ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (06): 519-533.

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  1. 浙江大学心理与行为科学系,杭州 310028
  • 收稿日期:2008-06-25 修回日期:1900-01-01 发布日期:2009-06-30 出版日期:2009-06-30
  • 通讯作者: 马剑虹

Interaction of Shared Mental Models in A Complex Task

XU Han-Yi;MA Jian-Hong;YANG Kai;FANG Hui-Zhen   

  1. Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences , Zhejiang University , Hangzhou 310028, China
  • Received:2008-06-25 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2009-06-30 Published:2009-06-30
  • Contact: MA Jian-Hong

摘要: 共享心智模型(SMM)指队员对于团队的共享心理表征。复杂任务下高的一致性难以获得且易造成小集体意识,SMM的作用在于相互间的调节及共享信念对低一致性的调节作用。为了验证这些假设对9名不同行业创业者进行访谈,对访谈材料进行内容分析得到心智模型关键概念,经过概化理论分析后得到了4个SMM:任务、队友、团队协作以及团队精神。使用心智模型问卷在ERP模拟实验中测量31个团队的绩效和SMM一致性。结果发现团队协作模型一致性是预测绩效的有力指标;团队构成不影响各个SMM一致性;任务模型一致性正向缓冲了团队协作模型一致性对绩效的作用;团队精神模型一致性正向缓冲了团队协作模型一致性对绩效的作用。研究提示SMM对冲突的引导及增进团队成员相互理解方面的作用。

关键词: 共享心智模型, 团队精神, 缓冲

Abstract: Shared Mental Model is a shared, organized mental representation of the key factors of a team’s state which helps teammates to explain and expect the requirements of team’s task and of its members. Share mental model facilitates the communication and coordination within a team and improves a team’s performance. But it’s extremely hard and risky to overlap all the mental models, which may leads to group thinking. What teammates share more may make up for what they share less. Moreover, the function of SMMs depends on how teammates deal with difference between mental models within a team. When sharedness of certain belief is low, the difference between mental models leads to misunderstanding, conflicts and low performance. But with a shared belief held by teammates, a much more effective teamwork is reinforced through various thoughts, intercommunication and global understanding. Team spirit is such a belief that stands for shared team targets and shared team values. This study hypothesized that as moderator(s), some SMM(s), especially shared Team Spirit Mental Model, would strengthen the positive relation between other SMM(s) and performance in a complex task.
We interviewed 9 enterprisers in different new venture programs. A coding manual based on which we compiled a questionnaire was derived from the interviews. Using the questionnaire we then conducted an ERP simulation game in order to collect mental models and performances. 31 teams of 127 subjects of different backgrounds participated. We used Path Finder to get the closeness index C of teams’ SMMs for later analysis.
Analysis based on Ground Theory showed a reliability of 0.92 of the coding manual with 35 concepts sorted in 4 SMMs (task model, teammate model, teamwork model and team spirit model). Stepwise regression analysis showed that sharedness of Teamwork Mental Model had a significant positive effect when regressed on performance; ANOVAs showed that team composition did not influence the closeness of each SMM; hierarchical regression analysis showed that as a moderator, sharedness of Task Mental Model strengthened positive relation between sharedness of Teamwork Mental Model and performance; sharedness of Team Spirit Mental Model strengthened the positive relation between sharedness of Teamwork Mental Model and performance.
The study implies that Teamwork Mental Model is a robust indicator of performance. Team composition didn’t influence sharedness of SMM, indicating that experience has little impact on the development of SMM. The study also shows that Task Mental Model and Team Spirit Model have moderating effects. Finally, the moderating effect of Team Spirit Mental Model implies that belief has a function of alleviating conflicts between team members. Due to shared belief people think of, care about and understand others with a result of improved performance and better decision-making. Future research should pay more attention to the role of SMM in conflicts and in understanding with other teammates.

Key words: shared mental model, team spirit, moderation