ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (2): 196-203.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00196

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  1. (1东北师范大学心理学院, 长春 130024) (2苏州大学心理学系, 苏州 215123)
  • 收稿日期:2013-03-07 发布日期:2014-02-25 出版日期:2014-02-25
  • 通讯作者: 张明
  • 基金资助:


The Effect of Task Demands on Semantic Negative Compatibility Effect

WANG Jiaying;ZHANG Ming   

  1. (1 School of Psychology, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China) (2 Department of Psychology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China)
  • Received:2013-03-07 Online:2014-02-25 Published:2014-02-25
  • Contact: ZHANG Ming


结合掩蔽启动范式和Go-Nogo范式, 证明了语义水平负相容效应的存在, 考察了任务需求对语义水平负相容效应的影响。实验以汉字“左”和“右”作为掩蔽启动项, 在两个Block的Go试次中分别以双箭头和汉字为目标项, 要求被试做辨别反应, 在Nogo试次中不呈现目标项, 无需反应。行为结果发现, 只有当启动项与任务需求相关时才出现负相容效应。ERP结果发现, 只有在任务需求相关时Go任务中一致条件下的P3潜伏期更长; Nogo任务中, 相关条件下两种汉字启动项诱发的N2平均波幅差异显著, 相关和无关两种条件下P3波幅差异显著。说明语义水平负相容效应受自上而下任务需求影响, 这种影响是通过自上而下认知控制加工的调节实现的。

关键词: 任务需求, 负相容效应, 阈下语义启动


Negative Compatibility Effect (NCE) is the surprising result that masked prime arrows inhibit the responses to compatibility arrow targets and facilitate the responses to the opposite direction arrow targets at the prime-target Interstimulus Interval of around 100 ms in the masked prime paradigm. NCE has been hotly investigated in terms of its subconsciousness and being counterintuitive. But whether NCE can be observed with semantic stimuli is still unknown. Traditionally, it is believed that subliminal information processing is automatic and is not down-regulated by top-down cognitive control process. However, recent studies challenged this conventional view. As a kind of subliminal perception effect, whether NCE is affected by top-down cognition control is still unknown. The present study combined masked-prime paradigm and Go/No-go paradigm to examine whether there was semantic NCE and whether task demands modulated semantic NCE. Eighteen subjects participated in the study. All stimuli were black against white background presented in the center of the screen. In masked-prime paradigm, Primes were Chinese character “左” (Left) or “右” (Right), targets were character or double arrows in go condition, either compatibility or incompatibility to the prime. Participants were instructed to judge the direction of the arrow or the character by pressing the one of left and right arrow keys. There were no responses to no-go trials. Reaction times were entered into 2 (compatibility) × 2 (task demand) analyses of variance (ANOVA). The results showed that, the main effect of compatibility and task demand were both significant; the interaction between compatibility and task demand was also significant. Further analysis demonstrated that NCE was significant only in the condition when the prime was related to task demands; there was no significant effect when the prime was not related to task demands. The behavioral data supported the existence of semantic NCE, but it was only observed when the prime was related to task demands. ERP waveform analysis revealed that P3 latency is longer only when prime was related to the task demand in Go trials. In No-go trials, N2 mean amplitude has significant difference between two character primes conditions in the related condition; P3 mean amplitude showed a significant difference between the related and unrelated conditions. The results suggest that P3 latency is an effective component to measure semantic NCE, especially in the Go trials. The findings indicated the existence of semantic NCE. In addition, task demands influenced semantic NCE through top-down cognitive control process.

Key words: task demands, negative compatibility effect, subliminal semantic priming