ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (11): 1309-1317.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01309

• 论文 •    下一篇

阈上阈下不同面孔表情下的注视线索提示效应

张美晨;魏萍;张钦   

  1. (首都师范大学心理系, 北京市“学习与认知”重点实验室, 北京 100048)
  • 收稿日期:2014-11-27 出版日期:2015-11-25 发布日期:2015-11-25
  • 通讯作者: 张钦, E-mail: zhqian@cnu.edu.cn; 魏萍, E-mail: weiping@cnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金资助(31470979, 31470980); 首都师范大学哲学社会科学拔尖人才资助。

The Impact of Supra- and Sub-liminal Facial Expressions on the Gaze-cueing Effect

ZHANG Meichen; WEI Ping; ZHANG Qin   

  1. (Beijing Key Laboratory of Learning and Cognition and Department of Psychology,
    Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China)
  • Received:2014-11-27 Online:2015-11-25 Published:2015-11-25
  • Contact: ZHANG Qin, E-mail: zhqian@cnu.edu.cn; WEI Ping, E-mail: weiping@cnu.edu.cn

摘要:

为考察阈上、阈下不同面孔表情下的注视线索提示效应, 实验以阈上和阈下面孔的不同注视朝向为提示线索, 同时变化面孔表情, 要求被试迅速和准确地对随后出现的靶刺激(大写字母)的呈现位置做出判断。结果显示, 在阈上呈现条件下, 注视线索提示效应显著, 且该效应不受面孔表情的影响。在阈下呈现条件下, 注视线索提示效应显著, 但该效应受到了面孔表情的调节, 表现为在注视线索无效时, 判断目标位置所需反应时在正性、负性面孔表情下显著长于中性面孔条件。上述结果说明, 阈上知觉时, 面孔表情虽被清晰感知, 但个体自上而下的控制机制使其被忽略, 因而未能影响个体的注意偏向; 阈下知觉时, 面孔表情得到自动加工, 并影响了个体的注意偏向。

关键词: 阈上, 阈下, 注视线索提示效应, 面孔表情

Abstract:

 

Studies have shown that attention tends to shift to locations gazed by others. The gaze-cuing effect (GCE) means that targets presented at periphery are detected faster when the eyes in a central face are gazing at the same direction of the target than when the eyes are gazing at the opposite side. In the present study, we investigated the impact of consciously or unconsciously presented emotional faces on the gaze-cuing effect.
A positive, neutral, or negative cue face with its eyes gazing at left or right side was presented supraliminally or subliminally in the center of the screen, followed by a target letter presented at the gazed (cued) location or the opposite (un-cued) location. Participants were asked to make localization responses to the target as accurately and quickly as possible.
Results showed that, the GCE, in terms of RTs in the un-cued condition minus RTs in the cued condition, was significant and was not affected by facial expression when the face was presented supraliminally. However, when the cue was presented subliminally, the GCE effect was also significant and was modulated by the emotionality of the central face. Specifically, in the un-cued condition, RTs were significantly longer in the positive and negative conditions than that in the neutral condition. In other words, GCE was larger in the positive and negative conditions than in the neutral condition.

These results indicated that GCE can be modulated by faces with biological importance. The emotional information conveyed through supraliminally presented face might be suppressed by the top-down control setting, whereas the subliminally presented gazing cue was processed automatically and was escaped from top-down suppression.

Key words: supraliminally, subliminally, gaze-cueing effect, facial expression