ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B


    25 June 2022, Volume 54 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue

    Reports of Empirical Studies
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    Reports of Empirical Studies
    The influence of language and context on sensorimotor simulation of concrete concepts
    SHI Rubin, XIE Jiushu, YANG Mengqing, WANG Ruiming
    2022, 54 (6):  583-594.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00583
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    How concepts are represented in the brain is an important topic in cognitive science. There are two different theories on this research question, i.e., propositional symbol theory and perceptual symbol theory. The difference between these two theories is how to treat the relationship between the internal symbol and the external archetype. The propositional symbol theory holds that the relationship between the two is arbitrary. Perceptual information does not participate in the processing of concepts. While perceptual symbols theory holds that the relationship between the two is similar. Perceptual information participates in the processing of concepts.
    People learn conceptual information in the vertical space. The spatial information is stored in long-term memory along with the representation of concepts. This hypothesis has been supported by many studies and is in line with the perceptual symbol theory. However, few studies have tested what factors influence sensorimotor simulation in conceptual processing. In this study, the semantic relevance judgment paradigm is used to test this question. The present study examined whether the sensorimotor simulation participates in conceptual processing in the first and second languages. Then, the present study examined how situational information modulates conceptual processing, by manipulating the intensity of spatial information and the level of semantic processing.
    In Experiment 1, the semantic relevance judgment paradigm is used to test whether sensorimotor simulation is involved in the second language processing and whether there is any difference between the first language and second language processing. The results of Experiment 1 show that the sensorimotor simulation has participated in the second language processing. However, there is an accuracy advantage in the sensorimotor simulation in the first language. In Experiment 2, two experiments are conducted to test the effect of the perceptual situation on sensorimotor simulation. Experiment 2a tests the influence of perceptual situation on sensorimotor simulation by changing the intensity of individual perceptual in vertical spatial axis. The results show that the sensorimotor simulation can be found in both strong and weak spatial perception. The effect of semantic processing level on perceptual motion simulation is tested in Experiment 2b. The experiment manipulates the level of semantic processing by using the semantic relevance judgment task and word judgment task. The results show that sensorimotor simulation participates in the processing of concepts, while semantic situational did not modulate this effect. The results of Experiment 2 suggest that sensorimotor stimulation may be automatic in conceptual processing.
    The present study conducted two experiments to test the role of sensorimotor simulation in conceptual processing. Results found that the sensorimotor simulation participates in conceptual representation, supporting the perceptual symbol theory. Furthermore, the sensorimotor simulation takes place in both Chinese and English. This finding extends the perceptual symbol theory. Finally, results found that sensorimotor stimulation may be automatic in conceptual representation and is not affected by spatial information and semantic processing.

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    The influence of uncertainty and validity of expectation on the perceptual decision of motion direction
    PAN Yuean, JIANG Yunpeng, GUO Maojie, WU Xia
    2022, 54 (6):  595-603.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00595
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    Accurate perception of motion direction depends on current and prior information. However, it is not clear how the uncertainty of the current stimulus and the validity of expectation from prior information can be integrated into the decision-making for the directional perception. In our experiment, the validity of expectation from a cue, which appears before the stimulus, belongs to the proactive control system, while the uncertainty of stimulus, which changes by the signal-to-noise ratio, belongs to the reactive control system. It is unclear whether the proactive and reactive control systems engage in standard processing or work independently.
    In order to verify the integrated mechanism of the uncertainty of current sensory information and the validity of expectation from prior cue information on the perceptual decision of motion direction, two experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 employed random dot motion patterns (RDPs) to investigate the appropriate high and low uncertainty conditions. Participants should distinguish the moving direction of coherent dots (in the same direction) while noise dots move in a random direction. The PR (perceptual accuracy) values were compared for various ratios of coherent dots (100%, 80%, 70%, 60%, 20%, 0%). The results indicated that the PR of 60% ratio was significantly lower than that of 100%, while the PR of 20% ratio was significantly different from that of 0% and 60%. Consequently, 20% and 60% ratios can be considered as high and low uncertainty conditions in Experiment 2, respectively.
    Experiment 2 employed a task combined of associated learning and RDPs paradigm, in which a cue with high (90% correct) or low (10% correct) validity of expectation appeared before moving dots. Results showed that the PR of high uncertainty was significantly lower than that of low uncertainty and reflected a significant increase in PR with a valid cue, demonstrating an expectation effect. Moreover, there was considerable interaction between validity and uncertainty, while the expectation effect was found in both uncertainty conditions. However, the magnitude of expectation effect was lower in low uncertainty than in high uncertainty conditions, suggesting that uncertainty and validity can be influenced in standard cognitive processing.
    In summary, based on the present results, the prior and sensory information can be integrated into motion perception decision-making. The results can support the cooperation mechanism of proactive and reactive control systems and provide a theoretical basis to prevent traffic accidents. Investigating the effects of uncertainty and validity on the perceptual decision of motion direction of specific individuals (such as veteran or aged drivers) can be considered a future research topic.

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    Sustained hyperarousal induced by acute stress in tryptophan-hydroxylase-2 genetic deficient male mice
    ZHOU Ping, XIAO Hua, LI Yonghui, DONG Xinwen
    2022, 54 (6):  604-612.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00604
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    Severe stress is one of the major external triggers of emotion-related mental disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Stress-induced sustained hyperarousal state is not only a core symptom but also a contributor to other symptoms such as sleep disturbance and negative mood. Serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a monoamine neurotransmitter that regulates emotional response. In addition, the 5-HT system is the target for pharmacological treatment such as selective-serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for major depressive disorder, PTSD, and other emotional disorders. However, it remains unknown whether serotonin is involved in the hyperarousal state caused by severe stress, as well as the mechanism by which genetic polymorphism in serotonin regulation contributes to the vulnerability of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Tryptophan-hydroxylase-2 (Tph2) is a serotonin synthesizing enzyme that converts tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan in the brain. A genetic deficiency in the expression of Tph2 may lead to a lower level of serotonin in the brain. The present study focused on the role of serotonin in the development of stress-induced hyperarousal, investigating the behavioral effect of Tph2 gene-deficiency after severe stress in a mice model.
    Mice lacking Tph2 (Tph2-/-) in the brain have a vitally low level of serotonin and a bad health condition, so we used heterozygous Tph2-deficient mice (Tph2+/-) which have been shown to have a mild low level of serotonin in the brain. We measured the auditory startle reflex as an indicator of arousal level at different time points after predator-exposure stress or footshock stress in both male and female Tph2+/- and wild-type mice. The predator-exposure stress was to exposure a mouse to a cat for 5 minutes with a trained experimenter protecting the mouse from direct attack from the cat. The footshock stress was to exposure a mouse to a series of footshock (1.5 mA × 5s × 5, inter-shock interval 60 ~ 120 s) in a shock chamber. Then we measured the auditory startle reflex at 1-, 2-, 10-, and 18-day post-stress. For each startle test session, a total of 30 white noise stimuli were presented to the mice in a sound-isolated chamber (90 dB, 100 dB, 110 dB, ten stimuli for each level).
    The results showed that the Tph2+/- male mice had a higher level of startle than the non-stressed group at 1, 2, and 10 days after footshock stress, indicating a sustained hyperarousal. However, wild-type male mice only had an increased startle response on the day after the footshock stress. For mice with predator exposure stress, both Tph2+/- male mice and wild-type male mice showed an increased startle response on the first day after the predator stress, but then returned to the same level as the non-stressed mice. We also observed a sex difference in mice’s startle response that the female mice had a lower level of startle amplitude than that of male mice at baseline test before stress. In addition, female mice with different genotypes showed minor differences in their startle response at different time points after both types of stress.
    The results of the study indicate that the Tph2 genotype interacts with stress types in the regulation of long-term hyperarousal after severe stress events. Our results also provide preclinical evidence that individuals with Tph2 gene deficiency may be more vulnerable to stress-induced hyperarousal and highlight the potential of targeting the serotonin system for post-traumatic intervention.

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    Influence of reputational concern and social distance on moral decision-making under the harmful dilemma: Evidence from behavioral and ERPs study
    ZHAN Youlong, XIAO Xiao, TAN Qianbao, LI Jin, ZHONG Yiping
    2022, 54 (6):  613-627.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00613
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    Reputational concern has been suggested as an important determinant of human cooperative behavior and moral judgment in social interactions. Previous studies have demonstrated that reputational concern influences behavioral and neural responses during prosocial behaviors and decision-making, such as moral decision-making. Moral decision- making is a typical social decision-making process involving trade-offs between the self and others. It refers to the process in which individuals make optimal choices under the guidance of social systems and norms according to their own value orientations when faced with a variety of possible dilemmas and conflicts in behavioral choices. Emerging studies have shown that social distance modulates behavioral and neural responses during moral decision-making. However, little is known about how reputational concern and social distance interact to affect moral decision-making, particularly regarding the underlying cognitive neural mechanism of moral decision-making associated with proscriptive morality (i.e., harmful behavior).
    In the present study, we adopted the “shock-benefit dilemma” task and event-related potential (ERP) technology to examine temporal processing of the interactive influence of reputational concern and social distance on moral decision-making when faced with harmful dilemmas. Participants were instructed to complete a series of alternative dilemmas in an anonymous or public context. After being instructed whether their decisions were going to be made public to the target person, participants decided whether to deliver a certain intensity of painful electric shocks toward the targets (i.e., friends, acquaintances, or strangers) to receive money. A choice not to shock the targets meant that they would forego the benefit. Behavioral and neural responses were recorded while the participants made their decisions. The experiment consisted of 360 trials, including two blocks of anonymous and public situations and 120 trials with friends, acquaintances, and strangers.
    The results showed that participants administered fewer electric shocks to friends than to acquaintances and strangers, which suggested an obvious “egoistic altruism” decision tendency in anonymous situations. Participants spent more time and experienced greater disgust in dilemmas involving acquaintances relative to those involving friends and strangers, which showed an obvious “acquaintance effect”. However, these differences were weakened in public situations. As for the ERP results, the dilemmas involving acquaintances elicited a larger P260 component, which is associated with emotional responses, and late positive potential (LPP, 300~450 ms), which is associated with cognitive reasoning. However, these differences in ERP indices disappeared in public situations.
    The aim of this study was to explore the interaction between reputational concern and social distance in behavioral and neural responses during moral decision-making involving harmful dilemmas. The results supported the hypothesis that individuals follow the egoistic altruism moral principle to conduct moral decision-making involving reputational concern and social distance. These findings suggest that the uncertainty of acquaintance relations induces stronger negative emotions and cognitive load during moral decision-making, and reputational concern effectively weakens the aversion and dilemma conflict brought about by self-interest tendencies and interpersonal uncertainties.

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    Influence of cognitive control based on different conflict levels on the expression of gender stereotypes
    CHEN Li, SHI Xiao-ke, LI Wei-na, HU Yan
    2022, 54 (6):  628-645.  doi: 0.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00628
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    Cognitive control is the ability of individuals to flexibly adjust their thoughts and behaviors and deal with compatible and conflicting information when facing tasks. It ensures that our actions are performed smoothly according to the expected purpose. However, conflict information contains pure cognitive conflict and social conflict information. With the development of society, the division of labor of gender roles in the family has changed. Nevertheless, the traditional stereotype that men work outside and women work inside the house still exists. Furthermore, although many studies have examined the consistency effect of gender stereotype activation, the influence of cognitive control induced by different conditions on gender stereotype expression is not apparent under the task background of different conflict levels. Therefore, based on previous studies, the classic dual cognitive control theory that explains cognitive control processing, and the conflict monitoring theory that explains conflict tasks, this study systematically discusses the behavior patterns of gender stereotype expression under different conflict test times.
    In Experiment 1, the participants were asked to complete the picture classification tasks with three conflict levels using the gender picture as the priming stimulus and housework picture and work picture as the target stimulus. Experiment 2 adjusted the target stimulus to semantic stimulus and asked the participants to complete three-word classification tasks with different conflict levels. To further investigate the influence of varying conflict backgrounds of subsequent task conflict, Experiment 3 adopted the trial-to-trial control adjustment paradigm. In this paradigm, a full trial consists of two judgment tasks. First, the participants complete the word classification tasks with different conflict levels. Thereafter, they complete the gender Flanker tasks with the same conflict level.
    Experiment 1 showed that the image classification task could inhibit the expression of gender stereotypes regardless of the proportion of conflict times. Regarding the word classification task in Experiment 2, compared to the baseline level, the expression of gender stereotypes was inhibited at the high conflict level and activated at the low conflict level. Experiment 3 showed that the cognitive control processing generated by high conflict levels could be maintained in subsequent tasks. Furthermore, it was not affected by the change of task type. Additionally, Experiments 2 and 3 using the processing separation program showed that the control processing value under the high conflict condition was higher than that under the low conflict condition.
    These results indicate that cognitive control induced by tasks with different conflict proportions can inhibit the expression of gender stereotypes; however, it is affected by the presentation of information.

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    The effect of spouse emotional intelligence on employee work engagement: The mediating role of employee life well-being and the moderating role of gender
    ZHENG Xiaoming, YU Yu, LIU Xin
    2022, 54 (6):  646-664.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00646
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    Extant emotional intelligence (EI) research has documented its intrapersonal benefits and has begun to examine its interpersonal effects. However, this line of research has primarily focused on the interpersonal effects of EI in the work context, while ignoring the potential influences from non-work domain. Considering employees’ family may have a spillover effect on their work behaviors, in this research, we propose that spouse EI will affect employees’ work engagement. Specifically, integrating effort-recovery model with the EI literature, we argue that spouse EI exerts a positive impact on employee work engagement through improving employees’ life well-being. Furthermore, we argue that employee gender alters the aboved relationships such that the positive interpersonal influences of spouse EI will be stronger among male employees than among female employees.
    We conducted two studies to examine the hypothesized model. In Study 1, we collected two-wave survey data from a large bank. At time 1, 126 employees and their spouses rated their own EI and provided their demographic information. At time 2, two weeks later, 126 employees evaluated their own life well-being and work engagement. The final valid sample consisted of 124 employee-spouse dyads. In Study 2, we collected three-wave survey data from an internet company. At time 1, 80 employees assessed their own EI and some control variables (i.e., leader EI, coworker EI, job demands, and job control); and their 80 spouses evaluated their own EI and provided their demographic information. At time 2, one month later, 78 employees rated their own life well-being. At time 3, another month later, 73 employees rated their own work engagement. The HR department of the company provided the archival data of employees’ demographic information. The final valid sample included 73 employee-spouse dyads. Regression analysis and bootstrapping technique were used to test the mediation, moderation, and moderated-mediation effects.
    In line with the hypotheses, two studies consistently showed that: (1) Spouse EI was positively related to employee life well-being; (2) Employee life well-being was positively related to employee work engagement; (3) Employee life well-being served as a mediator to transmit the effect of spouse EI on employee work engagement; (4) Employee gender moderated the relationship between spouse EI and employee life well-being such that when employees were male, the positive effect of spouse EI on employee life well-being was stronger; (5) Employee gender also moderated the indirect effect of spouse EI on employee work engagement via employee life well-being such that the indirect effect was stronger among male employees than among female employees.
    Our theoretical contributions are threefold. First, our research has deepened our understanding on EI, as it is among the first to establish a link between spouse EI and employee work engagement and supports the interpersonal effects of EI from the family to the work domain. Second, our research identifies employee life well-being as a key mediator that explains how spouse EI affects employee work engagement. Third, our research highlights the role of employee gender and unravels the conditions under which spouse EI exerts more or less effects on employee work engagement. Practically, our research offers implications to improve employee life well-being and work engagement through improving spouse EI, especially wife EI.

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    Benefits and costs of employee boundary-spanning behavior: A meta-analytic review
    LAN Yuanmei, LI Chaoping, WANG Jiayan, MENG Xue
    2022, 54 (6):  665-683.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00665
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    Employee boundary-spanning behavior is critically important for organizations. Numerous studies have examined the relationships between employee boundary-spanning behavior and work-related outcomes. However, the findings are inconsistent among studies. This meta-analysis investigated the relationships between of employee boundary-spanning behavior and work attitude, performance, innovation, stress, and burnout, and also examined potential moderators and mediating mechanisms for those relationships based on social exchange theory.
    We meta-analyzed both Chinese and English primary studies on employee boundary- spanning behavior. Studies were identified with key words including “Boundary spanning”, “Boundary spanning activities/Boundary spanning activity”, “Boundary spanning behavior”, etc., in English databases including Web of Science, ProQuest (Dissertation), EBSCO, Wiley, Sage and Chinese databases of CNKI and CSSCI. Finally, 52 independent samples from 50 empirical studies (with a total sample N = 14366) were included. We chose a random-effect model to conduct the meta-analysis using the R package Psychmeta (Core team, 2020). The results showed considerable heterogeneity among the 52 independent samples, according to the heterogeneity test. The publication bias test was conducted using Egger's test, Begg test, and Failsafe number, which revealed that there was no substantial publication bias in the studies.
    With the Hunter-Schmidt’s meta-analytic method, employee boundary spanning behavior had significant relationships with job satisfaction and organizational commitment ($\bar{\rho }$ between 0.34 to 0.41) and performance outcomes ($\bar{\rho }$ between 0.19 to 0.31), as well as a small positive relationship with role stress ($\bar{\rho }$ = 0.14). It had no significant relationship with emotional exhaustion ($\bar{\rho }$= -0.10, 95% CI = [-0.25, 0.05]). Employees' boundary-spanning behavior has both benefits and costs.
    Employee type (knowledge workers-non-knowledge workers), individualism-collectivism, and power distance moderated the relationships between employee's boundary-spanning behavior and its outcomes. The relationships between employee boundary-spanning behavior and performance and innovation were stronger for knowledge workers than for nonknowledge workers, but the relationships between employee boundary-spanning behavior and job satisfaction and role stress were stronger for nonknowledge workers than for knowledge workers. Collectivism positively moderated the relationship between employee boundary-spanning behavior and job satisfaction, performance, innovation. The relationships between employee boundary-spanning behavior and job satisfaction, performance, and role stress were stronger for high power distance regions than low power distance regions. Additionally, a meta mediation analysis was conducted to examine whether work attitudes partially mediated the relationship of employee boundary-spanning behavior with work outcomes. The results revealed that employee boundary-spanning behavior had indirect impacts on performance and innovation, while having suppressing effects on stress and exhaustion. We discuss the important implications for future research and organizational practices.

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    Emotional or rational? The impact of culturally-derived power on the preference for advertising appeals
    JIANG Hongyan, ZHANG Jing, SUN Peizhen, JIANG Xianjin
    2022, 54 (6):  684-702.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00684
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    The effectiveness of advertising depends to a large extent on the consistency between the consumers’ characteristics and the advertising appeals. Previous studies have neglected the match-up effect between advertising appeals and culturally-derived power, which is considered as one of the key psychological traits. This paper examined the impact of culturally-derived power (i.e., personalized vs. socialized power) on the preference for advertising appeals and its inner mechanism. The current research proposed that consumers with personalized power (vs. socialized power) perceived high (vs. low) arousal, which led to the preference for emotional (vs. rational) advertising appeal. Furthermore, the indirect effect of culturally-derived power on the preference for advertising appeals through elevating consumers’ arousal was significant when consumers needed to justify their choices and not significant when consumers had no need to justify their choices. Our research provided empirical support for these predictions and ruled out action orientation and empathy as alternative mediators.
    In the pre-study, a total of 36 consumers were recruited to report their perceptions of culturally-derived power and their preferences for 300 random advertisement images. The results showed that culturally-derived power significantly predicted consumers’ preferences for advertising appeals, which initially verified H1.
    Experiment 1 included a pretest and a formal experiment. In the pretest, two advertisement pictures were selected and were verified as stimuli for different advertising appeals (rational vs. emotional). Meanwhile, we adopted the same layout and text length in the emotional ad and the rational ad to minimize the confounding of experimental results. In the formal experiment, a group of 101 undergraduates were randomly assigned to a condition in a one-factor (culturally-derived power: personalized vs. socialized) between-subjects design. Culturally-derived power was manipulated through reading the stimuli containing personalized vs. socialized power themes. Then, Experiment 1 investigated the mediating role of arousal in the impact of culturally-derived power on the preference for advertising appeals.
    Before Experiment 2, we conducted a pretest to verify that the two cup advertisements could be used as different advertising appeals stimuli. Then, 143 undergraduates were recruited from a large university in China. Participants were first randomly assigned to either the personalized power or socialized power condition, in which they completed a task identical to Experiment 1. Then, participants were asked to complete the measurement of empathy and covariates (i.e., rational-experiential thinking style and hedonic/utilitarian motivation). In Experiment 2, we verified H1 to H4 and ruled out empathy as a possible rival explanation by controlling the above-mentioned covariates.
    In Experiment 3, we conducted two independent pretests to select the appropriate stimuli for the main study. Specifically, the first pretest was to ensure that the two earphone advertisements with a fictitious brand could be adopted as the advertising appeals stimuli; the second pretest was to verify that the manipulation of need for justification was effective. Then, 595 undergraduates were recruited to participate in a 2 (culturally-derived power: personalized vs. socialized) × 2 (need for justification: no need to justify vs. need to justify) between-subjects design experiment. Culturally-derived power was primed via a recall-and-writing task. Consistent with our hypothesis, the results confirmed that the need for justification could moderate the mediating effect of arousal in the relationship between culturally-derived power and the preference for advertising appeals by controlling the hedonic/utilitarian value and the promotion/prevention focused. In Experiment 3, we also excluded action orientation as a possible rival explanation.
    In Experiment 4, we recruited 618 adult consumers with different cultural backgrounds to participate in a 2 (power: high vs. low) × 2 (advertising appeal: emotional vs. rational) × 4 (individual-level cultural orientation: VI vs. VC vs. HI vs. HC) mixed experimental design. The results confirmed a significant interaction between power and cultural orientation on the preferences for different advertising appeals.
    This research provides some theoretical contributions. First, the study investigated the important role of power in the effectiveness of advertising information on the basis of the two-dimensional perspective of cultural orientation, which provided a new research perspective. Second, the current research explored the construct of arousal as the mediating role to explain the influence of culturally-derived power on the preference for advertising appeals. Finally, our study further expanded the application scope of Decision Justification Theory by introducing the need for justification as the boundary condition. In addition, this research provides important practical enlightenment for managers to design appropriate advertising information and formulate advertising marketing strategies according to the variance of consumers’ culturally-derived power.

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    Standard errors and confidence intervals for cognitive diagnostic models: Parallel bootstrap methods
    LIU Yanlou
    2022, 54 (6):  703-724.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00703
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    The model parameter standard error (SE; or variance-covariance matrix), which provides an estimate of the uncertainty associated with the model parameter estimate, has both theoretical and practical implications in cognitive diagnostic models (CDMs). The drawbacks of the analytic methods, such as the empirical cross-product information matrix, observed information matrix, and “robust” sandwich-type information matrix, are that they require the positive definiteness of the information matrix and may suffer from boundary problems. Another method for estimating model parameter SEs is to use the computer-intensive bootstrap method, and consequently, no study has systematically explored the performance of the bootstrap in calculating model parameter SEs and confidence intervals (CIs) in CDMs.
    The purpose of this research is to present two new highly efficient bootstrap methods to calculate model parameter SEs and CIs in CDMs, namely the parallel parametric bootstrap (pPB) and parallel non-parametric bootstrap (pNPB) methods. A simulation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the pPB and pNPB methods. Five factors that may influence the performance of the model parameter SEs and CIs were manipulated. The two model specification scenarios considered in this simulation were the correctly specified and over-specified models. The sample size was set to two levels: 1, 000 and 3, 000. Three bootstrap sample sizes were manipulated: 200, 500, and 3, 000. Three levels of item quality were considered: high [$P(\mathbf{0})=0.1$, $P(\mathbf{1})=0.9$], moderate [$P(\mathbf{0})=0.2$, $P(\mathbf{1})=0.8$], and low quality [$P(\mathbf{0})=0.3$, $P(\mathbf{1})=0.7$]. The pPB and pNPB methods were used to estimate model parameter SEs and CIs.
    The simulation results indicated the following.
    (1) For the correctly specified CDMs, under the high- or moderate-item-quality conditions, the coverage rates of the 95% CIs of the model parameter SEs based on the pNPB or pPB method were reasonably close to the expected coverage rate, and the bias for each model parameter SE converged to zero, meaning that the estimated SE was almost identical to the empirical SE. The increase in the bootstrap sample size had only a slight effect on the performance of the pNPB or pPB method. Under the low-item-quality condition, the pNPB method tended to over-estimate SE, whereas a contrary trend was observed for the pPB method.
    (2) For the over-specified CDMs, most of the permissible item parameter SEs and almost all of the permissible structural parameter SEs exhibited good performance in terms of the 95% CI coverage rates and bias. Under most of the simulation conditions, the impermissible model parameter SEs did not exhibit good performance in approximating the empirical SEs.
    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which the performance of the bootstrap method in estimating model parameter SEs and CIs in CDMs is systematically investigated. The pNPB or pPB appears to be a useful tool for researchers interested in evaluating the uncertainty of the model parameter point estimates. As a time-saving computational strategy, the pNPB or pPB method is substantially faster than the usual bootstrap method. The simulation and real data studies showed that 3, 000 re-samples might be adequate for the bootstrap method in calculating model parameter SEs and CIs in CDMs.

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