ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (12): 1563-1570.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2012.01563

• 论文 •    下一篇

无意识信息加工中的“完型”—— 无意识捆绑假说的新证据


  1. (1东北师范大学心理学院, 长春 130024) (2天津师范大学心理与行为研究院, 天津 300074)
  • 收稿日期:2012-09-10 出版日期:2012-12-25 发布日期:2012-12-25
  • 通讯作者: 张明, E-mail:
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金青年项目(31100730); 高等学校博士学科点专项科研基金博导类资助课题(20110043110012); 教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地项目(2009JJDXLX004); 49批博士后基金资助(20110491285)。

The Gestalt in Unconscious Processing: Evidence for the Unconscious Binding Hypothesis

ZHANG Xiu-Ling;DONG Bo;JIANG Yun-Peng;ZHANG Ming   

  1. (1School of Psychology, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China) (2Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300074, China)
  • Received:2012-09-10 Online:2012-12-25 Published:2012-12-25
  • Contact: ZHANG Ming

摘要: 采用连续闪烁范式(Continuous Flash Suppression, CFS)考察了无意识状态下完型能否发生。研究通过2 (线条完整性) × 2 (意义破坏) × 2 (熟悉性)的被试内实验设计考察了8种条件下图片的突破抑制时间(Suppression Time, ST)。结果发现:线条完整和意义未破坏的图片能更快地克服噪音图片的抑制进入意识; 熟悉性不影响突破抑制时间。重要的是, 不完整的图片也可以出现意义破坏效应。这表明即使在被抑制的状态下, 不完整图形的信息也能够传达至与完型相关的高级视觉区域形成客体表征。研究为无意识捆绑假说(The Unconscious Binding Hypothesis)提供了新的实验证据。

关键词: 无意识信息加工, 双眼竞争, 完型, 连续闪烁范式

Abstract: It remains unclear whether higher-level aspects of visual stimuli can be represented without awareness. The global workspace theory suggested that basic stimulus properties such as orientation, spatial frequency, color, and translational motion could still be encoded when rendered invisible. However, higher-level aspects of visual stimuli, for example, face perception, the meaning of words, could not be processed without awareness. Meanwhile, the unconscious binding hypothesis insisted that object-related representation could be formed by early and late perceptual binding even under invisible situation. In this study, we used incomplete pictures to investigated whether gestalt could facilitate perceptual binding during binocular rivalry. Specificly, we scrambled the complete and incomplete pictures to investigate: (1) whether there was a scrambled effect for both kinds of invisible pictures; (2) whether familiarity of the simple line pictures affected the time for stimuli breaking suppression. Continuous flash suppression was used in our experiment. Three factors were included: completeness of the construction (complete vs. incomplete), destruction of the meaning (scrambled vs. non-scrambled) and familiarity (upright vs. inverted). Subjects were instructed to respond as accurately and quickly as possible the appearance of any part of the test image as soon as possible and regardless of the specific content of the image. Eighteen volunteers participated in the experiment (8 males and 10 females). Results showed that non-scrambled pictures occupied less time than scrambled pictures to gain dominance against the identical suppression noise; The scrambled effect was observed both for incomplete and complete pictures; Upright pictures were not faster to enter consciousness than inverted ones. These results suggested that the features in incomplete pictures, even suppressed and invisible, could be bound together to form the object representation by gestalt. Apparently, high-level information (gestalt principles and meanings) of a stimulus did contribute to the strength of breaking suppression during its suppressed phase. Substantial information in the suppression phase of binocular rivalry could be processed to the extent that object-related representations could be achieved by gestalt. Our findings provided direct evidence for the unconscious binding hypothesis.

Key words: unconscious processing, binocular rivalry, gestalt, continuous flashing paradigm