ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 49 ›› Issue (9): 1184-1194.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01184

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 对付出−回报失衡理论的推进——基于经济报酬对教师心理健康的影响

睿娟1,2 游旭群1   

  1.  (1陕西师范大学心理学院, 陕西省行为与认知神经科学重点实验室, 西安 710062) (2西安石油大学经济管理学院, 西安 710065)
  • 收稿日期:2017-01-22 出版日期:2017-09-25 发布日期:2017-07-14
  • 通讯作者: 游旭群, E-mail: youxuqun@snnu.edu.cn E-mail: E-mail: youxuqun@snnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
     教育部哲学社会科学研究重大课题攻关项目(11JZD044)资助。

 Advancing the Effort-Reward Imbalance Model: Economic rewards influence on teachers’ mental health

 YANG Ruijuan1,2; YOU Xuqun1   

  1.  (1 School of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University; Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Behavior and Cognitive Neuroscience, Xi’an 710062) (2 College of Economics and Business Management, Xi′an Shiyou University, Xi’an 710065)
  • Received:2017-01-22 Online:2017-09-25 Published:2017-07-14
  • Contact: YOU Xuqun, E-mail: youxuqun@snnu.edu.cn E-mail: E-mail: youxuqun@snnu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
     

摘要:  付出−回报失衡作为职业健康心理学领域的重要模型, 具有跨文化、跨职业、跨时间的一致性, 能够显著预测心理健康, 但经济报酬对心理健康的影响鲜有研究。本研究基于付出−回报失衡理论, 采用格兰杰因果分析方法, 检验了48712名教师症状自评量表横断历史分析的结果和薪酬统计数据之间的关系, 研究发现:(1) 1998~2009年教师心理健康水平显著下降, 9个因子均值上升了12.7%至18.5%, 躯体化、抑郁为中等效应, 其余因子为大效应; 2009年之后教师心理健康水平改善, 除敌对因子外, 其余8个因子均值下降了0.1%至2.8%, 躯体化、恐怖、偏执和精神病性为小效应, 其余4个因子未达到小效应。性别对教师心理健康影响不显著, 职业类别对教师心理健康影响显著。(2)经济报酬显著影响心理健康。经济报酬与强迫等心理因素之间存在单向因果关系, 第N期的经济报酬显著影响第N+1期的人际关系、焦虑、敌对、精神病性因子和第N+3期的强迫、偏执、抑郁因子。本研究应用症状自评量表横断历史分析结果及薪酬统计数据进行格兰杰因果检验, 揭示了经济报酬与心理健康之间的单向因果关系。在经济社会发生剧烈变化的较长时间内, 经济报酬对心理健康的影响不仅显著, 而且呈现出平稳性, 研究结果推进并丰富了付出−回报失衡理论。

关键词:  教师, 心理健康, 经济报酬, 横断历史研究, 付出−回报失衡, 格兰杰因果检验

Abstract:  In many countries over the past two decades, workplace stress has increased remarkably. Teaching is an example of a highly stressful occupation due to the diverse requirements of the job: teachers have always been subject to high job-related stress and tend to suffer from stress-related psychosomatic problems at unusually high rates. The purpose of this study is to explore how economic rewards influence on teachers’ mental health. This article uses the interdisciplinary perspective of psychology and economics to test the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model. This study consists of a cross-temporal meta-analysis that examines the changes of Chinese teachers’ scores on the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) from 1995 to 2013. Samples of Chinese teachers (N = 48712) from one hundred and thirteen different past studies were included in this study’s data. The means and SDs of the nine different SCL-90 dimensions were calculated for each of the 19 years under examination, and were compared using Excel2010 and SPSS19.0. Annual average teacher salaries were gathered from the China Statistical Yearbook. Results showed that: (1) Teachers’ mental health decreased from 1995 to 2009 and improved from 2009 to 2013. Although though some studies suggested that there were significant differences in mental health between genders, our composite conclusions showed that there was no significant difference between male and female teachers (N = 19919, p = 0.596). Kindergarten teachers and college professors tended to have the best mental health, whereas primary school, middle school, and special education teachers tended to have the worst mental health. Vocational middle school teachers scored between these two groups (N = 32260). (2) Economic rewards play an important role in influencing teachers’ mental health over time. A one-way causal relationship was observed between teachers’ compensation and psychological factors. The result show that interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, hostility, and psychoticism were all influenced by teachers’ compensation and a lag period for such influences was one year. Obsessive neurosis, paranoid psychosis, and depression were also influenced by teachers’ compensation, with a lag period of three years. The present study represents the first time that economic methodology has been combined with psychological research to test the ERI model. Using Granger Causality to investigate the link between teacher salary and changes in SCL-90 scores, the results clearly indicate that economic rewards influence teachers’ mental health. This study also represents the first recent use of a large sample of members from one profession to test the ERI. Possible contributions to the field of Psychological Economics are discussed in the conclusion.

Key words:  teachers, mental health, economic rewards, cross-temporal meta-analysis, the effort- reward imbalance model, Granger causality

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