ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 52 ›› Issue (3): 371-385.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00371

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇


冉雅璇1, 刘佳妮1, 张逸石2(), 卫海英3   

  1. 1 中南财经政法大学工商管理学院, 武汉 430073
    2 武汉理工大学管理学院, 武汉 430070
    3 暨南大学管理学院, 广州 510632
  • 收稿日期:2019-02-27 发布日期:2020-01-18 出版日期:2020-03-25
  • 通讯作者: 张逸石
  • 基金资助:
    * 国家自然科学基金(71802192);国家自然科学基金(71702066);国家自然科学基金(71772077);教育部人文社科基金资助(18YJC630137)

The magic of one person: The effect of the number of endorsers on brand attitude

RAN Yaxuan1, LIU Jiani1, ZHANG Yishi2(), WEI Haiying3   

  1. 1 School of Business Administration, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, Wuhan 430073, China
    2 School of Management, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China
    3 School of Management, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
  • Received:2019-02-27 Online:2020-01-18 Published:2020-03-25
  • Contact: ZHANG Yishi


有的品牌仅邀请一位名人代言, 而有的品牌由多位名人代言, 那么一人代言还是多人代言会更有效?为了回答该问题, 研究基于形象转移视角和单人积极偏差, 深入探究了品牌代言人数因素(一位代言人vs.多位代言人)对品牌态度的影响机制和边界条件。研究发现:相比品牌多人代言, 品牌单人代言使消费者的品牌态度更高。原因在于消费者与一位(vs.多位)品牌代言人的自我-品牌联结更紧密, 进而促进品牌态度。该品牌代言人效应仅局限于象征型产品, 而对于非身份象征型产品, 品牌单人代言(vs.品牌多人代言)对品牌态度无显著差异。此外, 当多位品牌代言人为一个团体时, 品牌代言人数效应将被逆转, 即品牌多人代言(vs.品牌单人代言)对品牌态度的影响更高。

关键词: 品牌代言, 人数, 自我-品牌联结, 形象转移视角, 单人积极偏差


The use of celebrity endorsements in advertising is quietly pervasive. One brand can be endorsed by either one celebrity or multiple celebrities. Notably, it is more and more common nowadays that a single brand harnesses multiple celebrity endorsers in its advertisement to potentially attract more consumers. Literature on consumer psychology has mainly studied the context of a single celebrity endorsing a single brand, suggesting that source characteristics, such as familiarity, expertise, trustworthiness and attractiveness of the endorser, can affect consumer response and attitudes. A growing of recent studies have investigated the context of a single celebrity endorsing multiple brands, while surprisingly very few studies have examined whether one brand should be endorsed by either one person or multiple people. In the current research, we extend the extent literature by examining how consumer respond to celebrity advertising endorsed by either one person or multiple people.
Consumers can build their relationship with a brand through the celebrity endorsers. In this vein, the number of endorsers (one celebrity versus multiple celebrities) can influence consumer attitudes via their feelings of connecting with the brand. Based on the image transference perspective, the celebrity’s traits could be transferred to the brand’s perceived traits. Thus, when a brand is endorsed by one person (multiple people), this brand is perceived to hold one identity (multiple identities). According to person-positivity bias, we postulate that one endorser (versus multiple endorsers) can enhance consumers’ connected feelings with the brand, then in turn increase consumers’ positive brand attitude. And this effect is only constraint for status-signaling products. Although the main hypothesis seems straightforward, there are constraints on its applicability. If the associations between the number of endorsers and self-brand connection are attenuated, the effect of the number of endorsers on brand attitude should be suppressed. That is, when multiple endorsers look like a whole (e.g., a team), the main effect would be reversed, such that multiple endorsers with wholeness characteristics elicit higher brand attitude than one endorser.
One pilot study and four studies were conducted to examine our hypotheses. Pilot study (n = 53) examined that the basic hypothesis of trait transference, such that the brand endorsed by one person (multiple people) would be perceived to hold one identity (multiple identities). Experiment 1 (n = 199) investigated the main effect and the mediating role of self-brand connection. Experiment 2 (n = 245) used a moderation-of-process approach to further validate the mediation of self-brand connection. Experiment 3 (n = 158) examined that the effect is constraint when the product is characterized as status-signaling, while targeting and eliminating possible alternative explanations. Experiment 4 (n = 92) identified the moderating effect of when multiple endorsers look like a whole and provide replication of the main effect. To document a robust effect, we varied the context of advertising and the endorsers across four studies.
Our investigation suggests that consumer facing a brand endorsed by one celebrity have greater brand attitude than those facing a brand endorsed by multiple celebrities. Specifically, compared to multiple endorsers, one endorser can enhance consumers’ feeling of connecting with the brand, which in turn increase brand attitudes. For non-status-signaling products, the relative difference between one endorser and multiple endorsers would be attenuated. At the same time, there are qualifications on these effects. When multiple endorsers are a whole, the superior of one endorser would be reversed. These findings offer novel insights on endorsing, number of people, and self-brand connection, while suggesting that companies must carefully consider the number of celebrities in the wake of considering the appropriate endorsement.

Key words: brand endorsement, number of people, self-brand connection, image transference perspective, person-positivity bias