of school factors must always be taken into account in connection with unexcused school non-attendance.

Hedges, L.V., &Vevea, J.L . ( 1998).

Fixed-and random-effects models in meta-analysis

Psychological Methods, 3( 4), 486-504.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

ABSTRACT There are 2 families of statistical procedures in meta-analysis: fixed- and random-effects procedures. They were developed for somewhat different inference goals: making inferences about the effect parameters in the studies that have been observed versus making inferences about the distribution of effect parameters in a population of studies from a random sample of studies. The authors evaluate the performance of confidence intervals and hypothesis tests when each type of statistical procedure is used for each type of inference and confirm that each procedure is best for making the kind of inference for which it was designed. Conditionally random-effects procedures (a hybrid type) are shown to have properties in between those of fixed- and random-effects procedures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

*Hoglund W. L., Hosan N. E., & Leadbeater B. J . ( 2012).

Using your WITS: A 6-year follow-up of a peer victimization prevention program

School Psychology Review, 41( 2), 193-214.

URL    

The current study examined the effects of a community-based, whole-school peer victimization prevention program (WITS Primary Program), implemented from Grades 1 to 3, on trajectories of child-reported peer victimization and help-seeking and teacher-reported social-emotional adjustment from Grades 1 to 6. This quasi-experimental design followed a cohort of 432 children in 11 program and 6 comparison public elementary schools over 6 years. There were significant and meaningful effects of the WITS Primary Program on linear changes in physical victimization (Cohen's d = .17), relational victimization (Cohen's d = .20), and social competence (Cohen's d = .20); significant and small effects on physical aggression (Cohen's d = .09); and nonsignificant effects for help seeking and internalizing (Cohen's d values = .04 and .10, respectively) during elementary school. Following the transition into middle school, the program effects faded, with the exception of some subgroups in high-risk contexts. Our findings suggest that peer victimization prevention programming implemented in early elementary school may need to be sustained to maintain the promising early intervention gains through the transition into middle school.

Hong J. S., Lee C-H., Lee J., Lee N. Y., & Garbarino J . ( 2014).

A review of bullying prevention and intervention in south korean schools: An application of the social-ecological framework

Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 45( 4), 433-442.

URL     PMID:24276393      [本文引用: 1]

School bullying is a serious social problem that results in potentially severe and long lasting consequences for youth, parents, teachers, and school officials. Commensurate with the serious nature and outcomes of bullying, there has been a number of bullying prevention and intervention programs and measures in schools. The current review provides a synthesis and evaluation of the existing research on bullying prevention and intervention strategies in South Korean schools, set within Bronfenbrenner’s social–ecological contexts, including the micro- (i.e., family, peer, school), meso- (i.e., family–school), and macro- (i.e., religion, policies) systems. We also discuss the strengths and limitations of the research reviewed and provide directions for future research focusing on major empirical gaps in the literature on bullying prevention and intervention strategies in South Korea.

Hoyt, W.T., & Del Re, A. C . ( 2017).

Effect size calculation in meta-analyses of psychotherapy outcome research

Psychotherapy Research, 28( 3), 1-10.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Published studies examining antecedents or effects (or both) of perceived therapist credibility were subjected to a meta-analytic review to test S. R. Strong's (1968) 2-phase model of interpersonal influence in counseling. Results conformed to the predictions of the model, with therapist credibility cues moderately related to credibility, and credibility strongly related to therapist... [Show full abstract]

Huedo-Medina T. B., SÁnchez-Meca J., Marín-Martínez F., & Botella J . ( 2006).

Assessing heterogeneity in meta-analysis: Q statistic or I2 index?

Psychological Methods, 11( 2), 193-206.

URL     PMID:16784338      [本文引用: 1]

In meta-analysis, the usual way of assessing whether a set of single studies is homogeneous is by means of the Q test. However, the Q test only informs meta-analysts about the presence versus the absence of heterogeneity, but it does not report on the extent of such heterogeneity. Recently, the I(2) index has been proposed to quantify the degree of heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. In this article, the performances of the Q test and the confidence interval around the I(2) index are compared by means of a Monte Carlo simulation. The results show the utility of the I(2) index as a complement to the Q test, although it has the same problems of power with a small number of studies.

*Hunt, C. ( 2007).

The effect of an education program on attitudes and beliefs about bullying and bullying behaviour in junior secondary school students

Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 12( 1), 21-26.

URL    

This study assessed an intervention targeting bullying. Six schools were recruited, with 444 children aged between 12 and 15 years. Schools were randomly allocated to an intervention comprising education to students, parents and teachers about bullying and strategies believed to prevent bullying, or wait-list condition. Students reported bullying experiences on the Peer Relations Questionnaire and attitudes using the Attitude to Victim and Bully Scales, prior to the intervention and one year later. There was little difference between conditions on most measures. Short-term educational approaches appear to have little impact on bullying behaviour, and schools may need to develop alternative approaches.

Hymel, S., &Swearer, S.M . ( 2015).

Four decades of research on school bullying: An introduction

American Psychologist, 70( 4), 293-299.

URL     PMID:25961310      [本文引用: 1]

This article provides an introductory overview of findings from the past 40 years of research on bullying among school-aged children and youth. Research on definitional and assessment issues in studying bullying and victimization is reviewed, and data on prevalence rates, stability, and forms of bullying behavior are summarized, setting the stage for the 5 articles that comprise this American Psychologist special issue on bullying and victimization. These articles address bullying, victimization, psychological sequela and consequences, ethical, legal, and theoretical issues facing educators, researchers, and practitioners, and effective prevention and intervention efforts. The goal of this special issue is to provide psychologists with a comprehensive review that documents our current understanding of the complexity of bullying among school-aged youth and directions for future research and intervention efforts.

JimÉnez-Barbero J. A., Ruiz-HernÁndez J. A., Llor-Zaragoza L., PÉrez-García M., & Llor-Esteban B . ( 2016).

Effectiveness of anti-bullying school programs: A meta-analysis

Children and Youth Services Review, 61, 165-175.

URL     [本文引用: 4]

The large number of studies published in recent years aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of school-based anti-bullying programs recommends research to focus on synthesizing the evidence found in this regard. This study presents a meta-analysis of random clinical trials that assess the efficacy of 14 anti-bullying school programs. Sample size was of 30,934 adolescents aged between 10 and 16years, of whom 16,243 made up the Intervention Groups and 14,691 made up the Control Groups. Meta-analysis was conducted for each outcome measure, as well as heterogeneity analysis. Analysis of subgroups was performed when necessary, as well as analysis of publication bias. Results show moderate effect sizes for the outcome measuresBullying FrequencyandVictimization Frequency,AttitudesandSchool Climate.Greater impact was observed in interventions of less than one school year duration, as well as those targeting children younger than 10years. Subgroup analysis confirmed greater heterogeneity in studies evaluating complex interventions. In general, our results indicate that bullying and violence prevention programs in school settings are obtaining beneficial, albeit discrete, results in the outcome measures evaluated.

*Joronen K., Konu A., Rankin H. S., & ÅstedtKurki P . ( 2011).

An evaluation of a drama program to enhance social relationships and anti-bullying at elementary school: A controlled study

Health Promotion International, 27( 1), 5-14.

URL     PMID:21385761     

Abstract Drama, theater and role-playing methods are commonly used in health promotion programs, but evidence of their effectiveness is limited. This paper describes the development, implementation and evaluation of a school-based drama program to enhance social relationships and decrease bullying at school in children in grades 4-5 (mean age of 10.4 years). Students (n = 190) were recruited from two primary schools with similar demographics and socio-economics in the Southern Finland and purposively allocated either to an intervention group or a control group. The drama program included classroom drama sessions, follow-up activities at home and three parents' evenings concerning issues of social well being during the school year September 2007-May 2008. Data on social relationships in the class room and experiences of bullying were obtained before and after the program using self-completed questionnaire from the same students (n = 134). The response rate was 71%. No differences in socio-demographics existed between intervention group and control group at pretest. The positive effect on social relationships resulting from the intervention approached statistical significance (p = 0.065). Moreover, the positive effect was found to be statistically significant in the high-intensity intervention classes (p = 0.011). Bullying victimization decreased 20.7 percentage units from pretest (58.8%) to posttest (38.1%) in the intervention group (p < 0.05). The study indicates that using applied drama and theater methods in the classroom may improve children's social relationships at school.

*Kärnä A., Voeten M., Little T. D., Alanen E., Poskiparta E., & Salmivalli C . ( 2013).

Effectiveness of the KiVa antibullying program: Grades 1-3 and 7-9

Journal of Educational Psychology, 10 5(2), 535-551.

URL    

This study investigated the effectiveness of the KiVa Antibullying Program in two samples of students, one from Grades 1-3 (7-9 years old, N = 6,927) and the other from Grades 7-9 (13-15 years old, N = 16, 503). The Grades 1-3 students were located in 74 schools and Grades 7-9 students in 73 schools that were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that after 9 months of implementation, the intervention had beneficial effects in Grades 1-3 on self-reported victimization and bullying (odds ratios approximate to 1.5), with some differential effects by gender. In Grades 7-9, statistically significant positive results were obtained on 5 of 7 criterion variables, but results often depended on gender and sometimes age. The effects were largest for boys' peer reports: bullying, assisting the bully, and reinforcing the bully (Cohen's ds 0.11-0.19). Overall, the findings from the present study and from a previous study for Grades 4-6 (Karna, Voeten, Little, Poskiparta, Kaljonen, et al., 2011) indicate that the KiVa program is effective in reducing bullying and victimization in Grades 1-6, but the results are more mixed in Grades 7-9.

* Kärnä A., Voeten M., Little T. D., Poskiparta E., Kaljonen A., & Salmivalli C . ( 2011).

A large-scale evaluation of the KiVa antibullying program: Grades 4-6

Child Development, 82( 1), 311-330.

URL     PMID:21291444     

This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the KiVa antibullying program using a large sample of 8,237 youth from Grades 4–6 (10–12 years). Altogether, 78 schools were randomly assigned to intervention (39 schools, 4,207 students) and control conditions (39 schools, 4,030 students). Multilevel regression analyses revealed that after 9 months of implementation, the intervention had consistent beneficial effects on 7 of the 11 dependent variables, including self- and peer-reported victimization and self-reported bullying. The results indicate that the KiVa program is effective in reducing school bullying and victimization in Grades 4–6. Despite some evidence against school-based interventions, the results suggest that well-conceived school-based programs can reduce victimization.

Kelly E. V., Newton N. C., Stapinski L. A., Slade T., Barrett E. L., Conrod P. J., & Teesson M . ( 2015).

Suicidality, internalizing problems and externalizing problems among adolescent bullies, victims and bully-victims

Preventive Medicine, 73, 100-105.

URL     PMID:25657168      [本文引用: 1]

61This study examined adolescent victims, bullies, and bully-victims in Australia.61Victims reported more internalizing problems than uninvolved students and bullies.61Bullies reported more externalizing problems than uninvolved students and victims.61Bully-victims had the highest suicidality, internalizing and externalizing problems.

Kowalski R. M., Giumetti G. W., Schroeder A. N., & Lattanner M. R . ( 2014).

Bullying in the digital age: A critical review and meta-analysis of cyberbullying research among youth

Psychological Bulletin, 140( 4), 1073-1137.

URL     PMID:24512111      [本文引用: 1]

Although the Internet has transformed the way our world operates, it has also served as a venue for cyberbullying, a serious form of misbehavior among youth. With many of today's youth experiencing acts of cyberbullying, a growing body of literature has begun to document the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of this behavior, but the literature is highly fragmented and lacks theoretical focus. Therefore, our purpose in the present article is to provide a critical review of the existing cyberbullying research. The general aggression model is proposed as a useful theoretical framework from which to understand this phenomenon. Additionally, results from a meta-analytic review are presented to highlight the size of the relationships between cyberbullying and traditional bullying, as well as relationships between cyberbullying and other meaningful behavioral and psychological variables. Mixed effects meta-analysis results indicate that among the strongest associations with cyberbullying perpetration were normative beliefs about aggression and moral disengagement, and the strongest associations with cyberbullying victimization were stress and suicidal ideation. Several methodological and sample characteristics served as moderators of these relationships. Limitations of the meta-analysis include issues dealing with causality or directionality of these associations as well as generalizability for those meta-analytic estimates that are based on smaller sets of studies (k < 5). Finally, the present results uncover important areas for future research. We provide a relevant agenda, including the need for understanding the incremental impact of cyberbullying (over and above traditional bullying) on key behavioral and psychological outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

*Krueger, L.M. ( 2010).

The implementation of an anti-bullying program to reduce bullying behaviors on elementary school buses

(Unpublished doctoral dissertation). D' Youville College.

URL    

School bullying is a pervasive problem resulting in significant negative consequences to both the bullies and their victims. Bullying behaviors in schools are most prevalent in less supervised and unstructured areas, including the playground, cafeteria, locker rooms, and the school bus. This study investigated the effectiveness of an anti-bullying program developed using components of the resource kit in reducing bullying behaviors on elementary school buses. Video cameras, mounted on the interior of the school bus, were utilized to monitor student behavior and thereby determine the effectiveness of the intervention in reducing bullying behaviors. It was hypothesized that the control group would exhibit a significant reduction in bullying behaviors. While the results indicated a significant reduction in bullying behaviors for both the control and experiment groups, the reduction was greater for students who participated in the anti-bullying program.

Lee S., Kim C-J., & Kim D. H . ( 2015).

A meta-analysis of the effect of school-based anti-bullying programs

Journal of Child Health Care, 19( 2), 136-153.

[本文引用: 1]

Maio, G., &Haddock, G . ( 2014).

The psychology of attitudes and attitude change

Sage.

[本文引用: 1]

McCuddy, T., &Esbensen, F-A . ( 2017).

After the bell and into the night: The link between delinquency and traditional,cyber-, and dual-bullying victimization

Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 54( 3), 409-441.

[本文引用: 1]

*McLaughlin, L.P. ( 2009).

The effect of cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy plus media on the reduction of bullying and victimization and the increase of empathy and bystander response in a bully prevention program for urban sixth-grade students (Unpublished doctoral dissertation).The University of

Toledo.

*Menesini E., Codecasa E., Benelli B., & Cowie H . ( 2003).

Enhancing children's responsibility to take action against bullying: Evaluation of a befriending intervention in Italian middle schools

Aggressive Behavior, 29( 1), 1-14.

URL    

This paper reports on the evaluation of a peer support model implemented in two Italian secondary middle schools as an anti-bullying intervention. Specifically, the aims of the intervention were (1) to reduce bullying episodes through developing in bullies an awareness of their own and others' behaviour, (2) to enhance children's capacity to offer support to the victims of bullying, (3) to enhance responsibility and involvement on the part of bystanders, (4) to improve the quality of interpersonal relationships in the class group, and (5) to analyse possible age and gender differences related to the effect of intervention. Two middle schools from central Italy took part in the study (age range of pupils, 11-14 years). In the two schools, nine classes (94 boys and 84 girls) were part of the experimental group, whereas the remaining five classes formed the control group (63 boys and 52 girls). The intervention was implemented for one school year, from October 1998 to May 1999. Before and after the intervention, two measures were administered in the experimental and control classes: (1) a questionnaire on the participants' roles in bully/victim relationships, originally developed by Sahnivalli et al. [1996: Aggressive Behavior 22:1-15] and revised for younger children by Sutton and Smith [1999: Aggressive Behavior 25:97-111], and (2) a questionnaire on attitudes toward bullying-an Italian questionnaire comprising 11 attitude items previously developed [Menesini E, et al. 1997: EARLI Conference] on the basis of Rigby and Slee's 11991: Journal of Social Psychology 131:615-627] pro-victim scale. Given the within-subjects design of the study, a MANOVA was run using time as the within-subjects factor and sex and age as between-subject factors. The results of this short-term study highlight the fact that a befriending intervention had a positive effect on the experimental classes, preventing the increase of negative behaviours and attitudes reported in the group that did not receive the intervention. The findings that related to the pro-bullying roles and to the role of outsiders are particularly relevant since these roles remained stable or decreased in the experimental group, whereas they clearly increased in the control group. The opposite trend was registered for children's pro-victim attitude, which shows a decrease in the control sample and good stability in the experimental group. On the whole, the intervention seemed to prevent the escalation of negative behaviours and attitudes that often develop spontaneously in young people of this age.

Merrell K. W., Gueldner B. A., Ross S. W., & Isava D. M . ( 2008).

How effective are school bullying intervention programs? A meta-analysis of intervention research

School Psychology Quarterly, 23( 1), 26-42.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Berkeley Electronic Press Selected Works

*Meyer, N., &Lesch, E . ( 2000).

An analysis of the limitations of a behavioural programme for bullying boys from a subeconomic environment

Southern African Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 12( 1), 59-69.

URL    

This article is a retrospective analysis of the research difficulties faced during an intervention for 54 bullying boys from a sub-economic background. The research comprised the design, implementation and evaluation of a behavioural intervention at three targeted primary schools. An experimental groups design was used, with three assessment times, pre-, post- and one-month follow-up testing. The t-test for matched participants, with alpha set at 0.05, produced insignificant change for all three experimental conditions, at all three targeted schools, over time. Three issues are addressed, namely problems experienced with: 1) the conceptualisation of bullying behaviour, 2) the effects of the socio-economic environment and 3) the time-focused approach of the project. The article closes with future recommendations for intervention.

Modecki K. L., Minchin J., Harbaugh A. G., Guerra N. G., & Runions K. C . ( 2014).

Bullying prevalence across contexts: A meta-analysis measuring cyber and traditional bullying

Journal of Adolescent Health, 55( 5), 602-611.

URL     PMID:25168105      [本文引用: 1]

Bullying involvement in any form can have lasting physical and emotional consequences for adolescents. For programs and policies to best safeguard youth, it is important to understand prevalence of bullying across cyber and traditional contexts. We conducted a thorough review of the literature and identified 80 studies that reported corresponding prevalence rates for cyber and traditional bullying and/or aggression in adolescents. Weighted mean effect sizes were calculated, and measurement features were entered as moderators to explain variation in prevalence rates and in traditional yber correlations within the sample of studies. Prevalence rates for cyber bullying were lower than for traditional bullying, and cyber and traditional bullying were highly correlated. A number of measurement features moderated variability in bullying prevalence; whereas a focus on traditional relational aggression increased correlations between cyber and traditional aggressions. In our meta-analytic review, traditional bullying was twice as common as cyber bullying. Cyber and traditional bullying were also highly correlated, suggesting that polyaggression involvement should be a primary target for interventions and policy. Results of moderation analyses highlight the need for greater consensus in measurement approaches for both cyber and traditional bullying.

*Naidoo S., Satorius B. K., de Vries H., & Taylor M . ( 2016).

Verbal bullying changes among students following an educational intervention using the integrated model for behavior change

Journal of School Health, 86( 11), 813-822.

URL     PMID:27714870     

ABSTRACT BACKGROUNDBullying behavior in schools can lead to psychosocial problems. School-based interventions are important in raising student awareness, developing their skills and in planning to reduce bullying behavior. METHODSA randomized controlled trial, using a school-based educational intervention to reduce verbal bullying, was conducted among grade 10 students in 16 urban and rural schools in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in 2013. Baseline and postintervention questionnaires, developed using the Integrated Model for Behavior Change theoretical model, were used to assess changes in verbal bullying. RESULTSPostintervention there were reduced verbal bullying experiences. Improved social norms and awareness of verbal bullying were associated with reduced verbal bullying experiences and behavior. Although less likely to bully others verbally, girls were more likely to experience verbal bullying. Students with no living father were more likely to bully others verbally. CONCLUSIONSThe study findings indicate that a school-based intervention can positively impact on verbal bullying experiences and behavior.

*Nocentini, A., &Menesini, E . ( 2016).

KiVa Anti-Bullying program in Italy: Evidence of effectiveness in a randomized control trial

Prevention Science, 17( 8), 1012-1023.

URL     PMID:27488457     

Abstract The present study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the KiVa anti-bullying program in Italy through a randomized control trial of students in grades 4 and 6. The sample involved 2042 students (5102% female; grade 4, mean age65=658.85; ds65=650.43; grade 6, mean age65=6510.93; ds65=650.50); 13 comprehensive schools were randomly assigned into intervention (KiVa) or control (usual school provision) conditions. Different outcomes (bullying, victimization, pro-bullying attitudes, pro-victim attitudes, empathy toward victims), analyses (longitudinal mixed model with multiple-item scales; longitudinal prevalence of bullies and victims using Olweus' single question), and estimates of effectiveness (Cohen's d; odds ratios) were considered in order to compare the Italian results with those from other countries. Multilevel models showed that KiVa reduced bullying and victimization and increased pro-victim attitudes and empathy toward the victim in grade 4, with effect sizes from 0.24 to 0.40. In grade 6, KiVa reduced bullying, victimization, and pro-bullying attitudes; the effects were smaller as compared to grade 4, yet significant (d65≥650.20). Finally, using Olweus dichotomous definition of bullies and victims, results showed that the odds of being a victim were 1.93 times higher for a control student than for a KiVa student in grade 4. Overall, the findings provide evidence of the effectiveness of the program in Italy; the discussion will focus on factors that influenced successfully the transportability of the KiVa program in Italy.

Olweus, D. ( 1994 a).

Bullying at school

Promotion & Education, 60( 6), 97-130.

[本文引用: 1]

Olweus, D. ( 1994 b).

Bullying at school: Basic facts and effects of a school based intervention program

Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35( 7), 1171-1190.

[本文引用: 1]

Olweus, D. ( 2005).

A useful evaluation design, and effects of the olweus bullying prevention program

Psychology, Crime & Law, 11( 4), 389-402.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The article presents the logic and other characteristics of an “extended selection cohorts” quasi-experimental design. Possible threats to the validity of conclusions based on this kind of design are discussed. It is concluded that chances are good that conclusions about the effects or non-effects of school-based intervention programs will be roughly correct in most cases. The design may be particularly useful in studies where it is not possible or desirable to use a random selection of “control schools” and it should be of value to both practitioners and researchers. The design is illustrated with a study in which three consecutive cohorts of students (n approximately 2165000) were administered the Bully/Victim Questionnaire before and after some 8 months of intervention with the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP). Results indicated quite substantial reductions (by 32–49%) in bully/victim problems. The “time-series” nature of the data showed convincingly that a “history interpretation” of the findings (Cook & Campbell, Quasi-experimentation. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1979) is very unlikely. The data in this project were obtained in the context of a government-funded new national initiative against bullying in Norway. The characteristics of this initiative and the model used in implementing the program in more than 450 schools were briefly described.

*Palladino B. E., Nocentini A., & Menesini E . ( 2016).

Evidence-based intervention against bullying and cyberbullying: Evaluation of the NoTrap! program in two independent trials

Aggressive Behavior, 42( 2), 194-206.

URL     PMID:26879897     

The NoTrap! (Noncadiamointrappola!) program is a school-based intervention, which utilizes a peer-led approach to prevent and combat both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the third Edition of the program in accordance with the recent criteria for evidence-based interventions. Towards this aim, two quasi-experimental trials involving adolescents (age M =6514.91, SD =65.98) attending their first year at different high schools were conducted. In Trial 1 (control group, n =65171; experimental group, n =65451), latent growth curve models for data from pre-, middle- and post-tests showed that intervention significantly predicted change over time in all the target variables (victimization, bullying, cybervictimization, and cyberbullying). Specifically, target variables were stable for the control group but decreased significantly over time for the experimental group. Long-term effects at the follow up 6 months later were also found. In Trial 2 (control group, n =65227; experimental group, n =65234), the moderating effect of gender was examined and there was a reported decrease in bullying and cyberbullying over time (pre- and post-test) in the experimental group but not the control group, and this decrease was similar for boys and girls. Aggr. Behav. 42:194–206, 2016. 08 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

*Rawana J. S., Norwood S. J., & Whitley J . ( 2011).

A mixed-method evaluation of a strength-based bullying prevention program

Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 26( 4), 283-300.

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The goal of this study was to describe the strength-based bullying prevention program, Strengths in Motion, and to evaluate the program utilizing a mixed-method design. Participants included students in Grades 4 to 8 from an intervention (n = 50) and a comparison (n = 53) school in Northern Ontario. Measures of bullying, strengths, and classroom climate were completed at three time points: One month prior to the start of the program (baseline), and at 3 and 8 months after the program had started. Quantitative analyses revealed that there was a significant decrease in students' bullying victimization over time, an increase in classroom climate, and students' personal awareness of their strengths. Semistructured interviews conducted 20 months after the start of the program with various stakeholders, including parents and school staff, complemented these findings and provided additional information on the efficacy of the program and the strength-based approach. Study findings are discussed in terms of the implications for future research.

Saarento S., Garandeau C. F., & Salmivalli C . ( 2015).

Classroom- and school-level contributions to bullying and victimization: A review

Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 25( 3), 204-218.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

School bullying is increasingly viewed by researchers as a group phenomenon that extends beyond the perpetrator-victim dyad and is embedded in the wider social context. This paper reviews the literature on classroom and school factors contributing to bullying and victimization among children and adolescents. Considerable variability in the prevalence of these problems exists between classrooms and schools, which are highly relevant contexts for students' social development. Along with individual characteristics, both classroom- and school-related factors explain the bullying dynamic. The contexts may also exacerbate, or buffer against, the effects of individual-level risk for bullying involvement and the consequences of victimization. We discuss findings on the contributions of demographic and structural characteristics (e.g. grade level, classroom and school size), peer contextual factors (e.g. status hierarchy, group norms and bystander behaviours) and the role of teachers. Finally, implications for research and school-based antibullying programs are considered. 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

*Şahin, M. ( 2012).

An investigation into the efficiency of empathy training program on preventing bullying in primary schools

Children and Youth Services Review, 34( 7), 1325-1330.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

78 Emphatic education program was effective on bullying behaviors of students. 78 The program was effective on decreasing bullying behaviors of experimental group. 78 No change was observed on control group. 78 The program made positive impact in developing empathic skills of bully students.

*Salmivalli C., Kärnä A., & Poskiparta E . ( 2011).

Counteracting bullying in finland: The KiVa program and its effects on different forms of being bullied

International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35( 5), 405-411.

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In 2006, the Finnish Ministry of Education mandated our research group to develop an antibullying program for comprehensive schools. The new program, KiVa, includes both universal and indicated actions to reduce bullying. The present study reports the effects of KiVa on nine different forms of being bullied in a sample of 5,651 fourth to sixth graders from 78 schools (39 intervention, 39 control). The findings showed positive effects on each form of being bullied assessed. After 9 months of intervention, control school students were 1.3209” 1.94 times as likely to be bullied as students in intervention schools. A well-designed, research-based program can thus reduce multiple forms of being bullied, and there might be no need to develop specific programs for different forms of bullying.

*Solomontos-Kountouri O., Gradinger P., Yanagida T., & Strohmeier D . ( 2016).

The implementation and evaluation of the ViSC program in cyprus: Challenges of cross-national dissemination and evaluation results

European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 13( 6), 737-755.

*Stan, C., &Beldean, I.G . ( 2014).

The development of social and emotional skills of students-ways to reduce the frequency of bullying-type events.Experimental results

Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 114, 735-743.

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One of the major problems of the contemporary educational phenomenon is school violence. In terms of its manifestation, it may take the form of physical, verbal or symbolic violence but events with major impact on the quality of the educational environment are bullying-type events. Generally defined as a frequently and deliberately behavior aimed at both physical or psychical injury as well as instituting a relation of domination to this person, bullying-type events have a negative impact on the student's personal and academical development. Based on these observations, our research aims to study the extent to which the development of social and emotional skills of students reduces bullying-type events. In this respect, it was necessary to implement an Anti-Violence Program in schools, based on the rogram Achieve. You Can Do It! by Bernard (2008) to which a component for parents was added. The number of subjects involved in the research was 231 students from two middle-schools from Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 117 of which belonged to the experimental group, and 114 belonging to the control group. The questionnaire for evaluating violent behavior was filled out before and after the implementation of the Anti-Violence Program. Comparing the results of the pretest stage with the data from the posttest stage indicates a significant reduction in violence among the students in the experimental group compared to the control group.

*Stevens V., Bourdeaudhuij I., & van Oost P . ( 2000).

Bullying in flemish schools: An evaluation of anti-bullying intervention in primary and secondary schools

British Journal of Educational Psychology, 70( 2), 195-210.

URL     PMID:10900778     

Background. The positive results of the Norwegian anti-bullying programme (Olweus, 1992) stimulated other countries to tackle bully/victim problems. However, outcome studies found rather low levels of effect or even inconsistent results. Aims. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate behavioural effectiveness of a school-based anti-bullying approach within Flemish schools. In addition, specific attention was given to the relationship between outcome findings and external support. Sample. A total of 18 schools, comprising 1104 primary and secondary school children were recruited for this study. Students ranged in age from 10 to 16 years. Method. For this study, an experimental pre-test/post-test design was used which included a control group. Three groups were established. The first group, Treatment with Support, involved students from schools that implemented a school-based anti-bullying intervention with additional support from the research group. The second group, Treatment without Support, also involved students from schools that implemented a school-based anti-bullying programme. However, in contrast with those falling under the first condition, this group of schools could not appeal to the research group for additional help. The last group involved students from schools that did not implement the anti-bullying programme and served as a Control condition. Repeated measures analyses of variance were carried out. Results. The findings regarding the effects of the school-based anti-bullying intervention programme on the extent of bullying and victimisation showed a mixed pattern of positive changes in primary schools and zero outcomes in secondary schools. The findings regarding the effects of external support revealed limited outcomes. Conclusions. The outcomes of the evaluation study confirm that a schoolbased anti-bullying intervention strategy can be effective in reducing problems with bullying, especially within primary schools. It was argued that the developmental characteristics of secondary school students interfered with the outcomes. In addition, the findings revealed no extra effects of training sessions.

*Trip S., Bora C., Sipos-Gug S., Tocai I., Gradinger P., Yanagida T., & Strohmeier D . ( 2015).

Bullying prevention in schools by targeting cognitions, emotions, and behavior: Evaluating the effectiveness of the REBE-ViSC program

Journal of Counseling Psychology, 62( 4), 732-740.

URL     PMID:26376177     

Abstract The effectiveness of a class-based antibullying prevention program on cognitions, emotions, and behaviors was investigated. The program consists of a cognitive-behavioral (Rational Emotive Behavioral Education; REBE) and a behavioral (Viennese Social Competence; ViSC) component. The REBE program is based on rational emotive behavioral theory and contains 9 student lessons. The ViSC program is based on social learning theory and comprises 10 student lessons. The order of the programs was experimentally manipulated. The REBE-ViSC program was implemented in 5 schools (14 classes), the ViSC-REBE program was implemented in 3 schools (9 classes), and 3 schools (11 classes) served as an untreated control group. Data were collected during 1 school year at pretest, midpoint, and posttest. Emotions (overt and internalizing anger), cognitions (learning and entitlement), and behaviors (bullying perpetration and bullying victimization) were measured with self-assessments. To examine the effectiveness of the REBE-ViSC/ViSC-REBE program, multilevel growth models were applied (time points at Level 1, individuals at Level 2, and classes at Level 3). The analyses revealed that the program effects differed depending on the order of the programs. The REBE-ViSC condition was more effective in changing negative emotions than the ViSC-REBE condition; both experimental conditions were effective in reducing dysfunctional cognitions, whereas no behavioral change was found in the 2 experimental groups when compared with the control group. To improve program effectiveness regarding behavioral changes, a multilevel whole-school approach including a teacher component is recommended. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

Ttofi, M.M., &Farrington, D.P . ( 2011).

Effectiveness of school-based programs to reduce bullying: A systematic and meta-analytic review

Journal of Experimental Criminology, 7( 1), 27-56.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

AbstractThis article presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of anti-bullying programs in schools. Studies were included if they evaluated the effects of an anti-bullying program by comparing an intervention group who received the program with a control group who did not. Four types of research design were included: a) randomized experiments, b) intervention-control comparisons with before-and-after measures of bullying, c) other intervention-control comparisons, and d) age-cohort designs. Both published and unpublished reports were included. All volumes of 35 journals from 1983 up to the end of May 2009 were hand-searched, as were 18 electronic databases. Reports in languages other than English were also included. A total of 622 reports concerned with bullying prevention were found, and 89 of these reports (describing 53 different program evaluations) were included in our review. Of the 53 different program evaluations, 44 provided data that permitted the calculation of an effect size for bullying or victimization. The meta-analysis of these 44 evaluations showed that, overall, school-based anti-bullying programs are effective: on average, bullying decreased by 20 23% and victimization decreased by 17 20%. Program elements and intervention components that were associated with a decrease in bullying and victimization were identified, based on feedback from researchers about the coding of 40 out of 44 programs. More intensive programs were more effective, as were programs including parent meetings, firm disciplinary methods, and improved playground supervision. Work with peers was associated with an increase in victimization. It is concluded that the time is ripe to mount a new program of research on the effectiveness of anti-bullying programs based on these findings.

Ttofi M. M., Farrington D. P., Lösel F., Crago R. V., & Theodorakis N . ( 2016).

School bullying and drug use later in life: A meta-analytic investigation

School Psychology Quarterly, 31( 1), 8-27.

URL     PMID:25866866      [本文引用: 2]

The main aim of this paper is to investigate whether there is a significant long-term association between bullying at school and drug use later in life. A meta-analysis is presented based on results from major prospective longitudinal studies with available unadjusted and adjusted effect sizes. Results are based on thorough systematic searches of the literature across 19 databases and 63 journals. The unadjusted summary effect size suggests that youth who bully are at least twice as likely compared with non-involved students to use drugs later in life (OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.60 3.07). The adjusted summary effect size is markedly reduced to an OR of 1.41 (95% CI: 1.20 1.66) suggesting that a lot of variation in the final model is explained by other contributing factors, while bullying has a significant yet small effect over and above the contribution of these factors. Contributing factors include childhood risks falling within the individual, family and school domains that are significantly associated with both the predictor and the outcome. It is concluded that school bullying, drug use and other problem behaviors are intercorrelated, thus highlighting the need to create a meaningful holistic framework for the prevention of drug problems and other associated mental, emotional, and behavioral maladies. Implications for policy and practice arising from these findings are discussed.

*van der Ploeg R., Steglich C., & Veenstra R . ( 2016).

The support group approach in the Dutch KiVa anti-bullying programme: Effects on victimisation, defending and well-being at school

Educational Research, 58( 3), 221-236.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Background: School bullying is a wide-spread problem with severe consequences for victims, bullies and bystanders. Schools are strongly encouraged to implement both schoolwide, preventive interventions and reactive measures to handle existing bullying situations. In the Dutch implementation of the KiVa anti-bullying programme, pervasive-bullying situations are addressed according to the support group approach. The support group approach is widely used for addressing bullying situations, but little is known about its effectiveness. Purpose: We investigated the effectiveness of the support group approach in reducing victimisation, increasing defending and improving the victim well-being over the course of a school year, over and beyond of the effects of the universal KiVa intervention. Programme description: The support group approach is a non-punitive, problem-solving strategy to address pervasive-bullying situations. In this intervention, trained teachers form a support group that consists of 6 8 children, including the bullies and their assistants, defenders or friends of the victim and prosocial classmates. The purpose of the support group is to create mutual concern for the well-being of the victim and to trigger the bullies willingness to alter their behaviour. Sample: We used data from 66 Dutch elementary schools that participated in the KiVa intervention study. Data were collected in October 2012 and 2013, and May 2013 and 2014. The sample used in the analyses consisted of 38 victims for whom a support group intervention was organised (44.7% boy, Mage = 9.24; SDage = 1.20). Design and method: To get insight into the effects above and beyond those of the KiVa programme itself, victims with a support group (N = 38) were matched to similar victims without a support group (N = 571). Statistical analyses were undertaken to examine whether the changes in victimisation, defending and well-being at school differed between the two groups. Result: Victims reported positive effects of the support group approach in reducing victimisation in the short term, but this decrease in victimisation was not lasting over the course of a school year. The intervention also did not improve the victims well-being at school in the longer term. Victims with a support group, however, were found to have more defenders at the end of the school year than victims without a support group. Conclusion: The effectiveness of the support group approach in tackling bullying situations appears to fade over time. The findings of this study illustrate that for future evaluations of anti-bullying interventions it is essential to investigate longer term effects.

Vreeman, R.C., &Carroll, A.E . ( 2007).

A systematic review of school-based interventions to prevent bullying

Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 161( 1), 78-88.

[本文引用: 1]

*Yanagida T., Strohmeier D., & Spiel C . ( 2016).

Dynamic change of aggressive behavior and victimization among adolescents: Effectiveness of the ViSC program

Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 1-15.

Yang, A., &Salmivalli, C . ( 2015).

Effectiveness of the KiVa antibullying programme on bully-victims, bullies and victims

Educational Research, 57( 1), 80-90.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Background: Bullying is a widespread problem in schools. Although several effective school-based bullying intervention programmes have been developed to reduce bullying and victimisation, it has rarely been investigated whether intervention programmes are also effective in helping bully-victims. Purpose: This study investigates the effectiveness of the KiVa antibullying programme in reducing the prevalence of bully-victims, compared with those defined as ‘pure bullies’ and ‘pure victims’. Programme description: The KiVa antibullying programme is a national anti-bullying programme in Finland. It consists of universal actions targeting all the students through student lessons and virtual learning environments (e.g. anti-bullying computer games), and indicated actions, i.e. tackling the acute bullying cases. The programme aims at reducing bullying and victimisation by changing the responses of bystanders witnessing bullying. Sample: The target sample consisted of 23,520 participants (age range 8–1502years) from 738 intervention classrooms and 647 control classrooms in 195 Finnish schools. There were 12,450 primary (grades 2–6, 52.9%) and 11,070 secondary (grades 8–9, 47.1%) school students. Design and methods: The pre- and post-test data were collected in two waves 1202months apart, always in the end of a school year. The KiVa intervention took place during one school year, i.e. nine months. The effects on bully-victims, as well as on pure bullies and pure victims, were examined by prevalence changes as well as two-level multinomial logistic regression analyses. Results: The prevalence changes of bully-victims in intervention schools, in comparison with control schools, were 618% and 6141% when identified by self-reports and peer-.reports, respectively. Controlling for student gender, school level (primary/secondary) and pretest bullying/victimisation status, the odds of being a bully-victim after the intervention year were 1.51 (self-reports) and 1.63 (peer-reports) times higher for a student in a control school, in comparison with a student in an intervention school. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that KiVa is effective in reducing the prevalence of bully-victims, and these effects are comparable or even larger than the effects on pure bullies and pure victims. It is possible that intervention for bully-victims might not be more difficult than that for bullies and victims.

Yeager D. S., Fong C. J., Lee H. Y., & Espelage D. L . ( 2015).

Declines in efficacy of anti-bullying programs among older adolescents: Theory and a three-level meta-analysis

Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 37( 1), 36-51.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

61Bullying appears to be effectively prevented in 7th grade and below.61In 8th grade there is a sharp drop to an average of zero.61There was a seeming reversal in efficacy through the high school years, such that programs, if anything, cause harm.61Developmental theory suggests why this may be the case and provides opportunities for future improved interventions.

Zeng X., Zhang Y., Kwong J. S., Zhang C., Li S., Sun F., … Du L . ( 2015).

The methodological quality assessment tools for preclinical and clinical studies, systematic review and meta-analysis, and clinical practice guideline: A systematic review

Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine, 8( 1), 2-10.

[本文引用: 1]

Zych I., Ortega-Ruiz R., & Del Rey R . ( 2015).

Systematic review of theoretical studies on bullying and cyberbullying: Facts, knowledge, prevention, and intervention

Aggression and Violent Behavior, 23, 1-21.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

61A systematic review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses is conducted.61Main topics and findings of the articles in the field are reviewed and synthesized.61One of every three children is involved in some forms of bullying and one of every five children is involved in cyberbullying.61Relationships between age, sex, and involvement in bullying and cyberbullying are complex. Bullying is an important problem among minorities.61There are personal and contextual risk and protective factors related to bullying. Consequences of being involved are devastating.61Anti-bullying programs can be effective in decreasing this kind of violence, but its effects are usually small. Some components are more effective than others.61Methodologies and evaluation should be improved.

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