ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (8): 933-945.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00933

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

身体意象可塑吗? ——同步性和距离参照系对身体拥有感的影响

张 静1,2 ;陈 巍3,4   

  1. (1杭州电子科技大学心理健康研究所, 杭州 310018) (2荷兰莱顿大学脑与认知研究所, 莱顿 2333 AK) (3绍兴文理学院心理学系, 绍兴 312000) (4浙江大学语言与认知研究中心, 杭州 310028)
  • 收稿日期:2015-06-19 出版日期:2016-08-25 发布日期:2016-08-25
  • 通讯作者: 陈巍, E-mail: anti-monist@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    中国博士后科学基金项目(2014T70578; 2013M540497)、国家社科基金重大项目(11&ZD187)、国家自然科学基金面上项目(81472163)、教育部哲学社会科学研究重大课题攻关项目(13JZD004)。

Is body image plastic? The impact of synchrony and distance reference frame on body ownership

ZHANG Jing1,2; CHEN Wei3,4   

  1. (1 Institute of Psychological Health, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018, China) (2 Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University, Leiden 2333 AK, Netherlands) (3 Department of Psychology, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing 312000, China) (4 Center for the Study of Language and Cognition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China)
  • Received:2015-06-19 Online:2016-08-25 Published:2016-08-25
  • Contact: CHEN Wei, E-mail: anti-monist@163.com

摘要:

身体意象是个体在意识层面对与身体有关的知觉、态度及信念, 它的稳定性与可塑性一直存在争论。本研究使用方位追踪仪、数据手套及投影仪, 通过2个实验考查虚拟手错觉中距离参照系对身体拥有感的影响。实验1在虚拟环境中采用经典橡胶手错觉的变式, 考察同步性和虚拟手位置对拥有感的影响; 实验2引入距离参照系, 考察在不同参照条件下被试对同一个位置的虚拟手在不同同步情况下的拥有感错觉。研究结果发现:(1)无论是同步性还是距离都会对虚拟手错觉中的拥有感产生影响, 即同步比不同步条件下、距离近比距离远条件下拥有感显著; (2)不同的距离参照系对同一位置的拥有感体验影响差异显著, 先近后远的呈现方式会减弱错觉而先远后近的呈现方式则会加强错觉。这一发现与身体拥有感是受稳定的身体意象调节的假设并不一致。

关键词: 橡胶手错觉, 虚拟手错觉, 身体意象, 距离参照系, 拥有感

Abstract:

Body image consists of a system of perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs pertaining to one’s own. The appearance of one’s own body “from the outside”, is thought to be an important component of body image, therefore many studies focus on the visual perceptual component of body image. The controversies concerning body image are not only between nature and nurture, but also about its stability. On the one hand, body image seems to play an important role whenever we need to recognize ourselves, it is easy for us to take it as a stable representation of our body. On the other hand, the studies of amputees who experience phantom limbs suggested a sense that one’s body image is itself a “phantom”, so it is also reasonable to think body image as something that is at least plastic. The rubber hand illusion (RHI) paradigm seems to be one of the appropriate ways to investigate this controversy about body image, since it could induce the experience of an artificial body part as becoming a real body part among normal people. This illusion was first reported by Botvinick and Cohen who placed a rubber hand in front of participants whose corresponding real hand was hidden from sight. When the real hand and the visible rubber hand were stroked in a synchronous fashion, participants reported to experience the rubber hand as being a part of their body. Studies concerning the factors affect the induction or reduction of RHI suggested that the RHI depends not only on synchronous stimulations, but also on the match between the rubber hand and pre-existing body images. However, till now, no studies have combined top-down and bottom-up to seek the answer for the plasticity of body image. In the present study, we adopted distance reference as a new factor to investigate the plasticity of body image. Our study included two experiments both of which were performed in a virtual environment. In the first experiment, we simulated the traditional rubber hand illusion to determine the influences of synchronicity and location on bodily sense of ownership in our setups. It was a 2-factorial between-participants design. The two factors were synchronicity (synchronous vs. asynchronous) and distance (near vs. far). In the second experiment, we introduced distance reference frame to investigate how participants felt differently about the virtual hand in the same location, while there were different distance reference frames. There were two between-participants factors: synchronicity (synchronous vs. asynchronous) and distance reference frame (near-middle vs. far-middle). The near-middle reference frame was: participants experienced the middle position condition right after the near position condition; while the far-middle reference frame was: participants experienced the middle position condition right after the far position condition. The following results and conclusions were found by our study: (1) under normal situations, synchronicity and distance played an important role on our perception of ownership. People perceived more ownership whenever there were synchronous visuo-tactile stimulations than asynchronous ones, and also, more ownership when the virtual hand was right in front of them than in an anatomical impossible position. (2) Distance reference frame influenced peoples’ perception on their own body, the size of the ownership illusion varied as a function of relative, rather than absolute location of the virtual hand. Our result suggests a considerable degree plasticity of body image underlying our body ownership.

Key words: rubber hand illusion, virtual hand illusion, body image, distance reference frame, sense of ownership