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Advances in Psychological Science    2018, Vol. 26 Issue (10) : 1749-1763     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01749
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Is the individual subjective well-being of gratitude stronger?A meta-analysis
DING Fengqin(),ZHAO Huying
School of Education, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750021, China
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Abstract  

This meta-analysis was designed to explore the relationship between gratitude and subjective well-being. Through literature retrieval, 62 cases and 167 independent effect sizes together with 31975 participants which met the inclusion criteria of meta-analysis were selected. Heterogeneity test indicated that random effects model was appropriate for the meta-analysis. TheSensitivity analysis showed that there existed a significant positive correlation between gratitude with subjective well-being, satisfaction with life, positive affect, yet there existed a negative correlation between gratitude and negative affect after progressively deleting the higher heterogeneity studies. The Subgroups analysis and Meta-regression analysis revealed that the relationship between gratitude and subjective well-being was moderated and influenced by gratitude measurement tools, type of participants, and culture background. The above results indicated that grateful individuals have stronger subjective well-being, meanwhile, the function of the gratitude measurement tool, the subjects and the cultural background is also taken into consideration.

Keywords gratitude      subjective well-being      meta-analysis      moderate effect     
Corresponding Authors: Fengqin DING     E-mail: dingfqin@nxu.edu.cn
Issue Date: 27 August 2018
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DING Fengqin,ZHAO Huying. Is the individual subjective well-being of gratitude stronger?A meta-analysis[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2018, 26(10): 1749-1763.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01749     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/Y2018/V26/I10/1749
作者(发表时间) 样本量 工具 群体 文化 结果变量 效应量(r)
卜琳, 2013 379 GQ-6 Ad E LS 0.44
曾妍, 2013 300 SCSG A E SW & LS 0.32 & 0.39
曾昱, 2013 762 GQ-6 Ad E SW 0.55
陈郑, 2013 353 SCSG A E SW 0.21
董霞, 2008 597 SCSG A E SW 0.38
甘启颖, 2009 260 GQ-6 A E SW & LS & PE & NE 0.37 & 0.26 & 0.39 & -0.28
和娟, 2015 382 GRAT A E LS 0.68
黄慧, 2014 572 GQ-6 A E SW & LS & PE & NE 0.29 & 0.21 & 0.36 & -0.13
惠秋平, 2010 582 GQ-6 A E LS 0.22
蒋怀滨, 2015 133 GQ-6 A E SW & LS 0.23 & 0.35
李霞, 2015 587 GQ-6 A E LS 0.25
李旭, 2015 206 GRAT A E LS & PE & NE 0.64 & 0.35 & -0.42
李艳, 2014 206 GQ-6 A E SW 0.40
连灵, 2017 538 GQ-6 A E SW 0.54
廖军和, 2015 677 SCSG A E SW & LS & PE & NE 0.42 & 0.27 & 0.43 & -0.20
林婵, 2014 328 GRAT A E SW 0.53
刘静, 2012 495 GRAT A E SW & LS & NE 0.48 & 0.38 & -0.41
陆超祥, 2016 519 GQ-6 A E SW 0.12
罗利, 2015 865 GQ-6 Ad E LS 0.02
马丽, 2011 100 GQ-6 A E SW & LS & NE 0.36 & 0.17 & -0.28
马永泽, 2016 561 GQ-6 A E LS 0.28
苗静宇, 2013 342 GQ-6 Ad E LS & NE 0.31 & -0.25
彭秀, 2015 502 SCSG A E SW 0.34
邱会霞, 2017 497 SCSG Ad E SW 0.61
施艳, 2012 504 GRAT Ad E LS 0.53
舒亚丽, 2014 300 GQ-6 Ad E LS & PE & NE 0.35 & 0.52 & -0.23
孙配贞, 2010 839 GRAT Ad E LS & PE & NE 0.41 & 0.32 & -0.17
王华云, 2012 600 GRAT A E SW & LS 0.36 & 0.32
王艳辉, 2012 390 GQ-6 A E LS 0.15
王元元, 2012 521 SCSG A E SW & LS 0.22 & 0.28
谢晓东, 2013 701 GQ-6 Ad E SW & LS & NE 0.45 & 0.22 & -0.09
谢振旺, 2013 1000 SCSG A E LS 0.35
谢振旺, 2010 378 SCSG A E LS & PE & NE 0.46 & 0.37 & -0.26
徐璐璐, 2016 589 GRAT A E SW 0.59
荀龄萱, 2016 306 GQ-6 Ad E SW & LS & PE & NE 0.57 & 0.55 & 0.47 & -0.37
杨强, 2014 1319 GQ-6 Ad E LS 0.41
禹玉兰, 2013 227 SCSG A E SW & LS & PE & NE 0.68 & 0.56 & 0.54 & -0.20
袁书杰, 2012 231 GRAT A E SW 0.60
张惠, 2014 370 GQ-6 A E LS 0.39
朱桂萍, 2009 208 GRAT A E SW 0.48
朱攀华, 2016 717 SCSG A E LS 0.34
祝伟娜, 2008 806 GRAT Ad E LS & PE 0.63 & 0.43
作者(发表时间) 样本量 工具 群体 文化 结果变量 效应量(r)
Wood, 2010 289 GQ-6 A W PE 0.43
Wood, 2009 201 GQ-6 A W PE 0.51
Wood, 2008 E1 253 GQ-6 Ad W PE 0.51
Wood, 2008 E2 389 GQ-6 Ad W PE 0.43
Lin, 2014 504 GQ-6 A E LS & PE 0.41 & 0.46
Lin, 2016 750 GRAT Ad E SW 0.58
Chan, 2013 145 GQ-6 A E LS & PE & NE 0.41 & 0.43 & -0.2
Kong, 2015 427 GQ-6 Ad E LS 0.20
Froh, 2008 221 GRAT Ad W LS 0.13
Froh, 2011 E1 274 GQ-6 Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.44 & 0.31 & -0.16
Froh, 2011 E2 274 GRAT Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.42 & 0.36 & -0.24
Froh, 2011 E3 260 GQ-6 Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.46 & 0.37 & -0.21
Froh,2011 E4 260 GRAT Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.43 & 0.30 & -0.17
Froh,2011 E5 249 GQ-6 Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.47 & 0.39 & -0.21
Froh,2011 E6 249 GRAT Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.46 & 0.41 & -0.25
Froh,2011 E7 207 GQ-6 Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.59 & 0.44 & -0.35
Froh,2011 E8 207 GRAT Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.45 & 0.33 & -0.32
Froh,2011 E9 194 GQ-6 Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.58 & 0.28 & -0.23
Froh,2011 E10 194 GRAT Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.16 & 0.19 & -0.03
Froh, 2011 E11 217 GQ-6 Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.56 & 0.34 & -0.09
Datu, 2014 210 GQ-6 A W SW & LS 0.42 & 0.47
Datu, 2015 409 GQ-6 Ad W LS 0.43
Jun, 2015 411 GQ-6 A W SW 0.55
Tian, 2016 881 GQ-6 A W SW 0.27
Tian, 2015 E1 375 GQ-6 Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.43 & 0.27 & -0.08
Tian, 2015 E2 331 GQ-6 Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.38 & 0.34 & -0.14
Chen,2008 E1 169 GQ-6 Ad E LS 0.30
Chen, 2008 E2 365 GQ-6 Ad E LS 0.70
McCullough, 2004 96 GRAT A W SW & LS & PE 0.27 & 0.31 & 0.39
Emmons, 2003 E1 238 GQ-6 A W SW& PE 0.22 & 0.14
Emmons, 2003 E2 238 GQ-6 A W SW & PE & NE 0.13 & 0.28 & -0.17
Emmons, 2003 E3 192 GQ-6 A W SW 0.15
Hasemeye, 2013 154 GQ-6 Ad W LS 0.37
Adler, 2005 E1 420 SCSG Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.27 & 0.43 & -0.10
Adler, 2005 E2 420 SCSG Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.32 & 0.42 & -0.10
Adler, 2005 E3 418 SCSG Ad W LS & PE & NE 0.22 & 0.22 & -0.03
Watkins, 2003 E1 154 GRAT A W LS & PE & NE 0.50 & 0.36 & -0.15
Watkins, 2003 E2 66 GRAT A W PE & NE 0.52 & -0.20
Watkins, 2003 E3 57 GRAT A W PE & NE 0.23 & -0.15
Watkins, 2003 E4 237 GRAT A W PE & NE 0.28 & -0.35
Watkins, 2003 E5 157 GRAT A W PE & NE 0.32 & -0.43
Watkins, 2003 E6 157 GRAT A W PE & NE 0.31 & -0.51
  
  
  
  
  
结果变量 K Classic Fail-safe N FSR Egger’s Intercept SE LL UL p
SW 32 19963 117.42 -1.76 2.49 -5.98 2.47 0.50
LS 57 44365 150.39 1.15 1.52 -1.40 3.70 0.45
PE 41 18455 85.84 -0.75 0.91 -2.30 0.79 0.42
NE 37 5842 29.96 1.17 1.11 -0.71 3.05 0.30
  
结果变量 k Q df p I2 Tau-squared H
SW 32 430.30 31 < 0.001 92.79 0.03 3.73
LS 57 676.85 56 < 0.001 91.73 0.03 3.47
PE 41 109.69 40 < 0.001 63.53 0.01 1.66
NE 37 159.88 36 < 0.001 77.48 0.01 2.11
  
结果变量 工具类型 k r 95%CI I2 Qw Qb p
SW GQ-6 16 0.36 0.28~0.44 92.57 201.84*** 6.39 0.04
GRAT 8 0.50 0.41~0.58 87.34 48.54***
SCSG 8 0.38 0.26~0.47 92.44 118.89***
LS GQ-6 32 0.38 0.33~0.41 92.06 590.61*** 8.67 0.01
GRAT 16 0.41 0.32~0.48 92.47 199.14***
SCSG 9 0.30 0.27~0.33 10.66 8.96
PE GQ-6 20 0.39 0.35~0.43 64.66 53.76*** 3.89 0.14
GRAT 15 0.34 0.31~0.38 36.47 22.04
SCSG 6 0.40 0.32~0.48 80.94 26.23***
NE GQ-6 16 -0.22 -0.26~-0.17 74.63 59.13*** 6.00 0.05
GRAT 15 -0.26 -0.35~-0.21 79.91 69.72***
SCSG 6 -0.16 -0.22~-0.09 61.52 13.00*
  
结果变量 类型 k r 95%CI I2 Qw Qb p
SW A 27 0.37 0.35~0.38 90.50 303.84*** 17.91 0.00
Ad 5 0.55 0.52~0.57 78.15 18.31**
LS A 25 0.33 0.28~0.38 85.38 164.24*** 3.95 0.03
Ad 32 0.41 0.35~0.46 93.49 476.39***
PE A 19 0.39 0.34~0.43 57.12 41.98** 0.24 0.63
Ad 22 0.37 0.34~0.41 68.23 66.10**
NE A 16 -0.28 -0.33~-0.22 76.04 62.61*** 4.34 0.04
Ad 21 -0.20 -0.24~-0.15 77.72 89.78***
  
结果变量 类型 k r 95%CI I2 Qw Qb p
SW E 25 0.44 0.41~0.45 92.65 329.44*** 4.39 0.04
W 7 0.31 0.28~0.35 89.56 57.47***
LS E 35 0.35 0.30~0.40 93.89 557.26*** 2.36 0.08
W 22 0.41 0.36~0.46 80.40 107.12***
PE E 12 0.42 0.38~0.46 53.44 30.09** 6.32 0.01
W 29 0.35 0.32~0.39 58.35 67.23***
NE E 13 -0.26 -0.31~ -0.21 80.44 61.35*** 2.31 0.13
W 24 -0.22 -0.26 ~- 0.16 71.18 79.80***
  
结果变量 调节变量 Beta SE z p
主观幸福感 测量工具 0.17*** 0.03 5.23 0.00
被试群体 0.43** 0.08 2.64 0.01
文化背景 -0.38*** 0.08 -2.22 0.00
生活满意度 测量工具 -0.11*** 0.02 -0.82 0.00
被试群体 -0.31*** 0.09 -0.17 0.00
积极情感 文化背景 0.26*** 0.14 1.70 0.00
消极情感 测量工具 0.02*** 0.14 0.13 0.00
被试群体 0.34*** 0.04 2.13 0.00
  
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