ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (12): 1228-1236.

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  1. (1北京师范大学心理学院, 北京 100875) (2认知神经科学与学习国家重点实验室, 北京 100875)
    (3 Department of Psychology, New York State University, Albany, 12246, New York, USA)
  • 收稿日期:2009-06-29 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:2009-12-30 发布日期:2009-12-30
  • 通讯作者: 张学民

The Effect of the Violent Elements in Violent Games on the Players and the Observers’ Aggression

ZHANG Xue-Min,LI Mao1,SONG Yan,LI Yong-Na,WEI Liu-Qing   

  1. (1 Beijing Normal University, School of Psychology, Beijing 100875, China)
    (2 State Key Lab of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing 100875, China)
    (3 Department of Psychology, New York State University, Albany, 12246, New York, USA)
  • Received:2009-06-29 Revised:1900-01-01 Published:2009-12-30 Online:2009-12-30
  • Contact: ZHANG Xue-Min

摘要: 通过实验考察游戏中的射杀动作成分和血腥成分对玩家和观看者攻击性行为和攻击性认知的影响。被试为72名男性大学生, 选用第三人称45度角的射击类游戏, 将游戏中的射杀动作成分和血腥成分进行分离, 采用竞争反应时任务范式考察攻击性行为, 采用EAST内隐认知范式考察内隐攻击性认知, 结果表明: (1) 玩家比观看者表现出更强的攻击性, 玩家表现出的攻击性行为和攻击性认知均显著强于观看者; (2) 视频游戏中的射杀动作成分导致观看者有更高的游戏卷入, 血腥成分对被试的攻击性影响强于射杀动作成分, 并使被试倾向于将攻击性进行他人归因。

关键词: 暴力游戏, 暴力成分, 攻击性行为, 攻击性认知, 玩家和观看者

Abstract: The general aggression model (GAM, Anderson & Bushman, 2002) provides a framework of the negative effect of the violent video games. It is assumed in the GAM that individual acts of aggression are caused by the interactions between situational (e.g., frustrations, or the presence of firearms), individual (e.g., personality and attitudes), and biological (e.g., increases in blood pressure) variables. The previous studies have shown that violent video games play an important role in the increases of aggressive behaviors, aggressive cognition, hostility, psychological arousal, and physiological responses. Because most of the existent research focuses only on examining the relationship between aggression and the playing of the violent video games, it still remains unclear how the situational, individual, and biological variables interact with each other to lead to the aggressive behaviors.
The present two experiments were designed to investigate how the situational factors such as different ways (playing vs. observing) of presence of violence and different elements (shooting and blood) of violence in video games influence the aggressive behaviors and cognition. Seventy-two male undergraduates participated in the research. Half of the participants were asked to play the 45 degree shooting game called Alien Shooter, and the other half were asked to watch a video tape of somebody playing the same game. After a period of time of playing or observing the game, all the participants performed both the competitive reaction time task and the extrinsic affective Simon task.
The results showed that: (1) players were more aggressive than observers in both tasks, which means that active involvement in the violent video games yielded more negative outcome than passive involvement did, and (2) both shooting and blood elements promote aggression of players, but only the blood element (not the shooting element which attracted more attention of the observer) made observers to infer that other players would be aggressive. The findings of the present research are valuable in the video game design, at least in terms of decreasing violence in the games. According to the present results, the application of substitution of shooting and blood in the game will lead to less violence of the game, and it in turn will decrease the negative effect of video game play.

Key words: violent game, violent content, aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, player and observer