ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    The effect of the angry emoji position on consumers’ perception of the sender’s anger
    WU Ruijuan, CHEN Jiuqi, LI Yan
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (10): 1133-1145.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01133
    Abstract7727)   HTML1122)    PDF (689KB)(10041)      

    Emoji are widely adopted in smartphones, for input methods, and on social networks. As ubiquitous characters, emoji transcend linguistic borders and are gaining worldwide popularity. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of the position of the angry emoji in negative online consumer reviews on the consumers’ perceptions of the sender’s anger. The present study first proposed the main location effect of the position of the angry emoji on the consumers’ perception of the sender’s anger. That is, compared with the angry emoji at the end of a sentence, the angry emoji in the middle of a sentence led to a stronger perception of anger. Based on visual information processing of the location effect, the current research proposed that the position salience perception and the sentiment-strengthening perception of the angry emoji serially mediated the above main effect. Further, we hypothesized that word review extremity moderated the effect of the position of the angry emoji on the consumers’ perceptions of the sender’s anger.
    For this paper, we conducted one eye-tracking experiment and three laboratory experiments. In Study 1, we conducted a pretest, which was the eye-tracking experiment. The product used in the pretest was a thermos mug. Study 1 was a 3 (one emoji at the end of a sentence vs. one in the middle of a sentence vs. no emoji) × 2 (feature description: feature one precedes feature two vs. feature two precedes feature one) between-subjects design. The product used in Study 1 was a laptop. Study 2 was a 2 (the position of the angry emoji at the end vs. in the middle of a sentence) × 2 (feature description: feature one precedes feature two vs. feature two precedes feature one) between-subjects design. Study 2 used a gel-ink pen refill as the target product. In Study 2, we measured the consumers’ perceptions of the sender’s anger, the angry emoji sentiment-strengthening perception, and the position salience perception created by the angry emoji. Study 3 was a 2 (the position of the angry emoji at the end vs. in the middle of a sentence) × 2 (word review extremity: moderate vs. extreme) between-subjects design. Study 3 used a coat as the target product.
    The results of the pretest demonstrated the effectiveness of visual information processing on the location effect. The position of the angry emoji influenced the participants’ attention. The angry emoji in the middle of a sentence led to higher fixation counts and longer fixation durations. The results of Study 1 demonstrated the main effect in this paper, which was that an angry emoji in the middle of a sentence led to a stronger perception of the sender’s anger than did an angry emoji at the end of a sentence. The results of Study 2 replicated the results of Study 1 and tested the serial-mediating roles of the position salience perception and the sentiment- strengthening perception of the angry emoji. The results of Study 3 replicated the results of Study 2 and tested the moderating role of word review extremity in the relationship between the position of the angry emoji and the consumers’ perception of the sender’s anger. When we considered the extreme word review, the influence of the position of the angry emoji on the sender’s perception of anger was not significant; however, when we considered the moderate word review, the angry emoji in the middle of a sentence significantly enhanced the consumers’ perception of the sender’s anger.
    The current research extended the extant literature in several dimensions. First, it supplemented the literature in the field of marketing on the effects of the emoji on consumers’ responses. Second, it supplemented the literature of application contexts and the influence of the location effect. Third, the present research provided empirical evidence for emoji functions. Fourth, the present study supplemented the literature of online consumer reviews.

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    Effects of integration of facial expression and emotional voice on inhibition of return
    ZHANG Ming, WANG Tingting, WU Xiaogang, ZHANG Yue’e, WANG Aijun
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (4): 331-342.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00331
    Abstract6748)   HTML882)    PDF (773KB)(8080)      

    Both inhibition of return (IOR) and emotion have the characteristics of attentional bias and improving search efficiency. Previous studies mostly used a single modality presentation of emotional stimuli to investigate the relationship between the two, but the findings are inconsistent. Existing studies have shown that the congruent emotion of audiovisual dual modality can be integrated into the perceptual stage, which is the same as the processing stage of IOR. Therefore, the present study adopted the cue-target paradigm and used audiovisual dual modality to present emotional stimuli to further investigate the interaction between emotion and IOR.
    Experiment 1 was a three-factor within-subject design. We manipulated the presentation of cue validity (cued vs. uncued), target modalities (visual vs. audiovisual), and emotion type (negative vs. neutral). The task of the subjects was to identify the emotional stimuli of visual modality. Experiment 2 was similar to Experiment 1, but the emotional congruency was changed. The audiovisual dual modality presented incongruent emotional stimuli (visual negative face-auditory neutral sound; visual neutral face-auditory negative sound) to further investigate whether the impact of the audiovisual dual modality emotional stimulus on IOR was caused by the emotional stimulus of the auditory modality, that is, whether the emotional stimulus of the auditory modality was processed.
    In Experiment 1, the responses in the cued condition were slower than those in the uncued condition, which suggested that IOR occurred. More importantly, the interaction between emotion type and cue validity in the audiovisual dual modality condition showed that congruent negative emotion produces a smaller IOR effect (11 ms) than neutral emotion (25 ms). At the same time, the audiovisual dual modality condition produced a smaller IOR effect (18 ms) than the visual single modality condition (40 ms). We also found a larger multisensory response enhancement effect in the congruent negative emotion than in the neutral emotion. In Experiment 2, the results showed that there was no interaction between emotion and IOR under the condition of audiovisual dual modality, and there was no significant difference in IOR effect between single modality and audiovisual dual modality. This indicated that the IOR effect was not influenced by the presence of incongruent emotion in the audiovisual dual modality. In summary, the present study showed that the IOR effect was influenced only when the audiovisual dual modality presented the same emotion.
    Our findings revealed that IOR and audiovisual dual modality congruent emotion in the same processing stage had a mutual influence. Audiovisual dual modality congruent emotion weakened the IOR effect, and the differences between the negative emotion and the neutral emotion showed the adaptability of IOR. At the same time, this study further supports the perceptual inhibition theory of IOR.

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    How does emotion shape aggressive behavior of violent offenders? An explanation based on emotion regulation theory
    LIU Yuping, ZHOU Bingtao, YANG Bo
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (3): 270-280.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00270
    Abstract6638)   HTML1067)    PDF (638KB)(7808)      

    Emotion is considered to be an important factor affecting aggressive behavior. According to emotion regulation theory, distressed people hope to improve their moods, and the motivation to use aggression to improve mood will increase aggressive behavior. In other words, the expectation of emotions is an important factor in the generation of aggressive behavior. Previous theories and studies mostly focused on the role of negative emotions such as anger in aggressive behavior. Recently, some researchers believe that positive affect plays an equally important role in aggression. Also, negative and positive affect are orthogonal, they should be studied separately. In addition, according to the purpose of aggression, it is often divided into premeditated/ proactive aggression and impulsive/reactive aggression, the mechanism between the two subtypes may exist differences. Finally, most of the previous studies used college students as participants, and the external validity is limited. The present study based on emotion regulation theory, selected violent offenders as participants to explore the role of negative/positive affect in proactive and reactive aggression with 2 studies.
    In study 1, we recruited 88 violent offenders for a scenario-based experiment. Participants were randomly divided into a reactive aggression group (n = 46) and a proactive aggression group (n = 42) in the adapted reaction time competition paradigm (Taylor Aggression Paradigm). Participants finished the first stage to manipulate types of aggression. Participants were told to compete with another participant (a fake participant) in racing the speed of reactions. In the reactive aggression group, participants lost the game and received negative feedback from their rivals; in the proactive aggression group, participants won the game and received positive feedback from their rivals. Then, they completed the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and the questionnaire of emotion regulation motive. Finally, they finished the second stage in which they could send noises to their rivals, which can be considered as an aggressive indicator. Model 4 of Process in SPSS 23.0 was used to test the mediating role of emotion regulation motive between negative/positive affect and aggression. Participants finished PANAS after the second stage for study 2. Repeated measures ANOVA and regression analysis were used to test the change of emotion before and after aggression.
    Study 1 showed that the motivation to improve mood played a mediating role between negative emotion and proactive/reactive aggression, but the effect was not significant for positive emotion. Study 2 showed that positive emotions would increase after proactive and reactive aggression; reactive aggression could reduce negative emotions, while proactive aggression could increase negative emotions.
    The following conclusions can be obtained from the two experiments: (1) In a negative emotional state, violent offenders hope to improve their mood by conducting aggressive behavior. (2) Proactive and reactive aggression can increase the positive emotions of violent offenders, indicating that aggression can produce pleasure. (3) Reactive aggression can reduce negative emotions; proactive aggression can increase the negative emotions of violent criminals. The present study illustrates the relationship between emotion, especially positive emotion, and aggressive behavior in violent offenders. Aggression can produce pleasure, but it may also increase negative emotions, which in turn increases aggressive behavior, forming a feedback loop, which reflects the non-adaptive of aggressive behavior from the perspective of emotion. In practice, especially in prison, we should help individuals to learn a reasonable way to regulate their emotions, such as mindfulness.

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    Emotional bias of trait anxiety on pre-attentive processing of facial expressions: ERP investigation
    LI Wanyue, LIU Shen, HAN Shangfeng, ZHANG Lin, XU Qiang
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (1): 1-11.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00001
    Abstract5736)   HTML537)    PDF (1298KB)(12527)      

    Facial expressions are important for understanding the emotional feelings of other human beings. However, individual factors, such as sex, age, and personality traits, can influence the perception of facial expressions. For example, individuals with an elevated level of trait anxiety—which is a measure of the frequency and intensity of occurrence of anxiety-related symptoms—show attentional bias toward emotional stimuli; that is, they pay greater attention to emotional information such as facial expressions. Previous studies focused mainly on the attentional processing stage, but whether trait anxiety affects the pre-attentive processing stage of facial expression perception remains unclear. Pre-attentive processing is an automatic evaluation of whether attention is needed to react to a stimulus, thereby filtering out irrelevant information to conserve cognitive resources and improve information processing efficiency. Hence, the present study is aimed at investigating the pre-attentive processing of facial expressions and the bias toward emotional stimuli of trait-anxious individuals during the pre-attentive processing stage.
    According to Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores, 20 participants who scored in the top 27% were assigned to the high-trait-anxiety group (13 women; mean age 19.02 ± 0.63 years) and 20 participants who scored in the bottom 27% were assigned to the low-trait-anxiety group (11 women; mean age 19.63 ± 0.88 years). The stimuli used in the experiment were happy, sad, and neutral face images selected from the Chinese Facial Affective Picture System (CAFPS) that included 10 pictures (five females and five males) of each of the aforementioned emotions. The deviant-standard-reverse oddball paradigm included four types of facial expression sequences: neutral standard stimuli/happy deviant stimuli; happy standard stimuli/neutral deviant stimuli; neutral standard stimuli/sad deviant stimuli; and sad standard stimuli/neutral deviant stimuli. “Standard stimuli” means that this type of stimulus appeared approximately 80% of the time in the sequence, and the deviant stimuli appeared approximately 20% of the time. Participants were instructed to detect unpredictable changes in the size of a fixation cross at the center of the visual field and to press a corresponding button as quickly and accurately as possible and to ignore facial expressions.
    The results revealed that the amplitudes of N170 elicited by deviant faces were significantly larger than those of standard faces. Importantly, in the early expression mismatch negativity (EMMN) results, the mean amplitude elicited by sad facial expressions was significantly larger than that elicited by happy facial expressions in the low-trait-anxiety group, but there was no significant difference between happy and sad facial expressions in the high-trait-anxiety group. Moreover, the early EMMN amplitude of happy faces was significantly larger in the high-trait-anxiety group than in the low-trait-anxiety group. These results suggest that the high-trait-anxiety group had a similar amplification of EMMN amplitude for both happy and sad expressions. The results further show that there is a difference between high and low trait anxiety in the pre-attentive processing of facial expressions. This, in turn, suggests that personality traits are important factors influencing the pre-attentive processing of facial expressions, and that high-trait-anxiety individuals may have difficulty in effectively distinguishing between happy and sad emotional faces during the pre-attentive processing stage and have similar processing patterns for both.

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    The relationship between positive parenting and adolescent prosocial behaviour: The mediating role of empathy and the moderating role of the oxytocin receptor gene
    ZHANG Wenxin, LI Xi, CHEN Guanghui, CAO Yanmiao
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (9): 976-991.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00976
    Abstract5708)   HTML908)    PDF (1045KB)(11070)      

    Prosocial behaviour, that is, behaviour intended to benefit others, has been linked to a variety of desirable traits, including positive relationships, better academic performance and lower levels of antisocial behaviours. As such, the origins and the mechanisms underlying the remarkable individual differences in prosocial behaviour are the focus of an increasing number of studies, with numerous research consistently documenting the important role of positive parenting and empathy. Notably, differentiating between cognitive and emotional components of empathy may help further clarify the processes by which parenting eventuates in prosocial behaviour. Although all children may be impacted by parenting, some children benefit more than others from good-quality rearing. Recent research has suggested that the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene rs53576 polymorphism could determine the degree to which a child is influenced by environment. The biological function of rs53576 polymorphism has yet to be delineated, and the literature is mixed with regard to heterozygote (AG) grouping; thus, the implications for AG grouping are not well understood. Therefore, the dummy coding, additive coding, dominant coding and recessive coding models were all investigated in this study to test the nature of gene effect. This study aimed to extend previous studies on the association between parenting and prosocial behaviour by examining the mediating role of cognitive and emotional empathy and the moderating role of the OXTR gene.

    The participants were 1082 mother-offspring dyads (adolescents’ mean age: 12.32 ± 0.48 years, 50.3% females) recruited from the community. At Time 1, mothers reported their positive parenting via the Chinese version of the Child-Rearing Practices Report (CRPR) and peer-rated adolescents’ prosocial behaviours. At Time 2, adolescent-reported perspective-taking and empathic concern, peer-rated prosocial behaviours and saliva samples were collected. All measures showed good reliability. Genotyping at OXTR gene was performed with MassARRAY RT software version 3.0.0.4 and analysed using the MassARRAY Typer software version 3.4 (Sequenom).

    Results showed that adolescents who received higher levels of maternal positive parenting exhibited more prosocial behaviours. However, the direct effect of positive parenting on prosocial behaviour became nonsignificant after controlling for baseline prosocial behaviour. Cognitive empathy, but not emotional empathy, mediated the association between positive parenting and prosocial behaviour. Specifically, positive parenting was positively associated with cognitive empathy, which in turn was positively associated with adolescent prosocial behaviour. Further, this mediation was moderated by the OXTR gene rs53576 polymorphism. For adolescents with AA and GG genotypes, positive parenting was related to higher levels of cognitive empathy, which increased prosocial behaviour. However, this mediation effect was not observed among adolescents with AG genotype. In addition, the results revealed evidence for an overdominance model for OXTR rs53576. Moreover, the G × E term predicted cognitive empathy but not prosocial behaviour. This finding suggests that cognitive empathy may be an endophenotype closer along the causal chain to the genotype and that the strength of the G × E effects was greater for empathy than for distal behavioural outcomes.

    These findings add to our understanding of how empathy and genetic factors contribute to adolescents’ prosocial behaviour within the family context. In addition, these results suggest that cognitive and emotional aspects of empathy are likely to be involved—in somewhat different psychosocial mechanisms—in the development of prosocial behaviour. Notably, the overdominance effect of OXTR should be interpreted with caution until replicated. However, when a three-category polymorphic genotype is used, as is commonly applied when modelling a dominant or recessive effect, both false positive and false negative results can occur, and the nature of the interaction can be misrepresented.

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    The double-edged-sword effect of empathy: The secondary traumatic stress and vicarious posttraumatic growth of psychological hotline counselors during the outbreak of COVID-19
    LAI Lizu, REN Zhihong, YAN Yifei, NIU Gengfeng, ZHAO Chunxiao, LUO Mei, ZHANG Lin
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (9): 992-1002.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00992
    Abstract4974)   HTML631)    PDF (510KB)(8097)      

    The novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak increases public mental stress and pandemic-related trauma. Timely and comprehensive online mental health services have been deployed across China. Hotline counselors can be exposed to the stress and trauma experienced by callers indirectly. They may experience secondary traumatic stress (STS) as a result of their empathetic engagement with traumatized clients, and they may also experience vicarious posttraumatic growth (VPTG). The present study examined negative and positive change in hotline counselors concurrently and explored the mechanisms of both positive and negative outcomes.

    Participants were 776 counselors (81% female, average age = 42.57 ± 7.90, average years of experience = 12.44 ± 5.92) recruited from MOE-CCNU Mental Health Service Platform, the biggest official telephone-based and online psychological support platform in China during COVID-19 period. Empathy and VPTG were measured by revised Chinese versions of self-report questionnaires. STS was assessed by the corresponding subscale of the Professional Quality of Life Scale. The Chinese Meaning in Life Questionnaire was used to assess participants’ search for life meaning. Mindfulness was evaluated by Mindful Attention Awareness Scale. Latent variable structural equation modeling was applied.

    After controlling age, trauma cases and total cases, counselors’ empathy was positively associated with STS and VPTG. Results revealed that empathy was positively associated with STS and VPTG. Mindfulness mediated this association between empathy and STS. Search for meaning mediated the relationship between empathy and VPTG. Additionally, the association between empathy and VPTG was also mediated through other four significant mediating pathways: (a) secondary trauma stress, (b) secondary traumatic stress and search for meaning, (c) mindfulness and search for meaning, and (d) mindfulness and secondary trauma stress and search for meaning.

    Our findings support that empathy lead to both positive and negative outcomes among hotline counselors during COVID-19 period in China, highlighting dialectical insights into trauma workers’ experiences. When counselors engage in others’ traumatic experience, their vicarious negative emotional experience may be a pathway to growth, and search for life meaning is an important factor in that growth.

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    Kawai vs. Whimsical: The influence of cuteness types of luxury brands on consumers’ preferences
    FENG Wenting, XU Yuanping, HUANG Hai, WANG Tao
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (3): 313-330.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00313
    Abstract4904)   HTML842)    PDF (894KB)(5326)      

    Cute brand styles are being used by increasing number of luxury brands in their marketing to interact with consumers. Cuteness can be divided into two types, including kindchenschema and whimsical. The majority of current studies are focused on the effects of single kindchenschema cuteness on consumer psychology and behavior. So, how does the adoption of various cute styles by luxury brands influence consumer preference? What is the internal mechanism? We have contributed to the literature on luxury brands by investigating how consumers react to various cute styles of luxury brands in the current study.
    In order to achieve their various objectives, luxury brands can deliver specific messages to the market by selecting brand images of various cute styles. In this case, the cuteness type of luxury brands (kindchenschema vs. whimsical) can influence consumers’ brand preferences through their perception of the brand’s ideal self-expression. The ideal self of an individual is generally characterized by high autonomy. According to the theory of the ideal self, the cuteness styles of luxury goods can influence consumers’ ideal self-expression through the autonomy of luxury brands. When the cuteness style is whimsical, luxury brands demonstrate high brand autonomy, which is conducive to consumers’ ideal self-expression, thereby improving consumers’ preferences for luxury brands. However, there are boundary conditions for the applicability of main effects, and self-monitoring moderates the relationship between luxury brands’ cuteness styles and consumers’ preferences. In other words, when the level of self-monitoring is low, the cuteness styles of luxury brands will not significantly affect the individual’s brand preferences.
    To test our hypotheses, we conducted four experiments. Experiment 1 preliminarily shows that different cuteness styles of luxury brands can significantly influence consumers’ brand preferences. The findings validate the causal chain model, which tests the theoretical logic of main effects, from cuteness styles of luxury brands, brand autonomy, ideal self-expression, and consumer preference. Experiment 2 clarifies the main effect’s boundary. The results indicate that the influence of luxury brand cuteness styles on consumer preferences is only effective in the context of luxury brands. Experiment 3 examined the moderating effect of individual self-monitoring level on the main effect and discovered that for individuals with low self-monitoring, the cuteness styles of luxury brands could not effectively influence their brand preferences. Experiment 4 investigated the moderating effect of the individual development stage on the main effect. Adults preferred whimsical cuteness elicited over kindchenschema cuteness. Kindchenschema cuteness triggered a more positive response than whimsical cuteness in children.
    According to our findings, adopting the whimsical cuteness style in luxury brands can improve consumers’ brand preferences more than kindchenschema cuteness style. When the cuteness style is kindchenschema, luxury brands demonstrate low brand autonomy, which is not conducive to consumers’ ideal self-expression, reducing consumers’ preferences for luxury brands. When the cuteness style is whimsical, luxury brands demonstrate high brand autonomy, which is consistent with the consumers’ ideal self and improves their preferences for luxury brands. When individuals have low self-monitoring, the cuteness styles of luxury brands have no effect on consumers’ preferences. These findings provide novel insights into the cuteness styles and ideal self-expression of luxury brands, implying that brands should carefully consider consumers’ level of self-monitoring before displaying various cuteness types of luxury brand styles.

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    The effects of expectation on attention are dependent on whether expectation is on the target or on the distractor?
    ZHOU Zinuan, CHEN Yanzhang, FU Shimin
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (3): 221-235.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00221
    Abstract4790)   HTML1066)    PDF (817KB)(5780)      

    Both attention and expectation are important mechanisms to help the brain filter and process information in a complex environment. However, there is still no unified conclusion about whether they act interactively or additively on perception. Previous studies that used the spatial cueing paradigm to address this issue might have confounded attention and expectation. Recently, researchers have made efforts to define attention and expectation orthogonally. Using ERP and fMRI techniques, they explored the relationship between endogenous attention and probabilistic expectation in a way that defining attention by task relevance and defining expectation by probability. In the present study, we explored the relationship between exogenous attention and probabilistic expectation, by making clear orthogonal definitions for them. Moreover, previous studies mainly considered the relationship between target expectation and attention. Considering the possible difference between expectation on a target and expectation on a distractor, we also focus on the influence of expected subject in the relationship between expectation and attention.
    In the present study, double peripheral cuing combined with visual search paradigm were used to explore the relationship between expectation and attention. We defined attention using peripheral cues without probabilistic information. Attended was defined when a peripheral cue was consistent with the location of the target, and unattended was defined when the peripheral cue was inconsistent with the location of the target. Expectations were defined by using spatial probabilities, and the participants were told beforehand where the stimulus would be more likely to occur through instruction. Four experiments were carried out in this study, and each experiment included 24 valid participants. Before the formal experiment, the participants were told which locations the target would appear more frequently (the distractor was randomly presented) or which locations the distractor will appear more frequently (the target was randomly presented). In a formal trial, the participants were presented with a 500 ms fixation point first, and then there were 50 ms double-cues without any validity probability. After the double-cues disappeared for 150 ms, a target array (consisted of a target and a distractor) appeared for 1000 ms. Participants were asked to find the target and to perform a discrimination task by pressing corresponding keys.
    In experiment 1, the double-cues were presented randomly in the left or right visual field, such that attention was manipulated in left or right visual field. In contrast, the participants were expected the targets or distractors to occur more in the upper or lower visual field, that is, expectation was manipulated in the upper or lower visual filed, orthogonal to the manipulation of attention. In Experiment 1, we found that when the expected subject is different (on the target or on the distractor), the relationship between expectation and attention was different. When the target is the expected, expectation and attention influenced performance in an interactive way. However, when the distractor is the expected, they influenced performance in an additive way. In experiment 2, the double-cues were randomly presented in the upper or lower visual field, while the participants were expected the targets or distractors to occur more frequently in the left or right visual field. Contrary to our prediction, under this manipulation of attention, the main effect of attention was not significant. We suspected that this was due to the presence of attention cues across the left and right visual field. Therefore, we improved Experiment 3 by presenting the attention cues with diagonal locations centered on the fixation point, and manipulating the expectation on the orthogonal diagonal location to the attention cues. We replicated the basic findings of Experiment 1 in Experiment 3, that is, when the target was expected, expectation and attention interactively influenced performance. However, when the distractor was expected, expectation and attention influenced performance separately. Furthermore, in order to explore whether task difficulty affects the relationship between expectation and attention, we increased the number of stimuli in Experiment 4. Again, we found that when the target was expected, expectation and attention were interacted in Experiment 4. Moreover, by comparing with Experiment 1, we found that the relationship between expectation and attention did not change as a function of task difficulty.
    Our results suggested that when the expected subject is different (on the target or on the distractor), the relationship between expectation and attention was different. Previous studies have suggested that in the process of visual search, the promotion of the target and the inhibition of the distractor are controlled by two different neural mechanisms. Therefore, the relationship between expectation and attention is different when target is the expected subject relative to when distractor is the expected subject.When the target is expected, the interaction between expectation and attention on performance can be explained by predictive coding theory. Under the expected condition, the prediction error is small and there is no need to update the prediction model in the brain, so the efficiency of attention is higher. Under unexpected conditions, the prediction model needs to be updated, which leads to relatively low efficiency of attention. When the distractor is expected, expectation and attention affect performance additively, which may be due to the low correlation between the distractor expectation and the target task, or the processing of the distractor and the target are completed by different neural mechanisms. In conclusion, we believe that when expectation is anchored to different subjects, the relationship between expectation and attention are different. Specifically, when expectation is anchored to the distractor, they influence performance independently, and when expectation is anchored to the target, they are influence performance interactively.

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    An effect of menstrual cycle phase on episodic memory
    LI Jianhua, XIE Jiajia, ZHUANG Jin-Ying
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (5): 466-480.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00466
    Abstract4741)   HTML491)    PDF (6306KB)(8675)      

    Episodic memory refers to the recollection of personally experienced events in a specific context. Evolutionary psychology findings have suggested that female sex hormones may be important influencing factors for episodic memory, but the specific mechanism underlying these influences are unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine whether periodic fluctuations of estrogen and progesterone over the menstrual cycle may influence episodic memory in the What-Where-When Task.
    Healthy women with stable menstrual cycles and not taking exogenous hormones were recruited for two experiments. In Experiment 1, episodic memory was tested with 33 women during the late follicular phase (FP) and during the mid-luteal phase (LP) with the following five tasks employing images of objects as stimuli: object-only, position-only, object-position binding, object-order binding, and position-order binding. The testing order was counter-balanced across subjects. After a learning phase, participants were asked to recollect elements according to the requirements of each task, and the accuracy rates of their recollections were recorded as dependent variables.
    The results of Experiment 1 showed that recollection accuracy differed between the late FP and mid-LP for only one of the tasks, namely the position-order binding task. Thus, in Experiment 2, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during the performance of the position-order binding task, while recollection accuracy performance was evaluated. For the position-order binding task in both experiments, a significantly higher response accuracy rate was observed in the mid-LP than in the late FP. Regarding the ERP results, amplitudes of the P300 component and the late positive component (LPC) in frontal cortices, which has associated with cognitive control, were found to be higher in the mid-LP than in the late FP. The present results support the notion that people may have greater cognitive control of episodic memory in the mid-LP than in the late FP.
    In conclusion, the present results showed that menstrual cycle phase affects position-order binding memory performance and concomitant neural activities. Better episodic memory performance during the mid-LP, relative to the late FP, could be attributed to better cognitive control ability. This study provides new information on physiological factors that can affect episodic memory.

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    The causal mechanism between envy and subjective well-being: Based on a longitudinal study and a diary method
    XIANG Yanhui, HE Jiali, LI Qingyin
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (1): 40-53.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00040
    Abstract4654)   HTML402)    PDF (803KB)(9325)      

    With the rise of the Internet and the popularity of mobile phones, sharing life and flaunting happiness on Facebook and WeChat has gradually become the norm, which easily induces upward social comparison and leads to the generalization of envy. So, is there a predictive causal mechanism between envy and subjective well-being (SWB)? To the best of our knowledge, there is no in-depth study on this issue at present. Thus, based on the perspective of social comparison theory, this study used a longitudinal study and a diary method to systematically to explore the causal mechanism between dispositional envy and subjective well-being.
    A two-wave longitudinal study with the time interval of one year and a fourteen-day diary survey were conducted to test our hypotheses. Specifically, a sample of 307 young students participated in a two-wave study including the measurements of dispositional envy and SWB. We employed structural equation modelling techniques to assess cross-lagged effects between envy and the bi-factor structure of SWB [i.e., life satisfaction (LS), negative affect (NA), positive affect (PA) and the general SWB factor (gSWB)] in four models. On the other hand, a sample of 178 young students was selected by cluster sampling method. After a fourteen-day diary survey, we used HLM 6.08 to construct a hierarchical linear model to study the effects of daily envy on daily PA, NA and LS, and then we tested the mutual prediction between effect of daily envy and subjective well-being with amos24.0, latent growth curve model (LGCM) and structural equation model (SEM).
    The results of the longitudinal study showed that the dispositional envy of young students can positively predict NA (β = 0.54, p = 0.003) and gSWB (β = 0.81, p = 0.032), and negatively predict PA (β = -0.73, p = 0.011) and LS (β = -0.82, p = 0.016) in a long period of time. The result of the diary method indicated that the envy of the previous day could only positively predict NA of the next day in the bi-factor model of subjective well-being in a short period of time. That means the dispositional envy of young students can only positively predict their own NA. We also found that PA, NA and LS of the previous day can all predict the envy of the next day. Besides, the result of this study showed that there was an interaction between envy and gSWB, in which envy can positively predict gSWB (β = 0.81, p = 0.032) and gSWB can negatively predict envy (β = -0.17, p = 0.047).
    In conclusion, based on the theoretical perspective of social comparison, this study deeply reveals the complex causal mechanism between envy and PA, NA, LS of SWB from a longitudinal study and a diary method. In addition, on the basis of this finding, we put forward a circular hypothesis model of envy and gSWB for the first time, which provides a new perspective for exploring the predictive causal relationship between envy and SWB from the perspective of social comparison theory, and a new way for improving young students’ well-being.

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    Does “male beauty” really work: The impact of male endorsements on female consumers’ evaluation of female-gender-imaged product
    WANG Lili, DONG Menglu
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (2): 192-204.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00192
    Abstract4641)   HTML810)    PDF (839KB)(6764)      

    Nowadays, using male spokesperson to endorse female-gender-imaged product has become an important advertising strategy and has penetrated into many female-gender-imaged products, especially thanks to celebrity influence. Does it really work? While previous research only combined with a certain degree of theory to explain the cross-gender endorsement phenomenon, this paper aims to explore the relationship between the gender of female-gender-imaged product spokesperson and female consumer's product evaluation through a quantitative approach. Specifically, we proposed that when male spokesperson endorses female-gender-imaged product, female consumers would significantly downgrade their evaluation of the products compared to female spokesperson, which is mediated by a sense of gender-identity threat. In addition, when the participants are manipulated to increase gender affirmation, the main effect would be strengthened.
    Study 1 used a single factor (gender of female-gender-imaged product spokesperson: male vs. female) between-subjects design. 145 female college students were invited to participate in this study. Participants were asked to imagine a billboard advertising a lipstick endorsed by male star or female star, and then evaluated this lipstick by a scale. We examined the main effect through this scenario that using male spokesperson to endorse female-gender-imaged product would decrease female consumers’ product evaluation.
    Study 2A used a similar between-subjects design. 119 female participants were recruited to imagine a billboard of obstetrics and gynecology hospital endorsed by male star or female star, and then evaluated this obstetrics and gynecology hospital as well as sense of gender-identity threat by scales. Study 2B invited 136 female college students to replicate the results of Study 2A, ruling out the alternative explanations of shyness and shame. Participants were asked to look at an underwear advertisement poster that used endorsement by a real celebrity. We repeated the results of Study 1 and confirmed the mediating effect of a sense of gender-identity threat with bootstrap test to clarify the underlying mechanism.
    Study 3 used a 2 (gender of female-gender-imaged product spokesperson: male vs. female) × 2 (gender affirmation: with vs. without) between-subjects design. 250 female Mturk workers participated in this study. In the gender affirmation condition, participants were asked to write about important qualities and values of women. In the control condition, participants were asked to list 20 everyday items that came to mind. Next, participants were told that they were browsing an online shopping platform and intended to buy underwear. They would see the underwear picture of a famous brand endorsed by a popular female star (vs. a popular male star) and then fill out the same product evaluation scale as above. We examined the interaction between gender of female-gender-imaged product spokesperson and gender affirmation. Specifically, when the female-gender-imaged product uses male endorsement, the product evaluation of the gender affirmation condition is lower than that of the control condition.
    Apart from the above, results from these studies were summarized and showed that both exclusivity and privacy of female-gender-imaged product have significant interaction effects on the relationship between spokesperson gender and product evaluation.
    In summary, this paper combines the theory of self-concept and identity consciousness to provide evidences for a mechanism between cross-gender endorsement and female consumer's product evaluation mediated by a sense of gender-identity threat, and the moderating effect of gender affirmation, expanding the downstream results of product gender attribute research and contributing to the practice of advertising field.

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    Relationship between depression and cognitive reappraisal in 8-12 years old children: The mediating role of attention bias toward sad expression
    ZHANG Ni, LIU Wen, LIU Fang, GUO Xin
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (1): 25-39.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00025
    Abstract4586)   HTML624)    PDF (841KB)(9681)      

    As a typical negative emotion, depression significantly affects the development of an individual’s cognitive, emotional, and social functions. Cognitive impairment is common in depressed individuals with its main characteristic being emotional disorder. Based on Beck’s cognitive theory of depression and Gross’s progress model of emotion regulation, the current study explored the relationship between depression and cognitive reappraisal strategies and its mechanism in children aged 8~12 years.
    Study 1a measured depression, anxiety, and the tendency of daily using cognitive reappraisal strategy in 504 children through a questionnaire. After controlling gender, age and anxiety, the relationship between childhood depression and the tendency of using cognitive reappraisal was investigated. Following the suspected depression screening criteria, Study 1b selected 43 children as the high depression group from Study 1a and matched them with another 43 children as the low depression group. There was no difference in gender, age, and anxiety level between the two groups. Then a behavioral experiment was conducted on these 86 children to measure the ability of using cognitive reappraisal. The purpose was to explore the effect of childhood depression on the ability. Study 2 further explored this topic by randomly selecting 90 children and assessing their depression, the tendency and the ability using cognitive reappraisal, and attention bias to emotional faces combined with eye movement technology. The purpose is to investigate the role of attention bias in the relationship between depression and the two aspects of cognitive reappraisal.
    The results showed that: (1) depression has significant negative association with the use tendency of using cognitive reappraisal among 8-12 years old children; (2) for the reappraisal effect of the up-regulation of positive emotion in children, the main effects of depression, gender, and the interaction between them are not significant; for the reappraisal effect of the down-regulation of negative emotion, the main effect of depression was significant, but the main effects of gender and depression-gender interaction were not significant; (3) depression has significant positive association with total gazing time bias score of sad faces, and the total gazing time bias score of sad faces played a mediating role between children's depression and the tendency of using cognitive reappraisal. The hypotheses of this study were well verified by these results.
    The present study revealed the influence of depression on cognitive and emotional functions among school-age children, and also supported the view of previous studies that the attentional disengagement of sad emotional stimuli is the attention bias component that more closely related to depression, rather than the original attentional orientation. In addition, depression can indirectly influence the daily use of cognitive reappraisal strategy in children through the attention bias for sad expression.

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    The relationship between adolescents’ resilience and their malevolent creative behaviors
    WANG Dan, WANG Dianhui, CHEN Wenfeng
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (2): 154-167.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00154
    Abstract4520)   HTML797)    PDF (784KB)(6128)      

    Malevolent creativity is distinguished from general creativity due to its “harmfulness”. It is known that negative personality traits and threatening social situations may promote malevolent creativity via strengthening malevolence. So it seems reasonable to speculate the inhibitory role of positive personality traits (e.g., resilience) on the malevolence in malevolent creativity. However, it has been also evident that resilience is positively correlated with creativity itself. Thus, the two roles of resilience seem to be contradictory when malevolence and creativity are linked together. As a result, it is unclear that what the dominant role of resilience in malevolent creativity is.
    To tackle this issue, two studies were conducted with the hypothesis that high resilience may predict less malevolent creativity via weakening the malevolence. A moderated mediation model was further proposed to investigate the roles of coping style and stress on the relationship of adolescents’ resilience and their malevolent creative behaviors. Study 1 aimed to explore whether resilience predicts malevolent creativity in a positive or negative direction and whether coping style mediates the influence of resilience on malevolent creativity. A sample of 370 teenagers in study 1 completed the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CDRS), Malevolent Creativity Behavior Scale (MCBS), Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, and Runco Ideational Behavior Scale (RIBS). Study 2 aimed to investigate the moderating role of stress in the mediation process of coping style on the relationship of resilience and malevolent creativity. Another sample of 244 teenagers was recruited in study 2 to induce their acute stress using the Trier Social Stress Test before completing the above questionnaires.
    The results showed that: 1) the resilience scores of participants were negatively correlated with their malevolent creativity behavior scores; 2) Coping style played a complete mediating role in the relationship between resilience and malevolent creativity; 3) The mediating effect of coping style was moderated by stress where stressful situation weakened the inhibitory effect of positive coping styles on malevolent creativity. These results suggested that the positive quality of resilience can inhibit the harmfulness of malevolent creativity, but stressful situations can reduce the inhibitory effect of resilience. It shed light that cultivating the resilience of young people will resist the adverse effects of stressful situations, and it is necessary to guide the development of their creative ability.

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    Psychological structure of social mindfulness in Chinese culture
    TIAN Yi, WANG Li, XU Yan, JIAO Liying
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (9): 1003-1017.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01003
    Abstract4482)   HTML579)    PDF (982KB)(7389)      

    Social mindfulness refers to the ability of an individual to sense others’ states during interpersonal interactions, his or her willingness to respect others’ choices, and his or her ability to transfer rights. Exploring the psychological structure of social mindfulness against the background of Chinese culture is important for cultivating a friendly and harmonious society.

    This study explored the psychological structure of social mindfulness with a lexical method. In Study 1, 59 high- and 24 low-social mindfulness words were selected by word frequency analysis and multiple rounds of discussions. After being evaluated by 43 professionals and 232 nonprofessionals, 40 social mindfulness words were selected. In Study 2, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with Sample 1 (n = 351) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with Sample 2 (n = 307) were conducted to obtain a three-factor structure for social mindfulness; these structures include kindness and respect, tolerance and understanding, and optimism and open-mindedness. Additionally, a social mindfulness lexical rating scale (SMLRS) with 18 words was formed. In Study 3, we used the same method as in Study 2 to explore the structure of social mindfulness (EFA: Sample 1, n = 377; CFA: Sample 2, n = 220) through scenario descriptions. Then, a new 17-item social mindfulness self-report scale (SMSRS) and a model with two second-order factors and four first-order factors for the internalization of social mindfulness were generated. Both the SMLRS and SMSRS have good reliability and validity and can be used as measurement tools in follow-up research.

    Through lexical analysis and psychometric analysis, we explored the psychological structure of social mindfulness, which contains two second-order factors and four first-order factors, in Chinese culture. In this model, the two second-order factors were agreeableness and extraversion, and the four first-order factors were kindness and respect, humility, optimism and open-mindedness, and tolerance and understanding.

    From a theoretical point of view, we established a vocabulary of social mindfulness, verified social mindfulness’s second-order four-factor psychological structure, provided a new empirical basis for the higher- order factor theory of personality, and enriched our knowledge of personality and social behavior against the background of Chinese culture. From a practical point of view, the definition of social mindfulness plays a positive role in moral education in the field of education, in the training of employees in the field of organization and in the construction of mentality in the sociology field.

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    Negativity bias in emergent online events: Occurrence and manifestation
    ZHANG Mei, DING Shuheng, LIU Guofang, XU Yazhen, FU Xinyuan, ZHANG Wei, XIN Ziqiang
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (12): 1361-1375.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01361
    Abstract4466)   HTML548)    PDF (1324KB)(6861)      

    Nowadays, emergent online events have occurred frequently, because of the social transition and the development of social media. In the past, most of the research on emergent online events were theoretical analysis, and less attention was paid to the psychological mechanisms. The current research proposes that negativity bias, a common psychological phenomenon in human decision-making, is an important mechanism behind the network emergency and its propagation. In order to explore the occurrence and performance of negativity bias in emergent online events, three theoretical hypotheses were tested by three studies under the guidance of a theoretical model.
    Study 1 aimed to explore the information content bias in the source texts of emergent online events. 40 source texts of emergent online events in the period from 2016 to 2019 were collected through Baidu, Sina, Tencent and other major media platforms. The Chinese psychoanalysis System TextMind 3.0 was used to analyze the texts. In Study 2, a recognition memory experiment was conducted to explore the information processing bias of the source texts of emergent online events. 48 participants completed the single-factor (word nature: positive, neutral and negative) within-subjects experiment. The reading materials used in the experiment are from the corpus set up in Study 1. Positive, neutral and negative words were selected from the text by online word segmentation tool in advance, and the subjects were asked to recall whether the words appeared in the article in the subsequent memory experiment. Study 3 aimed to explore the transmission bias in the dynamic propagation of emergent online events. One hundred and twenty participants (Thirty transmission chains) took part in the transmission experiment. Word nature was a within-subjects variable, which can be divided into three levels: positive, neutral and negative. Intergenerational transmission was a between-subjects variable including four generations.
    Study 1 indicated that although all negative words did not dominate in the source texts of emergent online events, there are more negative words in the source texts of emergent online events than that of hot network events. Study 2 showed that the recognition accuracy of negative words was higher than that of positive words and neutral words. The analysis based on signal detection theory showed that the participants had higher discrimination and stricter decision-making criteria for negative words than positive and neutral words. Therefore, the negativity bias of the participants was mainly reflected in the fact that they were more likely to recognize negative words that are not in the text. Study 3 indicated that the survival rate of negative events was higher than that of positive events and neutral events, and that of positive events was higher than that of neutral events. The probability of negative interpretation of neutral events was higher than that of positive interpretation.
    These results supported the negative advantages in the process of emergency transmission. The current study investigated the occurrence and manifestation of negativity bias, an important psychological function formed in the process of human evolution, during the brewing, breaking out, and spreading process of network emergency. That is, the negativity bias did not only originate from the source texts of emergent online events but also from the process of individual information processing and interpersonal information transmission. This is manifested in the higher recognition accuracy, higher discrimination, sightly tight decision-making criteria for negative words, the higher survival rate of negative events, as well as negative resolution of ambiguous events. This research is conducive to understanding the law of information dissemination of emergent online events, scientific response to the crisis of public opinion, and innovative network governance.

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    Situational evaluation method of the Chinese people’s holistic thinking characteristics and their application
    KE Xiaoxiao, QI Huizi, LIANG Jiahui, JIN Xinyuan, GAO Jie, ZHANG Mingxia, WANG Yamin
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (12): 1299-1309.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01299
    Abstract4340)   HTML601)    PDF (1608KB)(6964)      

    The Chinese method of thinking includes dialectical and holistic thinking. Holistic thinking refers to people’s tendency to think in a holistic manner and focus on the relationship between things, which has no effective measurement method at present. Numerous studies have speculated on the relationship between Chinese thinking and creativity, but no known empirical research has focused on exploring their relationship. An uncertain aspect is whether and how Chinese thinking styles make an impact on creativity. The present study developed a situation assessment test to measure holistic thinking and explored its relationship with creative tendency. We hypothesize that (1) holistic thinking may be (1) correlated with field-dependence cognitive style and (2) may prohibit creative tendency.
    To verify the preceding hypothesis, idiom stories with typical Chinese thinking styles are first selected. Thereafter, an idiom riddle cultural park with transformation of form and meaning, situation, and context was constructed using virtual reality technology. By recording and coding idioms reported by participants when they visited the park, their level of holistic thinking could be measured. Lastly, cognitive style was evaluated using embedded figure test, personality traits were evaluated using the Chinese Big Five Personality Inventory brief version, and creativity tendency was evaluated by utilizing the Williams Prefer Measurement Forms. SPSS 18.0 was used for statistical analyses.
    Reliability and validity research has shown that the coefficient of homogeneity is high. Results showed that under an experimental condition, holistic thinking was significantly positively correlated with field-dependence cognitive style, the proportion of subjective words was significantly negatively correlated with neuroticism, the proportion of words with deep meaning was significantly negatively correlated with agreeableness, and the proportion of words that focus on the overall effect was significantly negatively correlated with openness. These results proved that the developed test has good calibration validity. Cluster analysis indicated two types of participants: (1) people with strong holistic thinking (i.e., report words with deep meaning, considerably self-involved, and focus on overall effect) will report numerous words and are considerably unreasonable, and (2) people with weak holistic thinking (i.e., report words with plain meaning, minimally self-involved, and focus on details) will report a few words and are substantially reasonable. The independent sample T-test on the creativity tendency of the two types of participants showed that the curiosity of people with strong holistic thinking was significantly higher than that of people with weak holistic thinking. Moreover, no significant difference was observed in other aspects of creativity tendency.
    Results support our hypothesis. The situation assessment test we developed has good reliability and validity and a useful method to measure Chinese holistic thinking. Compared with previous test methods, the current test has better ecological validity, can measure Chinese thinking in the natural cultural mood, and provide reference for other cultural tests. The current study can also contribute to an improved understanding of Chinese thinking styles and creativity tendency. This research is the first to realize the relationship between the two concepts in a virtual reality environment. Lastly, this method provides new ideas for a follow-up research on thinking and creativity.

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    The influence of language and context on sensorimotor simulation of concrete concepts
    SHI Rubin, XIE Jiushu, YANG Mengqing, WANG Ruiming
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (6): 583-594.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00583
    Abstract4169)   HTML382)    PDF (410KB)(4809)      

    How concepts are represented in the brain is an important topic in cognitive science. There are two different theories on this research question, i.e., propositional symbol theory and perceptual symbol theory. The difference between these two theories is how to treat the relationship between the internal symbol and the external archetype. The propositional symbol theory holds that the relationship between the two is arbitrary. Perceptual information does not participate in the processing of concepts. While perceptual symbols theory holds that the relationship between the two is similar. Perceptual information participates in the processing of concepts.
    People learn conceptual information in the vertical space. The spatial information is stored in long-term memory along with the representation of concepts. This hypothesis has been supported by many studies and is in line with the perceptual symbol theory. However, few studies have tested what factors influence sensorimotor simulation in conceptual processing. In this study, the semantic relevance judgment paradigm is used to test this question. The present study examined whether the sensorimotor simulation participates in conceptual processing in the first and second languages. Then, the present study examined how situational information modulates conceptual processing, by manipulating the intensity of spatial information and the level of semantic processing.
    In Experiment 1, the semantic relevance judgment paradigm is used to test whether sensorimotor simulation is involved in the second language processing and whether there is any difference between the first language and second language processing. The results of Experiment 1 show that the sensorimotor simulation has participated in the second language processing. However, there is an accuracy advantage in the sensorimotor simulation in the first language. In Experiment 2, two experiments are conducted to test the effect of the perceptual situation on sensorimotor simulation. Experiment 2a tests the influence of perceptual situation on sensorimotor simulation by changing the intensity of individual perceptual in vertical spatial axis. The results show that the sensorimotor simulation can be found in both strong and weak spatial perception. The effect of semantic processing level on perceptual motion simulation is tested in Experiment 2b. The experiment manipulates the level of semantic processing by using the semantic relevance judgment task and word judgment task. The results show that sensorimotor simulation participates in the processing of concepts, while semantic situational did not modulate this effect. The results of Experiment 2 suggest that sensorimotor stimulation may be automatic in conceptual processing.
    The present study conducted two experiments to test the role of sensorimotor simulation in conceptual processing. Results found that the sensorimotor simulation participates in conceptual representation, supporting the perceptual symbol theory. Furthermore, the sensorimotor simulation takes place in both Chinese and English. This finding extends the perceptual symbol theory. Finally, results found that sensorimotor stimulation may be automatic in conceptual representation and is not affected by spatial information and semantic processing.

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    Transition of latent classes of children’s mathematics anxiety in primary school and the distinctive effects of parental educational involvement: A three-wave longitudinal study
    SI Jiwei, GUO Kaiyue, ZHAO Xiaomeng, ZHANG Mingliang, LI Hongxia, HUANG Bijuan, XU Yanli
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (4): 355-370.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00355
    Abstract4122)   HTML453)    PDF (825KB)(4996)      

    Mathematics anxiety is a sense of tense and anxious that an individual feels when solving the problems related to mathematics. This phenomenon has a considerable prevalence among children and youth, even in adults. Currently, most studies regard mathematics anxiety as a single-dimensional structure. However, mathematics anxiety is a multi-dimensional structure. For example, individuals with high mathematics learning anxiety are often associated with low mathematics achievement, while individuals with high mathematics evaluation anxiety do not necessarily lead to low mathematics achievement. And the dynamic developmental bio-psycho-social model holds that the interaction between individual factors and environmental factors makes the development of individuals’ mathematics anxiety heterogeneity. As individual factors and environmental factors are constantly developing and changing, the developmental trajectories of mathematics anxiety are dynamic. However, there were no studies has examined the individual heterogeneity of mathematics anxiety and the development and transitions of it from a longitudinal perspective. Moreover, parental educational involvement as one of important environmental factors might predict the transitions of mathematics anxiety over time. Thus, person-centered approach was used to solve these two problems in this study.
    In this study, 1720 students of grade three and grade four in county primary schools were selected as participants. Children's Mathematics Anxiety Scale compiled by Chiu and Henry (1990) and revised by Geng and Chen (2005) and Questionnaire on Parental Involvement Behavior of Primary School Students compiled by Wu, Han, Wei, and Luo (2013) were used to measure children's mathematics anxiety and their perceived parental educational involvement separately three times over three years. Latent profile analysis and latent transition analysis were used to explore the possible subtypes of children's mathematics anxiety and the transitions between different subtypes over three waves in this study. Multiple logistic regressions were used to examine the effect of parental educational involvement in the latent transitions of different mathematics anxiety subtypes.
    All data were analyzed by SPSS 22.0 and Mplus 8.0. Some valuable results were obtained as follows. (1)There were three different subgroups of mathematics anxiety in primary school children, including low mathematics anxiety group, high mathematics evaluation anxiety group and high mathematics acquisition anxiety group; (2)As time went by high mathematics evaluation anxiety group tended to change to low mathematics anxiety group, high mathematics acquisition anxiety group tended to change to high mathematics evaluation anxiety group, and low mathematics anxiety group were relatively stable; (3) Positive father involvement could promote the change of children's mathematics anxiety from high mathematics acquisition anxiety group to low mathematics anxiety group, which was mainly in girls. For girls, mother involvement was able to promote the change of their mathematics anxiety from high mathematics evaluation anxiety group to low mathematics anxiety group; however for boys, mother involvement was able to promote the change of their mathematics anxiety from high mathematics evaluation anxiety group to high mathematics acquisition anxiety group. For the low mathematics anxiety group, the positive effect of parental educational involvement was significant.
    There was group heterogeneity in mathematics anxiety, and distinct subtypes of individuals may change over time, and parental educational involvement played different roles in different subgroups of children's mathematics anxiety. This study confirmed that the dynamic developmental bio-psycho-social model hypothesized that different individuals were affected by the different interaction of individual factors and environmental factors, and there were heterogeneity and dynamics in the developmental trajectories of individual mathematics anxiety. In view of this, parents or teachers should use different teaching methods for different subtypes of mathematics anxiety in mathematics learning. In addition, future researchers should consider individual heterogeneity of mathematics anxiety.

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    The development of discriminatory perception of junior high school students and influence on the cooperative behavior of internal and external groups
    CUI Liying, BU Weiwei, GAO Quanli, WU Qin, HUANG Yao, HAN Xianguo, LUO Junlong
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2022, 54 (3): 259-269.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00259
    Abstract4042)   HTML837)    PDF (714KB)(4532)      

    Discrimination perception refers to the unfair, negative or harmful treatment that an individual perceives due to membership in a group. This experience is subjective and affects the individual’s psychology and behaviour. Cooperation is the basic form of social interaction, which is an essential part of personal social development and an important issue for sustainable human growth. Junior high school students undergo puberty, a stage of rapid development of mind and body. This development is inseparable from the interaction with and feedback from the environment. In this study, the purpose is to reveal the influence of discrimination perception on the cooperative tendency and behaviour of junior high school students from the perspective of traits and status.
    The first part of the study was measured using Cai Min's Education Discrimination Questionnaire. Survey participants were 752 first-year students who performed three measurements in November 2016, April 2017 and November 2017 (T1 to T3, respectively) to explore the influence of discrimination perception on their cooperative tendencies. The second part of the study was carried out using a multi-round investment public goods dilemma paradigm. This experiment was organised into a 2 (discrimination perception level: high discrimination perception, low discrimination perception) × 2 (group type: inner group, outside group) factorial design. The discrimination perception level is the inter-subject variable and the group type is the intra-subject variable. Each participant carries out 12 rounds of investment, in which the cooperation object of the first six rounds is a member of the outside group and that of the last six rounds is a member of the inner group. The dependent variable is the cooperative behaviour of the participants, measured as the investment ratio (ratio of each round of investment to the current round of principal) and the contribution rate (ratio of each round of investment to the bottom line of public accounts return of 200). The participants in the experiment were 68 junior high school students selected from results of the T3 discrimination perception questionnaire, namely, the top 27% with high discrimination perception and bottom 27% with low discrimination perception. The outside group situation was controlled by the simulated point estimation experiment.
    Results showed that: (1) At the three time points, a significant negative correlation was observed between the discrimination perception among junior high school students and the cooperative tendency. From the vertical point of view, the cooperative tendency of T1 could negatively predict the discrimination perception in T2, which in turn negatively predicted the cooperative tendency in T3; (2) in the first three rounds of investment ratio and contribution rate of public goods dilemma, the interaction effect of discrimination perception and group type was significant; in the last three rounds, only the main effects of discrimination perception on investment ratio and contribution rate and of group type on contribution rate were observed.
    Findings suggest a vertical spiral between the discrimination perception and cooperative tendency. At the beginning of the interaction, the cooperative behaviour of the inner group preference is only observed in the low discrimination perception group, and the influence of discrimination perception on the cooperative behaviour is regulated by the group type. With the extension of interaction time, the regulatory effect of the group type disappears and the inner group preference of cooperative behaviour generally increases.

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    How can successful people share their goodness with the world: The psychological mechanism underlying the upper social classes’ redistributive preferences and the role of humility
    BAI Jie, YANG Shenlong, XU Buxiao, GUO Yongyu
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (10): 1161-1172.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01161
    Abstract4023)   HTML495)    PDF (473KB)(4282)      

    A large number of studies conducted in Europe and the Americas have explored the negative relationships between social class and redistributive preferences in recent years. However, few studies have addressed the cross-cultural consistency or explored the internal mechanism and intervention strategies of the effects of social class on redistributive preferences. The present study aimed to systematically and deeply explore the relationships between social class and redistributive preferences through three studies in the context of Chinese society.
    Study 1 explored the direct relationship between social class and redistributive preferences. Based on national data from the Chinese General Social Survey of 2015, 8376 participants from all provinces and autonomous regions of China and indexes of measuring social class and redistributive preferences were obtained. Based on the inequality maintenance model of social class, Study 2 further explored the mediating role of attribution for the rich-poor gap between social class and redistributive preferences. 621 urban and rural residents were investigated by using objective and subjective socioeconomic status (SES) scales, a rich-poor attribution questionnaire, and a redistributive preferences scale. Study 3 was devoted to exploring the intervention effect of humility on the redistributive preferences of the upper social classes. A sample of 103 undergraduates from the upper social class were randomly assigned to humility priming group or control group.
    The results showed that all social class indexes can strongly and negatively predict redistributive preferences, meaning that, as in Western society, upper social-class Chinese individuals also tend to have lower redistributive preferences than those from lower social classes. In addition, the influences of social class on redistributive preferences could be partly mediated through the attribution for the rich-poor gap. Compared with individuals from a subjectively lower class, upper-class individuals tended to attribute the gap between rich and poor to internal causes. That is to say, they tended to attribute the rich-poor gap to personal factors, such as abilities, efforts, and ambition. This attitude lowered upper-class individuals’ redistributive preferences even further. Finally, a short video was used to prime participants’ feelings of humility. Compared with a control group that watched a neutral video, those upper-class undergraduates who watched life stories of people with humble qualities experienced higher states of emotional humility. Priming a humble state lowered their tendency to attribute the gap between rich and poor to internal causes, and further improved their redistributive preferences to a significant extent.
    In conclusion, these three studies deeply explore the relationships between social class and redistributive preferences in the context of Chinese society. Combined with other studies performed in Western societies, these results showed that, to some extent, the negative relationship between social class and redistributive preferences is cross-cultural. The exploration of this mechanism provides supporting data and enrichment for the inequality maintenance model of social class. The finding that humility is an important intervention strategy will further insight into social redistribution. These results suggest that, in order to render the benefits of economic development accessible to more people, social governance could cultivate individual humility through moral education, cultural development, and fostering a community spirit.

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