ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (2): 204-215.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00204

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇



  1. 华南师范大学心理应用研究中心/心理学院, 广州 510631
  • 收稿日期:2013-04-09 发布日期:2014-02-25 出版日期:2014-02-25
  • 通讯作者: 何先友
  • 基金资助:

    2010年国家自然科学基金项目(项目号:31070907)、2008 年国家社会科学基金“十一五”规划课题(项目号:BBA080162)、2011教育部新世纪优秀人才支持计划项目(项目号:NCET-10-0089)和广东省普通高校人文社科重点研究基地创新团队项目(项目号: 07JDTDXMXLX01)资助。

The Processing of Isolated Negative Sentences with Uncertain States

CHEN Guangyao;WU Mingyi;WEI Xiaoping;ZHOU Miao;HE Xianyou;MO Lei   

  1. Center for Studies of Psychological Application/School of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
  • Received:2013-04-09 Online:2014-02-25 Published:2014-02-25
  • Contact: HE Xianyou


采用自定步速阅读方法与图片核证范式(picture verification paradigm)探讨状态不确定独立否定句(如“裙子不是红色的”)的动态表征过程, 包括3个实验。结果发现:(1)在否定加工的初期, 即250 ms间隔时间条件下, 读者表征事件的否定状态; 肯定句已经通达事件的实际状态。(2)在否定加工的中期, 即750 ms间隔时间条件下, 读者仍然表征事件的否定状态, 但已开始对事件的备择选项进行搜索; 肯定句仍然保持对事件实际状态的表征。(3)在否定加工的后期, 即1500 ms间隔时间条件下, 读者表征否定标记与事件的否定状态, 同时完成对备择选项的搜索; 肯定句依旧保持对事件实际状态的表征。据此, 本文提出的锚激活与限制满足模型(anchor-based activation and satisfaction constrained model)得到初步证明。

关键词: 状态不确定独立否定句, 两步模拟假设, 锚激活与限制满足模型


Affirmation and negation are semantic and grammatical categories present in virtually all languages. Many different theories have been proposed to explain the processing mechanism of negation. The schema-plus-tag model and the two-step simulation hypothesis have been accepted by many researchers. However, neither of these hypotheses cannot explain the processing mechanism of isolated negative sentences with uncertain states, such as the skirt is not red. In this study, we proposed anchor-based activation and satisfaction constrained model, to solve this problem. The sentence-verification paradigm was adopted in three experiments to explore the processing mechanism of negated sentences with uncertain states. In these experiments, participants were presented with affirmative or negative sentences with target objects, such as the skirt is/isn’t red. After reading the sentences with a delay condition of either 250ms, 750ms, or 1500ms, pictures were presented instantly. The task of participants was to verify whether the objects in the pictures appeared in the previous sentences. In these experiments, we designed three kinds of probing pictures. The first kind was “N”, which depicted the negated state of affairs of negated sentences, such as a red skirt for the sentence The skirt is not red; the second kind was “×+N”, which depicted the actual state of affairs of negated sentences, such as a red skirt plus negated marker (×); the last kind was “A”, which depicted one of the alternative states of affairs of negated sentences, such as a blue skirt. Results of Experiment 1 indicated that both of the data patterns of the affirmative and negated sentences were “N = ×+ N, ×+ N

Key words: negatives with uncertain state, isolated negative sentences, two-step simulation hypothesis, anchor-based activation and satisfaction constrained model