ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (2): 186-196.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00186

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 陈广耀1,2;  何先友2;  刘 涛1   

  1.  (1暨南大学新闻与传播学院/媒体国家级实验教学示范中心(暨南大学), 广州 510632) (2华南师范大学心理应用研究中心/心理学院, 广州 510631)
  • 收稿日期:2016-07-21 出版日期:2018-02-25 发布日期:2017-12-26
  • 通讯作者: 何先友, E-mail:; 陈广耀, E-mail:
  • 基金资助:
     广东省自然科学基金博士科研启动项目(2017A030310536):“命题表征or经验模拟?来自否定句加工机制的证据”; 广东省哲学社会科学‘十三五’规划项目(GD16XXW01); 中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助(17JNQN022); 2015教育部重点研究基地心理应用研究中心课题“文字符号否定与图形符号否定的加工机制:来自多方法的汇集证据”(15JJD190005)资助。

 The processing of negative sentences in different semantic context

 CHEN Guangyao; HE Xianyou; LIU Tao   

  1.  (1 Journalism and Communication College/Media State-level Experimental Teaching Demonstration Center, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China) (2 School of Psychology, South China Normal University/Centre for Studies of Psychological Application, Guangzhou 510631, China)
  • Received:2016-07-21 Online:2018-02-25 Published:2017-12-26
  • Contact: HE Xianyou, E-mail:; CHEN Guangyao, E-mail:
  • Supported by:

摘要:  2个眼动实验分别探讨强弱语义语境下的否定句加工机制, 以便考察语言理解是命题表征的过程还是经验模拟的过程, 抑或是二者兼具。在实验中, 被试首先听句子(强语义语境:如“胳膊不是弯曲的”的备择选项为“伸直的胳膊”, 其中“弯曲−伸直”为具有反义关系的强语义连接关系; 弱语义语境:如加工“裙子不是蓝色的”的备择选项为“黑色的裙子”, “蓝色−黑色”为弱语义连接关系), 然后会看到4张同时呈现的图片, 被试的任务是按键选择与句子描述匹配的图片。结果发现, 在强语义语境条件下, 被试在早期(201~600 ms时窗)对描述事件否定状态的图片(弯曲的胳膊)与描述事件实际状态的图片(伸直的胳膊)的注视概率没有差别, 晚期(601 ms后)仅对描述事件实际状态的图片的注视概率更高; 弱语义语境条件下, 被试在早期(401~600 ms)仅对描述事件否定状态的图片(蓝裙子)注视概率更高, 晚期(801 ms后)仅对描述事件实际状态的图片(黑色裙子)注视概率更高; 并且, 都对描述事件否定状态的图片的注视概率低于随机水平。结果支持符号依存假设和抑制假设。

关键词: 否定, 语境, 符号依存假设, 两步模拟假设, 锚激活与限制满足模型

Abstract:  Affirmation and negation are two main semantic and grammatical categories in any language. The propositional theory and experiential-simulations view were proposed to explain the processing mechanism of negative sentences. Both of their supporters have supplied plenty of empirical evidence, but neither of them can beat each other. Thus, the comprehensive theories, such as dual coding theory, LASS and symbolic interdependency hypothesis have been proposed to fill the gap. In the present study, we design two eye-tracking experiments to lend further support to comprehensive theories. In the two experiments, eye-tracking technical was adopted to explore the processing mechanism of negative sentences in different semantic contexts. In Experiment 1, the alternative choices (e.g., outspread arm) presented to the participants have close semantic connection with the negated events of the sentences (e.g., the arm isn’t crooked); In Experiment 2, the alternative choices (e.g., black skirt) presented to the participants have relatively weak semantic connection with the depicted negative events (e.g., the skirt isn’t blue). In summary, ‘blue-black’ has relatively weaker semantic connection than that of ‘outspread-crook’. In these two eye-tracking experiments, voice was used to present the negative sentence, and the corresponding pictures were presented at the moment of reading the words depicting the negated state (e.g., crook/blue). And the participants’ task was to choose which picture matched the sentence. The results demonstrated that, at the early stage of processing, there was no difference between the fixation probabilities to pictures depicting the negated state of affairs (crooked arm) and their alternative (outspread arm) in experiment 1 at time window 201~600 ms. In contrast, participants had higher fixation probabilities to pictures depicting the negated state of affairs (blue skirt) than that to pictures depicting the alternatives in experiment 2 at time window 401~600 ms. Then at the later stage, participants showed higher fixation probabilities to the pictures depicting alternatives to the pictures depicting the negated state of affairs from 601 ms in experiment 1 and 801ms in the experiment 2. Besides, the fixation probabilities to the pictures depicting the negated states were lower than the random level after 1001 ms in both of the two experiments. The results from the two experiments showed that, both propositional process and simulating process are necessary when processing negative sentences. Compared with processing negative sentence in weak semantic context, it’s easier for participants to get the actual state of event with the help of strong semantic context. In addition, participants will not keep the simulation of the negated state of event in his mind, which supports suppression hypothesis. In summary, the results support the symbolic interdependency hypothesis as well as suppression hypothesis.

Key words:  negation, context, symbolic interdependency hypothesis, two-step simulation hypothesis, anchor-based activation and satisfaction constrained mode