ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2023, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (11): 1827-1844.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.01827

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

“危”亦或“机”: 家庭−学校−社区风险和资源的潜在剖面结构与青少年心理危机的关系

孙芳, 李欢欢(), 郭玥言, 魏诗洁   

  1. 中国人民大学心理学系, 北京 100872
  • 收稿日期:2023-03-20 发布日期:2023-06-30 出版日期:2023-11-25
  • 通讯作者: 李欢欢, E-mail:
  • 基金资助:

“Crisis” or “opportunity”: Latent patterns of family, school, community risks and assets on psychological crisis in adolescence

SUN Fang, LI Huanhuan(), GUO Yueyan, WEI Shijie   

  1. Department of Psychology, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China
  • Received:2023-03-20 Online:2023-06-30 Published:2023-11-25


为揭示复杂环境因素对青少年心理危机的促发机制, 研究采用潜在剖面分析, 对青少年的家庭、学校和社区风险和资源的组合模式进行探索。并从积极发展观和心理痛苦的两种视角, 探讨何种组合模式可以视为心理危机的免疫屏障, 何种组合模式对心理危机存在累积和聚集效应。高环境风险组合和高环境资源组合分别表现出心理危机累积效应的递增和递减趋势; 高家校风险和心理痛苦的不同组合对致死性危机的聚集效应明显。高家校风险和低环境资源组合者往往拥有更少的个体内生资源, 表现出“命运多舛”; 高资源组合者则表现出高积极发展素质和低危机的“一帆风顺”状态。研究结合新近的心理痛苦三因素模型和青少年积极发展观进行讨论, 为青少年心理危机的环境风险和资源模式提供证据。

关键词: 环境因素, 心理痛苦, 积极发展观, 心理危机, 潜在剖面分析


Extensive studies have demonstrated the buffering effect of risk factors or the promotion effect of protective assets within each setting of family, school, or community on psychological crisis in adolescence. Although many adolescents expose to risks and assets in multiple contexts, the independent and interactive effects of such cross-contextual factors on multiple psychological crisis have not been studied. This study addressed this gap by examining latent patterns of risk factors or/and protective assets in multiple contexts on non-lethal crisis state (CS), non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), suicide attempt (SA) in adolescence. Further, based on the perspectives of positive youth development and psychological pain, this study explored the specific patterns considered as immune barriers to psychological crisis, and specific patterns with cumulative and clustering effects on psychological crisis.
A sample of 2249 junior middle school students were invited to participant. The adolescents completed psychological crisis (including CS, NSSI, SA), three-dimensional psychological pain (TDPPS), positive youth development (PYD), family conflict, parental control, campus stressors, community unsafety, family resilience, parental involvement, friendship quality, perceived teacher autonomy support, neighborhood friendship and community engagement scales. Based on Latent Profile Analysis (LPA), the patterns of risk factors and TDPPS, patterns of assets and PYD and patterns of risks and assets in multiple contexts were analyzed using Mplus7.4. Further, the predictive effects of distinct patterns on psychological crisis and the relative mediated effects of TDPPS and PYD were analyzed by SPSS21.0.
The results showed that: (1) Based on the risk perspective, adolescents at high family risk usually had higher risk in school and community context. The level of CS, NSSI, SA increased with the level of risk factors. Notably, compared to moderate risk-high painful feeling class, adolescents in high family risk-high pain avoidance class had higher level of SA (OR = 6.38, p < 0.001) and NSSI (OR = 2.32, p < 0.001). (2) Based on the protective perspective, the more assets adolescents had, the higher level of PYD, and the lower level of CS, NSSI, SA they were. Compared to high combined protection-high PYD class, adolescents in moderate family protection-high PYD class have similar level of CS (p = 0.087) and SA (OR = 6.26, p = 0.096). Compared to moderate family protection-high PYD class, adolescents in moderate community protection-moderate PYD class have similar level of NSSI (OR = 1.16, p = 0.077). (3) Based on the integration perspective, the risk factors and protective assets across multiple contexts were divided into four patterns: high family risk-low assets class (class1, 8.38%), high school risk-moderate assets class (class2, 14.72%), balanced class (class3, 53.41%) and low risk-high assets class (class4, 23.49%). Compared to class3, adolescents in class1 and class2 had higher level of CS, NSSI, and SA, adolescents in class4 had lower level of CS, NSSI, and SA. Taken the balanced class as reference group, the relative mediated effects of TDPPS and PYD between the other three classes and CS, NSSI, and SA were significant.
This study deepened the understanding of the effects of distinct patterns of family, school and community risks and TDPPS on psychological crisis in adolescences, emerging on cumulative and clusters effects. Psychological crisis could be buffered by distinct patterns of assets across family, school and community context and PYD. Adolescent crisis intervention should simultaneously focus on addressing risks, and establishing a supportive system across multiple contexts.

Key words: context factors, three-dimensional psychological pain, positive youth development, psychological crisis, Latent Profile Analysis