ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (08): 745-752.

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期望、体验和回忆: 当消费者不能从体验中学习


  1. 北京大学光华管理学院, 北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2008-10-08 修回日期:1900-01-01 发布日期:2009-08-30 出版日期:2009-08-30
  • 通讯作者: 徐菁

Expectations, Experiences, and Memories: When Consumers Fail To Learn From Experiences

XU Jing;JIANG Duo   

  1. Guanghua School of Management, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2008-10-08 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2009-08-30 Published:2009-08-30
  • Contact: XU Jing

摘要: 人们对消费体验的期望、回忆与真实体验时常发生分离, 而且人们很少从真实体验中得到学习。本研究认为原因之一是期望、体验和回忆三者基于不同的输入信息, 以及三者特殊的交互关系。本研究首先提出了一个关于消费者期望、体验和回忆的理论框架, 系统阐述了消费者何时不能从体验中学习以及如何能促进学习, 然后在一个消费情景中通过3×2混合实验设计考察了三者的关系。实验比较了在“预期(无体验)”、“体验后即时评价”和“体验后延迟评价”三种评价方式下被试对两种品牌火腿肠的口味评价和偏好选择。结果发现: 消费者对口味体验的期望和回忆相似, 但两者都和真实体验发生分离。最后, 本研究还讨论了这一理论框架在消费者行为中的应用、未来研究拓展等。

关键词: 消费体验, 期望, 回忆, 消费者决策, 消费者学习

Abstract: Many consumption decisions are based on hedonic expectations (“Would it be enjoyable?”) and/or hedonic memories of previous consumption episodes (“Was it enjoyable?”). Psychological research suggests, however, that expectations as well as memories may deviate from consumers’ actual experiences. This research focuses on discrepancies in consumers’ consumption-related expectations, memories and actual experiences, and the role of these variables in consumer decision making and implications for consumer learning. In particular, we argue that consumers’ expected and remembered experience converge but may deviate from their actual consumption ex-perience because they draw on different sources of information. Modified from Robinson and Clore’s (2002) accessibility framework, our conceptual framework extends to consumption experience in general and investi-gates the conditions under which consumers are likely to learn or not learn from their actual experience.
One hundred and twenty six undergraduate students participated in this study and were randomly assigned to one of the three experimental conditions. Participants in the predict condition were asked to predict the taste of a well-known (category leader) brand of snack (i.e., ready-to-eat sausage) vs. a less well-known brand (without actually tasting the food) and indicate their preference and choice of the two brands. Participants in the experience condition first tasted the two brands of sausages and then indicated their preference and choice ac-cordingly. Participants in the experience with delay condition were asked to first taste the two brands of sausages and then worked on some unrelated tasks, and finally were asked to recall their taste experience and indicate their preference and choice of the two brands of sausages. Our results show that memories of taste experience parallels with expectations (i.e., well-known brand sausage tastes better than the less known brand), as reported by the participants in the experience with delay and the predict condition. Similarly, participants in the two con-ditions also indicated similar preference pattern (well-known brand is preferred over the less known brand). However, reports of actual taste of the two brands did not differ in the experience condition and participants are as likely to prefer and choose the less well-known brand as the well-known brand. Our findings suggest that memories are likely to confirm expectations and may have little to do with the actual experience. Furthermore, because decisions are often made on the basis of expectation or memory, consumers may rarely learn from their actual experience, unless judgment and decision are made on the spot of consumption and consumers are en-couraged to revise their prior beliefs or expectations.
These findings have important implications for consumer decision making and consumer well being. Be-cause hedonic predictions converge with memories but both have little to do with the actual experience, con-sumers may fail to optimize their actual consumption experience. Moreover, these processes impede learning from experience and may result in the erroneous impression that one’s expectations were right on target.

Key words: consumption experience, expectation, retrospective memory, consumer decision making, con-sumer learning