ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (07): 624-629.

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  1. (1认知神经科学与学习国家重点实验室(北京师范大学),北京 100875)(2北京师范大学发展心理研究所,北京 100875)
  • 收稿日期:2009-01-13 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:2009-07-30 发布日期:2009-07-30
  • 通讯作者: 申继亮

The Relation Between Vocabulary Comprehension and Spatial Orientation in Older Adults: A Cross-Lagged Regression Analysis

PENG Hua-Mao;WANG Da-Hua;SHEN Ji-Liang;Lin Chong-De   

  1. (1National Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning (Beijing Normal University), Beijing 100875, China) (2Institute of Development Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China)
  • Received:2009-01-13 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2009-07-30 Published:2009-07-30
  • Contact: SHEN Ji-Liang

摘要: 来自北京三个社区的144位60~85岁的老年人参加了间隔时间为20个月的词语解释和心理旋转前后测测查,以考察语义理解能力在空间定向能力老化中的作用。运用重复测量方差分析、交叉滞后回归分析考察了两个变量上老年人在20个月期间发生的变化,以及两个变量间的因果关系。结果发现:(1)各年龄组老年人的语义理解能力均有下降,空间定向能力均有提高。(2)前测语义理解能力可预测后测空间定向能力。(3)不同语义理解能力水平的被试空间定向能力在前后测中的提高是相同的。

关键词: 语义理解能力, 空间定向能力, 老化, 交叉滞后回归分析

Abstract: New findings in the Seattle Longitudinal Study showed that vocabulary comprehension could predict some cognitively impaired, including spatial ability, memory, and speed, and so on. It may be concerned that if vocabulary comprehension can predict the age related change of other primary mental abilities. The findings from research of the aging of Primary Mental Abilities showed that spatial orientation and inductive reasoning declined with age growth and verbal abilities retained stable until 70 years old. Salthouse distinguished these two aspects of cognition as process and product. Process refers to the efficiency or effectiveness of processing at the time of assessment. Product refers to the accumulated products of processing carried out in the past. The interaction between process (such as spatial) and product (such as vocabulary) in aging is one of the issues needing to be clarified in the study of cognitive aging. As an index of knowledge, the role of vocabulary comprehension in cognitive process as spatial orientation is also concerned in this study.
Verbal explanation and mental rotation task were chosen to measure vocabulary comprehension and spatial orientation, respectively. 240 people 60 years old or above in Beijing were assessed at Time 1 and 171 at Time 2. The data of 144 elders were final accepted to analysis according to the reaction accuracy. There was no education level difference among different age groups.
Repeatedly measure ANOVA showed that vocabulary decreased and spatial increased after 20 months even controlled standard error of measurement of pretest performance. Cross-lagged regression analysis based on vocabulary and spatial showed that vocabulary at Time 1 can predict spatial at Time 2, β=-0.17; on the contrary, spatial can not predict vocabulary. There was no difference among the gain of practice effects in spatial of participants with different vocabulary levels (high, middle, and low).
These findings suggest that the maintaining or increasing vocabulary comprehension can protect against spatial aging. There is interaction between process and product in the change with time, and product as well as knowledge may be a migrator in age-related change of process.

Key words: vocabulary comprehension, spatial orientation, aging, cross-lagged analysis

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