ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2011, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (03): 308-321.

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  1. (1 电子科技大学经济管理学院, 成都 610054) (2 堪萨斯大学商学院, 美国 66045)
  • 收稿日期:2009-12-07 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:2011-03-30 发布日期:2011-03-30
  • 通讯作者: 柴俊武

Impact of Self Concept on the Effectiveness of Different Nostalgia Appeals

CHAI Jun-Wu;ZHAO Guang-Zhi;Zhang Ze-Lin   

  1. (1 School of Economics and Management, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, China)
    (2 School of Business, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA)
  • Received:2009-12-07 Revised:1900-01-01 Published:2011-03-30 Online:2011-03-30
  • Contact: CHAI Jun-Wu

摘要: 在怀旧风潮盛行的大背景下, 怀旧广告日益受到了广告主的青睐。然而, 由于怀旧诉求未能正确匹配目标受众, 导致一些怀旧广告的无效甚至是起反面效果。基于此, 通过区分个人怀旧诉求和虚拟集体怀旧诉求, 并将其联结于消费者的两种自我概念形态(独立自我与互依自我), 经由两个实验探查了受众的自我概念形态对不同怀旧广告诉求的反应。实验一采用2(怀旧诉求:个人怀旧与虚拟集体怀旧)×2(自我概念:独立自我与互依自我)组间因子设计, 检验自我概念形态是否对个人怀旧诉求广告、虚拟集体怀旧诉求广告的效果起调节作用; 实验二通过对自我概念采用不一样的操控方式, 对认知反应进行更加有效的测量, 对同一被试接触到怀旧广告信息前后的品牌态度进行对比等, 重复检验了实验一的研究结果。实验结果显示:独立自我程度高的消费者往往偏好于个人怀旧诉求, 而互依自我程度高的消费者往往偏好于虚拟集体怀旧诉求。研究结果表明:怀旧虽是一项很好的广告题材, 但在具体应用时, 需要注意怀旧诉求与目标受众的匹配性。本研究拓展了自我概念这一重要心理变量在怀旧广告领域的应用; 同时, 论文研究结果对于怀旧营销、跨文化营销也有一定的启示意义。

关键词: 怀旧, 个人怀旧, 虚拟集体怀旧, 独立自我, 互依自我

Abstract: Nostalgia, a yearning for the past, has become so ubiquitous in the popular culture that it is frequently referred as a “nostalgia boom” in many public media, and has been a popular research topic. As nostalgia continues to expand in its depth and scope, nostalgia themes are frequently seen in consumer advertising that matches consumers’ carving for nostalgia. However, research on nostalgia advertising remains scarce and the communication effectiveness of such ads is not well understood nor do researchers and practitioners generally agree on the best approaches to take with nostalgia advertising. In fact, some advertisers view the use of nostalgia advertising as a minefield and call for extreme caution in employing the tactic because the use of nostalgia advertising could potentially undermine the brand heritage. The conflict views in the real advertising industry leave us an open question what’s nostalgia advertising’s real effect?
Guided by the idea of marketing segmentation and given the richness and complexity of nostalgia experience, a fruitful approach for nostalgia advertising will be to clearly differentiate the themes of nostalgia appeals and then match a specific nostalgia appeal to a segment of consumers with particular characters. In this research, we distinguish two types of nostalgia advertising appeals: individual nostalgia appeal and collective nostalgia appeal. Furthermore, we segment the target market to two parts based on consumer’s self concept as independent self and interdependent self. Advertisers can assign proper nostalgia advertising appeal to their target consumers to boost ad persuasiveness. We conducted two experiments to test how segments of Chinese consumers (independent vs. interdependent) responded differently to two types nostalgia appeals (individual vs. collective).
The results showed that individual nostalgia appeal will be more effective than collective nostalgia appeal for consumers with an independent self concept; whereas collective nostalgia appeal will be more effective than individual nostalgia appeal for consumers with an interdependent self concept. The results demonstrated that there’s strong matching mechanism between nostalgia appeals and consumers’ self concept. This study added to the literature by proving empirical evidence to the necessity and usefulness of making refined distinction among different types of nostalgias, also contributed to the research of self concept by applying this concept on the nostalgia advertising area. Meanwhile, this study bears important implications to nostalgia marketing that a fruitful approach for nostalgia advertising will be to clearly differentiate the themes of nostalgia appeals and then connect to particular segment of consumers, i.e. individual nostalgia appeal will be more effective in the individualism culture such as in Western countries, and collective nostalgia appeal will be more effective in the collectivism culture such as in East Asian countries.

Key words: nostalgia, individual nostalgia, collective nostalgia, independent-self, interdependent-self