ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理科学进展 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (10): 1599-1688.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01599

• 主编特邀 •    下一篇

半个多世纪来中国人的心理与行为变化——心理学视野下的研究

蔡华俭1,2(), 黄梓航1,2, 林莉3, 张明杨1,2, 王潇欧1,2, 朱慧珺1,2, 谢怡萍1,2, 杨盈1,2, 杨紫嫣1,2, 敬一鸣1,2   

  1. 1中国科学院心理研究所人格与社会心理研究中心, 北京 100101
    2中国科学院大学心理学系, 北京 100049
    3浙江省教育科学研究院普教所, 杭州 310012
  • 收稿日期:2020-04-07 出版日期:2020-10-15 发布日期:2020-08-24
  • 通讯作者: 蔡华俭 E-mail:caihj@psych.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    *国家社会科学基金重大项目“中国社会变迁过程中的文化与心理变化”(17ZDA324)

The psychological change of the Chinese people over the past half century: A literature review

CAI Huajian1,2(), HUANG Zihang1,2, LIN Li3, ZHANG Mingyang1,2, WANG Xiaoou1,2, ZHU Huijun1,2, XIE Yiping1,2, YANG Ying1,2, YANG Ziyang1,2, JING Yiming1,2   

  1. 1Center for Personality and Social Psychology, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3Zhejiang Institute of Educational Sciences, Hangzhou 310012, China
  • Received:2020-04-07 Online:2020-10-15 Published:2020-08-24
  • Contact: CAI Huajian E-mail:caihj@psych.ac.cn

摘要:

半个多世纪以来, 史无前例的快速社会变迁对中国文化和中国人的心理与行为产生了广泛而深远的影响。现有研究探讨了中国人在十多个方面的心理和行为变化, 包括文化价值、人格特征、自我建构、人际信任、幸福感、情绪、动机、关系、心理健康以及其他社会态度和行为等。总体上, 这些研究勾画出了半个世纪以来中国人心理变化的总体倾向:(1)与现代社会相适应的个体主义价值和心理行为日益盛行; (2)传统社会所强调的集体主义价值虽日渐衰落, 但其部分仍在当代社会主流价值中占有一席之地; (3)多元文化共存将是当下和未来中国社会的重要特征。一些具体的变化还包括:中国人的一般信任在下降、幸福感先下降但近年来有上升的迹象、心理健康总体水平上升但是不同社会群体升降不一致、总体的负性情绪在增加、性观念更为开放和包容等。未来的研究应在广度(内容、领域)和深度(原因、机制和过程)上对现有研究进行拓展, 努力建构能同时解释心理和行为变化一般规律及中国人的变化独特性的理论。

关键词: 文化变迁, 文化心理学, 个体主义, 集体主义, 现代性, 传统性

Abstract:

China has undergone unprecedented societal transformations over the past decades. A large body of research has examined the impacts of the rapid societal change on Chinese culture and psychology, including values, personality, self, emotion, motivation, parenting, trust, Guanxi, happiness, mental health, and other social attitudes and behaviors. On the one hand, individualism in general was on the rise. On the other hand, while collectivism in general is declining, as manifested in diverse values, self-construals, personalities, parenting styles and social attitudes, some traditional values persist (e.g. filial piety). Some specific findings include that 1) general trust declined; 2) negative emotions, motivation to avoid failure, and the importance of Guanxi were on the rise; 3) mental health overall was on the rise but it was getting worse for some specific groups (e.g. students in elementary and middle schools); 4) subjective well-being was decreasing in 1990s and started to rise recently. Many changes, however, varied across time and people with different demographic and social backgrounds, suggesting co-existence of multi-cultures. These findings have important theoretical and practical implications. Future study needs to extend the current research scope and examine the causes, outcomes, and mechanisms of the changes.

Key words: cultural change, cultural psychology, individualism, collectivism, modernity, traditionality

中图分类号: