ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

中国科学院心理研究所

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25 June 2022, Volume 54 Issue 6

Reports of Empirical Studies
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Reports of Empirical Studies
 The influence of language and context on sensorimotor simulation of concrete concepts SHI Rubin, XIE Jiushu, YANG Mengqing, WANG Ruiming 2022, 54 (6):  583-594.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00583 Abstract ( 4169 )   HTML ( 382 )   PDF (410KB) ( 4809 )   Peer Review Comments How concepts are represented in the brain is an important topic in cognitive science. There are two different theories on this research question, i.e., propositional symbol theory and perceptual symbol theory. The difference between these two theories is how to treat the relationship between the internal symbol and the external archetype. The propositional symbol theory holds that the relationship between the two is arbitrary. Perceptual information does not participate in the processing of concepts. While perceptual symbols theory holds that the relationship between the two is similar. Perceptual information participates in the processing of concepts. People learn conceptual information in the vertical space. The spatial information is stored in long-term memory along with the representation of concepts. This hypothesis has been supported by many studies and is in line with the perceptual symbol theory. However, few studies have tested what factors influence sensorimotor simulation in conceptual processing. In this study, the semantic relevance judgment paradigm is used to test this question. The present study examined whether the sensorimotor simulation participates in conceptual processing in the first and second languages. Then, the present study examined how situational information modulates conceptual processing, by manipulating the intensity of spatial information and the level of semantic processing. In Experiment 1, the semantic relevance judgment paradigm is used to test whether sensorimotor simulation is involved in the second language processing and whether there is any difference between the first language and second language processing. The results of Experiment 1 show that the sensorimotor simulation has participated in the second language processing. However, there is an accuracy advantage in the sensorimotor simulation in the first language. In Experiment 2, two experiments are conducted to test the effect of the perceptual situation on sensorimotor simulation. Experiment 2a tests the influence of perceptual situation on sensorimotor simulation by changing the intensity of individual perceptual in vertical spatial axis. The results show that the sensorimotor simulation can be found in both strong and weak spatial perception. The effect of semantic processing level on perceptual motion simulation is tested in Experiment 2b. The experiment manipulates the level of semantic processing by using the semantic relevance judgment task and word judgment task. The results show that sensorimotor simulation participates in the processing of concepts, while semantic situational did not modulate this effect. The results of Experiment 2 suggest that sensorimotor stimulation may be automatic in conceptual processing. The present study conducted two experiments to test the role of sensorimotor simulation in conceptual processing. Results found that the sensorimotor simulation participates in conceptual representation, supporting the perceptual symbol theory. Furthermore, the sensorimotor simulation takes place in both Chinese and English. This finding extends the perceptual symbol theory. Finally, results found that sensorimotor stimulation may be automatic in conceptual representation and is not affected by spatial information and semantic processing.
 The influence of uncertainty and validity of expectation on the perceptual decision of motion direction PAN Yuean, JIANG Yunpeng, GUO Maojie, WU Xia 2022, 54 (6):  595-603.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00595 Abstract ( 2222 )   HTML ( 226 )   PDF (1045KB) ( 2791 )   Peer Review Comments Accurate perception of motion direction depends on current and prior information. However, it is not clear how the uncertainty of the current stimulus and the validity of expectation from prior information can be integrated into the decision-making for the directional perception. In our experiment, the validity of expectation from a cue, which appears before the stimulus, belongs to the proactive control system, while the uncertainty of stimulus, which changes by the signal-to-noise ratio, belongs to the reactive control system. It is unclear whether the proactive and reactive control systems engage in standard processing or work independently. In order to verify the integrated mechanism of the uncertainty of current sensory information and the validity of expectation from prior cue information on the perceptual decision of motion direction, two experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 employed random dot motion patterns (RDPs) to investigate the appropriate high and low uncertainty conditions. Participants should distinguish the moving direction of coherent dots (in the same direction) while noise dots move in a random direction. The PR (perceptual accuracy) values were compared for various ratios of coherent dots (100%, 80%, 70%, 60%, 20%, 0%). The results indicated that the PR of 60% ratio was significantly lower than that of 100%, while the PR of 20% ratio was significantly different from that of 0% and 60%. Consequently, 20% and 60% ratios can be considered as high and low uncertainty conditions in Experiment 2, respectively. Experiment 2 employed a task combined of associated learning and RDPs paradigm, in which a cue with high (90% correct) or low (10% correct) validity of expectation appeared before moving dots. Results showed that the PR of high uncertainty was significantly lower than that of low uncertainty and reflected a significant increase in PR with a valid cue, demonstrating an expectation effect. Moreover, there was considerable interaction between validity and uncertainty, while the expectation effect was found in both uncertainty conditions. However, the magnitude of expectation effect was lower in low uncertainty than in high uncertainty conditions, suggesting that uncertainty and validity can be influenced in standard cognitive processing. In summary, based on the present results, the prior and sensory information can be integrated into motion perception decision-making. The results can support the cooperation mechanism of proactive and reactive control systems and provide a theoretical basis to prevent traffic accidents. Investigating the effects of uncertainty and validity on the perceptual decision of motion direction of specific individuals (such as veteran or aged drivers) can be considered a future research topic.
 Sustained hyperarousal induced by acute stress in tryptophan-hydroxylase-2 genetic deficient male mice ZHOU Ping, XIAO Hua, LI Yonghui, DONG Xinwen 2022, 54 (6):  604-612.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00604 Abstract ( 856 )   HTML ( 58 )   PDF (441KB) ( 974 )   Peer Review Comments Severe stress is one of the major external triggers of emotion-related mental disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Stress-induced sustained hyperarousal state is not only a core symptom but also a contributor to other symptoms such as sleep disturbance and negative mood. Serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a monoamine neurotransmitter that regulates emotional response. In addition, the 5-HT system is the target for pharmacological treatment such as selective-serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for major depressive disorder, PTSD, and other emotional disorders. However, it remains unknown whether serotonin is involved in the hyperarousal state caused by severe stress, as well as the mechanism by which genetic polymorphism in serotonin regulation contributes to the vulnerability of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Tryptophan-hydroxylase-2 (Tph2) is a serotonin synthesizing enzyme that converts tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan in the brain. A genetic deficiency in the expression of Tph2 may lead to a lower level of serotonin in the brain. The present study focused on the role of serotonin in the development of stress-induced hyperarousal, investigating the behavioral effect of Tph2 gene-deficiency after severe stress in a mice model. Mice lacking Tph2 (Tph2-/-) in the brain have a vitally low level of serotonin and a bad health condition, so we used heterozygous Tph2-deficient mice (Tph2+/-) which have been shown to have a mild low level of serotonin in the brain. We measured the auditory startle reflex as an indicator of arousal level at different time points after predator-exposure stress or footshock stress in both male and female Tph2+/- and wild-type mice. The predator-exposure stress was to exposure a mouse to a cat for 5 minutes with a trained experimenter protecting the mouse from direct attack from the cat. The footshock stress was to exposure a mouse to a series of footshock (1.5 mA × 5s × 5, inter-shock interval 60 ~ 120 s) in a shock chamber. Then we measured the auditory startle reflex at 1-, 2-, 10-, and 18-day post-stress. For each startle test session, a total of 30 white noise stimuli were presented to the mice in a sound-isolated chamber (90 dB, 100 dB, 110 dB, ten stimuli for each level). The results showed that the Tph2+/- male mice had a higher level of startle than the non-stressed group at 1, 2, and 10 days after footshock stress, indicating a sustained hyperarousal. However, wild-type male mice only had an increased startle response on the day after the footshock stress. For mice with predator exposure stress, both Tph2+/- male mice and wild-type male mice showed an increased startle response on the first day after the predator stress, but then returned to the same level as the non-stressed mice. We also observed a sex difference in mice’s startle response that the female mice had a lower level of startle amplitude than that of male mice at baseline test before stress. In addition, female mice with different genotypes showed minor differences in their startle response at different time points after both types of stress. The results of the study indicate that the Tph2 genotype interacts with stress types in the regulation of long-term hyperarousal after severe stress events. Our results also provide preclinical evidence that individuals with Tph2 gene deficiency may be more vulnerable to stress-induced hyperarousal and highlight the potential of targeting the serotonin system for post-traumatic intervention.
 Benefits and costs of employee boundary-spanning behavior: A meta-analytic review LAN Yuanmei, LI Chaoping, WANG Jiayan, MENG Xue 2022, 54 (6):  665-683.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00665 Abstract ( 937 )   HTML ( 63 )   PDF (518KB) ( 2091 )   Peer Review Comments Employee boundary-spanning behavior is critically important for organizations. Numerous studies have examined the relationships between employee boundary-spanning behavior and work-related outcomes. However, the findings are inconsistent among studies. This meta-analysis investigated the relationships between of employee boundary-spanning behavior and work attitude, performance, innovation, stress, and burnout, and also examined potential moderators and mediating mechanisms for those relationships based on social exchange theory. We meta-analyzed both Chinese and English primary studies on employee boundary- spanning behavior. Studies were identified with key words including “Boundary spanning”, “Boundary spanning activities/Boundary spanning activity”, “Boundary spanning behavior”, etc., in English databases including Web of Science, ProQuest (Dissertation), EBSCO, Wiley, Sage and Chinese databases of CNKI and CSSCI. Finally, 52 independent samples from 50 empirical studies (with a total sample N = 14366) were included. We chose a random-effect model to conduct the meta-analysis using the R package Psychmeta (Core team, 2020). The results showed considerable heterogeneity among the 52 independent samples, according to the heterogeneity test. The publication bias test was conducted using Egger's test, Begg test, and Failsafe number, which revealed that there was no substantial publication bias in the studies. With the Hunter-Schmidt’s meta-analytic method, employee boundary spanning behavior had significant relationships with job satisfaction and organizational commitment ($\bar{\rho }$ between 0.34 to 0.41) and performance outcomes ($\bar{\rho }$ between 0.19 to 0.31), as well as a small positive relationship with role stress ($\bar{\rho }$ = 0.14). It had no significant relationship with emotional exhaustion ($\bar{\rho }$= -0.10, 95% CI = [-0.25, 0.05]). Employees' boundary-spanning behavior has both benefits and costs. Employee type (knowledge workers-non-knowledge workers), individualism-collectivism, and power distance moderated the relationships between employee's boundary-spanning behavior and its outcomes. The relationships between employee boundary-spanning behavior and performance and innovation were stronger for knowledge workers than for nonknowledge workers, but the relationships between employee boundary-spanning behavior and job satisfaction and role stress were stronger for nonknowledge workers than for knowledge workers. Collectivism positively moderated the relationship between employee boundary-spanning behavior and job satisfaction, performance, innovation. The relationships between employee boundary-spanning behavior and job satisfaction, performance, and role stress were stronger for high power distance regions than low power distance regions. Additionally, a meta mediation analysis was conducted to examine whether work attitudes partially mediated the relationship of employee boundary-spanning behavior with work outcomes. The results revealed that employee boundary-spanning behavior had indirect impacts on performance and innovation, while having suppressing effects on stress and exhaustion. We discuss the important implications for future research and organizational practices.
 Standard errors and confidence intervals for cognitive diagnostic models: Parallel bootstrap methods LIU Yanlou 2022, 54 (6):  703-724.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00703 Abstract ( 807 )   HTML ( 42 )   PDF (1787KB) ( 1078 )   Peer Review Comments The model parameter standard error (SE; or variance-covariance matrix), which provides an estimate of the uncertainty associated with the model parameter estimate, has both theoretical and practical implications in cognitive diagnostic models (CDMs). The drawbacks of the analytic methods, such as the empirical cross-product information matrix, observed information matrix, and “robust” sandwich-type information matrix, are that they require the positive definiteness of the information matrix and may suffer from boundary problems. Another method for estimating model parameter SEs is to use the computer-intensive bootstrap method, and consequently, no study has systematically explored the performance of the bootstrap in calculating model parameter SEs and confidence intervals (CIs) in CDMs. The purpose of this research is to present two new highly efficient bootstrap methods to calculate model parameter SEs and CIs in CDMs, namely the parallel parametric bootstrap (pPB) and parallel non-parametric bootstrap (pNPB) methods. A simulation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the pPB and pNPB methods. Five factors that may influence the performance of the model parameter SEs and CIs were manipulated. The two model specification scenarios considered in this simulation were the correctly specified and over-specified models. The sample size was set to two levels: 1, 000 and 3, 000. Three bootstrap sample sizes were manipulated: 200, 500, and 3, 000. Three levels of item quality were considered: high [$P(\mathbf{0})=0.1$, $P(\mathbf{1})=0.9$], moderate [$P(\mathbf{0})=0.2$, $P(\mathbf{1})=0.8$], and low quality [$P(\mathbf{0})=0.3$, $P(\mathbf{1})=0.7$]. The pPB and pNPB methods were used to estimate model parameter SEs and CIs. The simulation results indicated the following. (1) For the correctly specified CDMs, under the high- or moderate-item-quality conditions, the coverage rates of the 95% CIs of the model parameter SEs based on the pNPB or pPB method were reasonably close to the expected coverage rate, and the bias for each model parameter SE converged to zero, meaning that the estimated SE was almost identical to the empirical SE. The increase in the bootstrap sample size had only a slight effect on the performance of the pNPB or pPB method. Under the low-item-quality condition, the pNPB method tended to over-estimate SE, whereas a contrary trend was observed for the pPB method. (2) For the over-specified CDMs, most of the permissible item parameter SEs and almost all of the permissible structural parameter SEs exhibited good performance in terms of the 95% CI coverage rates and bias. Under most of the simulation conditions, the impermissible model parameter SEs did not exhibit good performance in approximating the empirical SEs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which the performance of the bootstrap method in estimating model parameter SEs and CIs in CDMs is systematically investigated. The pNPB or pPB appears to be a useful tool for researchers interested in evaluating the uncertainty of the model parameter point estimates. As a time-saving computational strategy, the pNPB or pPB method is substantially faster than the usual bootstrap method. The simulation and real data studies showed that 3, 000 re-samples might be adequate for the bootstrap method in calculating model parameter SEs and CIs in CDMs.