ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2008, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (05): 583-592.

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  1. 山东师范大学心理学院,济南 250014
  • 收稿日期:2007-09-05 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:2008-05-30 发布日期:2008-05-30
  • 通讯作者: 张文新

Personal Future Planning in Middle and Late Adolescence and its Relation to Adolescents’ Communication with Parents and Friends

ZHANG Ling-Ling;ZHANG Wen-Xin   

  1. School of Psychology, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014, China
  • Received:2007-09-05 Revised:1900-01-01 Published:2008-05-30 Online:2008-05-30
  • Contact: Zhang Wenxin

摘要: 采用未来取向问卷(中文版)、亲子沟通和朋友沟通问卷调查了1741名高中生和大学生,从探索和投入两个方面考察了中晚期青少年个人规划的基本特点以及亲子沟通、朋友沟通与个人规划的关系。研究发现:青少年对未来教育的探索和投入水平高于未来职业和婚姻/家庭;从青少年中期到晚期,个体对不同领域的探索与投入遵循不同的发展模式;女青少年对未来教育的投入更多,而男青少年对未来婚姻/家庭的探索和投入更多;城市青少年对未来教育的探索和投入更多,而农村青少年对未来婚姻/家庭的投入更多。亲子沟通对中晚期青少年成就领域的规划具有较大影响,且影响大于朋友沟通,而朋友沟通对青少年未来婚姻/家庭规划的影响更大

关键词: 个人规划, 亲子沟通, 朋友沟通, 中晚期青少年, 未来取向

Abstract: Orientation towards future events or outcomes is an important feature of individuals’ thoughts and behaviors. Future orientation, defined as how adolescents anticipate and construct their personal future, is a multidimensional and multistage phenomenon that can be described in terms of motivation, planning, and evaluation. Previous research indicates that adolescents’ orientation towards the future is particularly important for many aspects of their development. Planning for the future is an important aspect of future orientation and has been extensively studied by researchers according to two sub-processes: exploration and commitment. Studies have indicated that how adolescents anticipate and plan for their future is greatly influenced by the particular context in which they are placed, but most of the research in this area has been conducted with adolescents in western cultures. Information about how contemporary Chinese adolescents plan for their future is very limited. In addition, previous studies mainly examined the development of future orientation in early and middle adolescence. Few studies have focused on how young people in late adolescence plan for their future or on the changes that take place during the transition from middle to late adolescence. To the extent that family and peer groups are proximal contexts that are salient for and supportive of adolescents’ cognitive and social development, how parents and friends may affect adolescents’ future planning is also an important question of interest.
This study examined personal future planning of middle and late adolescents in contemporary China and its relation to adolescents’ communications with parents and friends. We administered a modified version of the Future Orientation Questionnaire and measures of communications with parents and friends to 1741 adolescents attending senior high schools and universities in Shandong Province, the People’s Republic of China.
The results were as follows: 1) Adolescents’ personal future planning varied across different life domains. Compared with future occupation and marriage, adolescents reported significantly more exploration and commitment concerning their future education. 2) Different developmental patterns were observed for adolescents’ exploration for and commitment to future education, occupation and marriage/family from middle to late adolescence. Overall, students in late adolescence reported more exploration in all the three domains than students in middle adolescence. Students in middle adolescence reported greater commitment to future education than students in late adolescence, while students in late adolescence reported greater commitment to marriage/family than students in middle adolescence. 3) Males reported less commitment to future education and more exploration and commitment concerning marriage/family than females. 4) Urban adolescents reported more exploration and commitment concerning future education than rural adolescents, while rural adolescents reported greater commitment to future marriage/family. 5) Adolescents’ communication with parents and friends played an important role in middle and late adolescents’ future planning, but the significance of communication with parents and friends for adolescent future planning varied across life domains. Communication with parents had a greater impact on adolescents’ planning for future education and occupation, while communication with friends had a greater impact on adolescents’ future planning concerning marriage/family.
These findings were discussed with reference to what has been reported on adolescents in western cultures and the cultural context of contemporary Chinese adolescents

Key words: personal future planning, parent-adolescent communication, communication with friends, middle and late adolescent, future orientation