ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (9): 1018-1027.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.01018

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

视觉正常的自闭症儿童双眼注视点间距的特点及其意义

高世欢1,2, 陈顺森1(), 苏彦捷2(), 林彩云1,3   

  1. 1. 闽南师范大学教育科学学院; 福建省应用认知与人格重点实验室, 漳州 363000
    2. 北京大学心理与认知科学学院; 行为与心理健康北京市重点实验室, 北京 100871
    3. 广东金融学院心理健康教育与咨询中心, 广州 510521
  • 收稿日期:2018-10-06 出版日期:2019-08-21 发布日期:2019-07-24
  • 通讯作者: 陈顺森,苏彦捷 E-mail:shunsen@163.com;yjsu@pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    * 国家社会科学基金教育类青年课题(CBA120104)

Characteristics and significance of binocular point of regard in children with autism having normal vision

GAO Shihuan1,2, CHEN Shunsen1(), SU Yanjie2(), LIN Caiyun1,3   

  1. 1. College of Education Science and Fujian Key Laboratory of 'Applied Cognition & Personality', Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000, China;
    2. School of Psychological and Cognitive Sciences; Beijing Key Laboratory of Behavior and Mental Health, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    3. Center of Mental Health Education and Counseling, Guangdong University of Finance, Guangzhou 510521, China
  • Received:2018-10-06 Online:2019-08-21 Published:2019-07-24
  • Contact: CHEN Shunsen,SU Yanjie E-mail:shunsen@163.com;yjsu@pku.edu.cn

摘要:

视网膜上物象对应的外在注视点之间的距离, 即双眼注视点间距(distance of binoculars point of regard, DBPR)在自闭症谱系障碍(autism spectrum disorders, ASD)个体上存在异常的表现, 而ASD个体伴随较高的斜视发病率, 可能会对其双眼注视点间距产生影响。研究采用正弦曲线平滑追踪任务范式, 探索视觉正常的ASD儿童在动态刺激加工过程中DBPR的鉴别意义。结果发现, ASD儿童DBPR过大且具有跨任务类型的稳定性, 且与斜视无关。DBPR在大振幅、快速度的条件下具有优良的鉴别力, 并与自闭症行为量表总分以及感知觉维度显著正相关。结果表明, 双眼注视点间距具有良好的鉴别价值。

关键词: 自闭症谱系障碍, 平滑追踪任务, 双眼注视点间距

Abstract:

Perception disorders, especially those of vision, in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a significant diagnostic value. Earlier studies have shown that both adults and children with ASD have vision disorders, like double vision, strabismus, amblyopia, etc., which may cause difficulties in processing visual information. Smooth pursuit eye movement (SPEM) can be used to research perception and processing of motion information that track the target’s movement. Failure of visual processing of motion stimuli in individuals with ASD was reported in several earlier studies. There is little existing knowledge about the mechanism underlying the failure to effectively perform visual tracking in individuals with ASD. Given the visual problems of these individuals, we supposed that dysfunction of binocular fusion affects the ability to track targets precisely. Distance between the external fixation points corresponding to the object image on the retina, that is, the distance of the binocular point of regard (DBPR) is abnormal in ASD. Some studies reported that irrespective of static or dynamic stimuli, the DBPR in children with ASD is significantly greater than that of typically developing (TD) children. Therefore, we investigated the visual mechanism and identification value of the DBPR in children with ASD, using a smooth-tracking task.

We designed a study to test the visual mechanism and identification value of the DBPR in children with ASD during dynamic stimulation processing. We recruited 25 children with ASD, aged 3 to 6 years, and 25 TD children of corresponding age, who were made to watch 6 smooth-tracking task videos of sinusoidal motion of a small black sphere, which were recorded along with the original coordinates of binocular vision through an eye tracker. We compared differences in TD children and those with ASD, by calculating the position error and DBPR in 6 conditions.

The results showed that: (1) the DBPR in children with ASD is abnormal, and is independent of strabismus, (2) compared with TD children, whose average DBPR value is less than 30 pixels, the DBPR in children with ASD is higher. Average DBPR value in children with ASD is greater than 35 pixels and has cross-task stability, (3) the DBPR in children with ASD has good identification ability in all six conditions, especially under the conditions of highest amplitude and speed, and (4) the DBPR is significantly positively correlated with gross score of the autism behavior checklist (ABC) and dimension of sensation, showing that it can be used as an identification index to measure abnormal perception in children with ASD.

In conclusion, compared with TD children, the DBPR in those with ASD reflects the defect of binocular vision and has cross-task stability. It has good identification value under the conditions of fastest speed and highest amplitude.

Key words: autism spectrum disorder, smooth tracking, distance of the binocular point of regard.

中图分类号: