ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 53 ›› Issue (12): 1321-1334.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01321

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇


葛枭语, 李小明, 侯玉波()   

  1. 北京大学心理与认知科学学院暨行为与心理健康北京市重点实验室, 北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2020-12-29 发布日期:2021-10-26 出版日期:2021-12-25
  • 通讯作者: 侯玉波
  • 基金资助:

Confucian ideal personality traits (Junzi personality): Exploration of psychological measurement

GE Xiaoyu, LI Xiaoming, HOU Yubo()   

  1. School of Psychological and Cognitive Sciences and Beijing Key Laboratory of Behavior and Mental Health, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2020-12-29 Online:2021-10-26 Published:2021-12-25
  • Contact: HOU Yubo


君子人格是中国文化(尤其是儒学思想)中的理想的人格特质, 对于理解中国文化心理具有重要意义, 但鲜有实证研究。通过经典文本的理论分析与心理测量的实证分析相结合的方法, 选取《论语》中孔子对君子的论述编制初测条目, 通过探索性和验证性因素分析、效标关联效度分析等实证研究方法(总样本量 = 1916), 对孔子思想中的君子人格的内在结构进行了探索, 并编制了具有良好信效度的测量工具。结果表明, 孔子思想中的君子人格包含了智仁勇、恭而有礼、喻义怀德、有所不为、持己无争5个因素。此外还考察了其与大五人格、中国人价值观、自我和谐、合作与竞争人格倾向、亲社会倾向等效标变量的相关关系。

关键词: 君子人格, 儒家文化心理学, 孔子, 论语, 本土心理学


Confucian philosophy is a vital key in understanding China. The Confucianism classics have probably exercised a greater influence on Chinese people than any other literary or philosophical work. Junzi is the central focus of The Analects (Confucius’ collected sayings and the most significant text in Confucianism), and it may be the best method to comprehend The Analects. Junzi is not only just a historical notion but also a mainstream academic subject in contemporary China. In this study, we defined Junzi personality as ideal personality traits in Chinese culture (particularly Confucianism) and utilized modern psychological approaches to shed light on the operational conceptualization of Junzi personality.
First, we collected all the Confucius’ statements about Junzi personality from The Analects and utilized them to create a preliminary questionnaire with 80 items written in modern Chinese. Second, we asked 499 Chinese participants to self-report how much they endorsed each item, to describe themselves on a 7-point scale, before performing exploratory factor analysis using principal axis factoring and a Promax rotation. Third, we invited 319 and 663 participants to fill in a 30-item questionnaire and conducted two confirmatory factor analyses. Lastly, we examined criterion-related validity using several correlation analyses on two samples of 202 and 233 participants.
The findings revealed that the Junzi personality is composed of five factors: (A) “wisdom, benevolence, and courage, ” describing the traits of people who have rational attitudes that give full play to the autonomy of their minds and wise attitudes that illuminate things and are able to put these into practice; (B) “respectfulness and propriety, ” describing the traits of people who maintain respectful, humble, cautious, and honest attitudes toward social norms, social order, and social life; (C) “conversancy with righteousness and cherishment of benign rule, ” describing the traits of people who know that they should act appropriately and maintain their inherent goodness; (D) “refraining from what should not be done, ” describing the traits of people who understand the boundaries and bottom lines of their behaviors and do not violate them; (E) “self-cultivation rather than contentions with others, ” describing the traits of people who find problems in themselves and endeavor to change the status quo when managing transactions, solving problems, and encountering difficulties or setbacks and understand that contentions with others do not help solve problems. The confirmatory factor analyses results indicated that the Inventory of Junzi Personality in Confucius’ Thought had good reliability, construct validity, and discrimination validity. Correlation analyses revealed that Junzi personality was significantly positively correlated with extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience, Chinese values, self-flexibility, cooperative personality tendencies, and prosocial inclinations. Moreover, Junzi personality was significantly negatively correlated with neuroticism, discordance between self and experience, self-rigidity, and excessive competitiveness.
These findings supplemented and improved understandings of Junzi personality meanings and internal structures and offered a reliable and valid assessment for quantitative empirical Junzi personality research.

Key words: Junzi personality, Confucianism cultural psychology, Confucius, the Analects of Confucius, indigenous psychology