ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (6): 636-648.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00636

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认知灵活性对非熟练双语者语言转换的影响 —— 一项ERPs研究


  1. (河北大学教育学院, 保定 071002)
  • 收稿日期:2012-10-24 出版日期:2013-06-25 发布日期:2013-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 范宁
  • 基金资助:


Effect of Cognitive Flexibility on Language Switching in Non-proficient Bilinguals: An ERPs Study

LIU Huanhuan;FAN Ning;SHEN Xiangying;JI Jiangye   

  1. (College of Education, Hebei University, Baoding, 071002, China)
  • Received:2012-10-24 Online:2013-06-25 Published:2013-06-25
  • Contact: FAN Ning

摘要: 采用WCST筛选出高低认知灵活性的非熟练汉英双语者, 分别使用图片命名和语义范畴判断任务考察认知灵活性对双语者语言转换的影响。结果发现:(1)高认知灵活性被试的双语转换代价是对称的, 其N2成分的平均波幅和峰值显著大于低认知灵活性被试, 低认知灵活性被试的转换代价是非对称的; (2)高认知灵活性被试在语言产生任务中, L2重复条件下N2的峰值显著大于L1重复条件, 出现L2重复优势效应; (3)在语言理解任务中, 高低认知灵活性被试在L1重复条件下的N2峰值显著大于L2重复条件, 两组均出现了L1重复优势效应。研究表明, 抑制控制能力在语言产生与理解的双语转换中起着重要的作用, 语言转换代价源于心理词典的字词识别系统之外。

关键词: 认知灵活性, 语言产生, 语言理解, 转换代价, N2

Abstract: Recently, the effect of individual difference on language switching and switching cost has become a focus of many studies. Among the factors involved in the effect, L2 proficiency and age of acquisition are shown to be two important factors. Whilst the switching cost in proficient bilinguals is symmetrical, it is not in non-proficient bilinguals. Similar findings are obtained from bilinguals who acquire L2 early and those who acquire late. Moreover, some studies indicate that the switching cost may result from a system that is outside the word-recognition system in the mental lexicon. That is, inhibitive control also plays an important role in language switching as in general task switching. Previous EEG evidence shows that N2 (about 320 ms) that is usually found in the central frontal areas can be used as an indicator reflecting the top-to-down inhibitive control. In this study, the effect of cognitive flexibility (CF) on language switching was examined in non-proficient bilinguals using EEG method. Thirty non-proficient Chinese-English bilinguals were selected from 119 non-English major undergraduates by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST). Among them, 15 participants were scored as high cognitive flexibility (CF), and another 15 were scored as low CF. A 2 (high-CF and low-CF) × 2 (L1 and L2) × 2 (repetition and switch) mixed design was employed. A picture naming task and a semantic-decision task were performed by the participants in order to examine the mechanism of language switching during language production and comprehension, respectively. In experiment 1, an immediate naming paradigm was used, and behavioral data were recorded. In experiment 2, a delayed naming paradigm was used, and only ERPs data were collected. In experiment 3, the participants were required to decide whether the presented word indicated a living meaning by pressing buttons. Both behavioral and ERPs data were obtained. The results showed that: (1) The switching cost in high-CF participants was symmetrical, whereas that in low-CF was not. Meanwhile, the mean amplitude and peak value of N2 was larger significantly in high-CF than in low-CF. (2) For high-CF participants, the peak value of N2 in repetitive language production task was larger in L2 repetitive condition than in L1 repetitive condition. (3) In contrast, the peak value of N2 in repetitive language comprehension task was larger in L1 repetitive condition than in L2 repetitive condition. These results suggest that CF affects language switching and its cost. The capability of inhibitive control have a key role in bilingual’s language switching of language production and comprehension. Language switching and its cost in non-proficient bilinguals result from a system that is outside the word-recognition system in the mental lexicon.

Key words: cognitive flexibility, language production, language comprehension, switching cost, N2