ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (8): 879-889.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00879

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇


章鹏程1, 李杨卓2, 周淑金1, 高湘萍1(), 潘鑫3   

  1. 1 上海师范大学教育学院心理系, 上海 200234
    2 华东师范大学心理与认知科学学院, 上海 200062
    3 南京旅游职业学院, 南京 211100
  • 收稿日期:2018-10-23 出版日期:2019-08-25 发布日期:2019-06-24
  • 通讯作者: 高湘萍
  • 基金资助:
    * 上海师范大学创新一流研究生人才培养机制改革项目之博士研究生拔尖人才培育项目资助(209-AC9103-19-368005010)

Enhancement effect of near spatial distance on self-referential processing: Evidence from behavioral and ERPs studies

ZHANG Pengcheng1, LI Yangzhuo2, ZHOU Shujin1, GAO Xiangping1(), PAN Xin3   

  1. 1 Department of Psychology, School of Education, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China
    2 The School of Psychology and Cognitive Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    3 Nanjing Institute of Tourism and Hospitality, Nanjing 211100, China
  • Received:2018-10-23 Online:2019-08-25 Published:2019-06-24
  • Contact: GAO Xiangping


研究采用学习-再认范式考察空间距离如何影响自我参照加工。首先通过事件相关电位技术探索不同空间距离怎样影响自我参照加工的过程, 再结合再认测试验证影响的稳定性。结果显示:(1)学习阶段, 近空间距离在晚期认知加工阶段对自我参照加工具有明显的增强作用, 并且在再认测试中得到了验证; (2)研究结果同样也发现了学习阶段近空间距离对他人参照加工的增强作用, 但未在再认测试中得到验证。本研究证实了近空间距离能够促进自我参照更加精细化加工, 拓展了对自我参照加工的认识和自我的了解。

关键词: 自我参照加工, 空间距离, 增强效应


Self-reference can improve the memorization of stimulated information, and this is a phenomenon called the self-referential effect. Previous studies from the perspective of social distance (such as parents, friends, and strangers) show that the speed of processing or classifying stimulus and memory performance under self-reference significantly outperform the cases under other-reference. Other than social distance, another concept greatly influences individual cognition and behavior: spatial distance. However, research from the perspective of spatial distance is scant. To broaden the perspectives on the self-referential effect, we constructed different distance conditions through a 2D corridor and investigated how spatial distance affects self-referential processing through a learning-recognition paradigm and event-related potential techniques. Neutral nouns were used as the experimental materials.

We designed a 2 (reference: self, other) ×2 (distance: far, near) within groups design and added a stranger reference as the alert group. The corridor has three grids: the upper, middle, and lower grids. In the learning stage, the neutral noun was randomly presented in the middle grid while the name was also shown randomly in the upper or lower grid. Two levels of the distance variable were measured by the distance between the middle and the upper or lower grids. Participants were required to press the up arrow“↑”when name (except stranger’s name) appeared in the upper grid, and press the down arrow“↓”when name (except stranger’s name) appeared below. If a stranger’s name appeared in any grid, the participants had to press “f”. And try to associate the words with the names in mind during experiment. After a simple calculation of the interference task, a surprise recognition test was conducted. The response time, accuracy rate and EEG data of the participants were recorded during the experiment.

The results showed that the response time under self-reference was significantly shorter than that under other-reference, and the response time of near-distance was significantly shorter than far-distance. The main effects of distance on the amplitude of P1 and N1 components and the latency of N1 component were significant, whereas the main effects of reference on those aspects were not significant. Self-referential and other-referential processing in near-distance induced larger LPC amplitude and right frontal activation relative to the far-distance alternative. In the recognition stage, memory performance in self-reference was significantly better than that in other-reference, and such performance under the near-distance condition was significantly better than that under the far-distance situation. However, memory performances under other-reference with the far- and near-distance conditions were not significant.

This study broadens our understanding of self-referential processing from the perspective of spatial distance. Compared with the far-distance condition, the near-distance counterpart enhances self-referential processing; thus, when individuals process the self-reference information in the near-distance, greater LPC amplitude and right frontal activation as well as better memory performance is achieved. This study provides implications for future exploration of the self-referential effect from the perspective of spatial distance.

Key words: self-referential processing, spatial distance, enhancement effect