ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 49 ›› Issue (10): 1267-1276.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.001267

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 吴彦文1;  游旭群2   

  1.  (1天水师范学院心理学系, 甘肃 天水 741001) (2陕西师范大学心理学院, 西安 710062)
  • 出版日期:2017-10-25 发布日期:2017-08-13
  • 通讯作者: 游旭群, E-mail: E-mail:E-mail:
  • 基金资助:

 Is color words identification really not needed in attentional resources? Evidence from the Stroop paradigm

 WU Yanwen1; YOU Xuqun2   

  1.  (1 Department of Psychology, Tianshui Normal University, Tianshui 741001, China) (2 School of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062, China)
  • Online:2017-10-25 Published:2017-08-13
  • Contact: YOU Xuqun, E-mail: E-mail:E-mail:
  • Supported by:

摘要:   3个实验采用颜色词、颜色词同音词以及颜色语义联想词作为启动词, 使启动词的语义和颜色实现时空分离、启动词处于非空间注意焦点位置、降低启动词可视度的情境下, 考察具有自动化加工特征的启动词是否受到注意力资源的制约以及启动词在获得不同数量的注意力资源时其自动化程度是否存在显著的差异。结果发现:(1) 注意力资源实质性地决定着自动化加工能否顺利进行, 具有自动激活特征的刺激在无法获得注意力资源时, 自动化加工过程终止。(2) 可用的注意力资源数量调控着自动化加工的效率和语义提取的效果, 可用的注意力资源数量越多, 对启动刺激的语义加工越完善, 对目标刺激的促进效果也越有效。本研究结果支持注意力敏感模型关于自动化加工受认知系统的支持和配置才能完成的假设。

关键词: 自动化加工, 注意力资源, 颜色词, Stroop启动效应

Abstract:  According to the classical theories of automaticity, automatic processing is considered entirely stimulus- triggered and independent of top-down control of attention. Automatic processes elicited by unconscious stimuli are not needed in capacity-limited attentional resources. Furthermore, the classical theories highlight the inflexibility of the cognitive system. Namely, conscious information processes would be massively influenced by various unconscious processes. Such inflexibility would require for much conscious control as intended actions could only be ensured by inhibiting numerous interfering response tendencies. In contrast to these classical conceptions, Kiefer and Martens (2010) recently developed an attentional sensitization model of unconscious cognition, which allows for more flexibility and adaptability of automatic processing or unconscious cognitive processing, and the cognitive system has to be configured by attention and task sets in order for automatic processes to occur. Research on unconscious perception has long been known, but the controversies about researching methods and theoretical interpretations in empirical findings have not been resolved. However, in the past few years, it has become increasingly apparent that factors such as attention allocation, intentions, and task sets do influence on the processes that underlie unconscious perception. Kiefer and Martens (2010) argue that higher level task representations configuring the cognitive system in a way of task-congruent processing streams. In view of the above theoretically different opinions, this research aims to extend the findings of attentional sensitization theory that unconscious semantic stimulus processing is dependent not only on the activation of a semantic processing, but also on the extent to which participants assign attention to specific semantic stimulus dimensions and features. In the present research, the Stroop task paradigm was used because the Stroop paradigm was the most robust findings in attentional research that the time to name a color was lengthened markedly in the presence of an irrelevant word, and the Stroop effect was considered the hallmark of automatic processing. The Stroop paradigm would be appropriate to verify the unconscious processing. In three experiments, we used color words, homonyms of color words and color semantic associative words as priming words, and employed several stringent measures to prevent participants from attending to the irrelevant words, including the priming words’ semantics and physical colors separated from time and space; Each words were outside the focus of spatial attention and their visibility were decreased so as to discuss whether the automatic processing was constrained by attentional resources, and whether the participants obtained different amount of attentional resources could make a difference in automated processing. The results showed that: (1) Automatic processes are heavily dependent on the attentional resources, and the automated processes were terminated when the color words could not obtain the attentional resources. (2) The amount of available attentional resources regulated the efficiency and effectiveness of automatic processing, the more attentional resources obtained, the larger significant semantic priming effects to the target stimulus. The results supported the hypothesis of attentional sensitization model that automatic processes were susceptible to top-down control by the higher level cognitive system.

Key words:  automatic processes, attentional resource, color words, Stroop priming effect