ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (1): 117-127.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00117

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

恩威并施、积极执行与工作绩效 ——探索中国情境下双元领导的有效性

侯楠1, 彭坚2,*   

  1. 1 东北大学工商管理学院, 沈阳 110169
    2 广州大学工商管理学院, 广州 510006
  • 收稿日期:2017-08-04 发布日期:2018-11-26 出版日期:2019-01-25
  • 通讯作者: 彭坚

Authoritarian-benevolent leadership, active implementation and job performance: An investigation on the effectiveness of ambidextrous leadership in the Chinese context

HOU Nan1, PENG Jian2,*   

  1. 1 School of Business Administration, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110169, China
    2 School of Management, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
  • Received:2017-08-04 Online:2018-11-26 Published:2019-01-25
  • Contact: PENG Jian


当今复杂多变的环境呼吁领导者应采取双元领导策略, 以平衡组织内部的相异诉求。恩威并施是我国传统文化塑造的一种具有双元特性的典型领导行为, 被大量学者视为提升下属产出的有效方式。然而, 以往研究忽略了“施恩” (仁慈领导行为)和“立威” (威权领导行为)不同组合对下属工作产出的差异化影响及其内部机理。为了弥补这些不足, 文章通过引入追随力理论, 探讨了施恩和立威组合情况如何塑造下属执行力进而影响工作绩效。采用多项式回归和响应面分析方法, 对130份两时间点上下级配对数据进行分析, 发现:(1)在施恩与立威水平相当情况下, 恩威皆高时下属积极执行程度要高于恩威皆低; (2)在施恩与立威水平不一致情况下, 恩多威寡时下属积极执行程度要高于威多恩寡; (3) 施恩与立威组合情况对下属积极执行的影响能够波及至下属工作绩效, 其中, 恩威皆高通过积极执行对工作绩效间接效应是最强的。以上结果细化了学界对恩威并施作用效果的认识, 对双元领导、追随力和工作绩效等研究领域均有一定的启发意义。

关键词: 双元领导, 仁慈领导, 权威领导, 恩威并施, 追随力


Ambidextrous leadership is key to solving organizational tension and complex problems. This type of leadership has gained attention in the field of organizational behavior in recent years. Ambidextrous leadership refers to a set of two complementary leadership behaviors and the flexibility switch between two different behaviors. Existing studies noted the extensive benefits of ambidextrous leadership to employees and organizations. These advantages include enhancement of the psychological empowerment of employees, exploratory and exploitative behaviors, innovation, and organizational change. Prior studies focused on ambidextrous leadership from the Western context. These studies include opening-closing leadership and transformational-transactional leadership. However, the consequences of indigenous ambidextrous leadership in the Chinese context remain poorly understood. A particular ambidextrous leadership embedded in Chinese culture was identified, namely, authoritarian-benevolent leadership. The present study focuses on the combination of authoritarian and benevolent leadership, which is regarded as a type of indigenous ambidextrous leadership. The researchers aimed to investigate the effect of different combination modes of benevolent and authoritarian leadership on the work outcome of subordinates and its underlying mechanism.
The researchers identified four scenarios by combining the two kinds of leadership, namely, high authority-high benevolence, low authority-low benevolence, high authority-low benevolence, low authority-high benevolence. This approach was based on the level of authoritarian and benevolent leadership. The former two forms of leadership fall under the congruence category, whereas the latter two fall under the incongruence category. By drawing on followership theory, the researchers expected that the active implementation of subordinates was high when leaders were at a high level of authoritarian leadership and benevolent leadership than when at a low level of authoritarian leadership and benevolent leadership. The researchers also found that the active implementation of subordinates was high when the benevolent leadership of leaders exceeded authoritarian leadership rather than when authoritarian leadership exceeded benevolent leadership. Third, the active implementation of subordinates carried the joint effect of benevolent and authority leadership to the job performance of followers.
A multiwave, multiresource survey was used to test the hypotheses. Surveys were given to 204 voluntary subordinates at Time 1. They were required to report their leaders’ benevolent leadership and authoritarian leadership and demographic information. The researchers obtained 183 effective survey responses. After one month, the researchers conducted Time 2 survey, which required leaders to rate the job performance of their subordinates. The subordinates were then required to rate their active implementation. A total of 130 effective survey responses were obtained. The researchers used polynomial regression combined with response surface analysis based on the two-wave data. The results supported the hypotheses.
The findings offered several contributions to literature. First, different combination modes of benevolent and authoritarian leadership have different effects on the work outcome of subordinates. Second, the researchers uncovered the dynamics between authoritarian-benevolent leadership and work outcome of subordinates. These findings can aid Chinese scholars to gain an improved understanding of indigenous ambidextrous leadership. These findings advance the understanding on how authoritarian leadership combined with benevolent leadership affects the performance of followers. The findings also provide further practical insights to practitioners.

Key words: ambidexterity leadership, benevolent leadership, authoritarian leadership, benevolent authority, followership