ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (10): 1329-1338.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2012.01329

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇



  1. (1中国科学院心理研究所心理健康实验室, 北京 100101) (2中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100039)
  • 收稿日期:2011-11-28 发布日期:2012-10-23 出版日期:2012-10-25
  • 通讯作者: 张建新;陈祉妍
  • 基金资助:


The Genetic and Environmental Influence on Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: A Genetic Sensitive Study

HOU Jin-Qin;CHEN Zhi-Yan;Li Xin-Ying;Yang Xiao-Dong;Zhang Jian-Xin   

  1. (1Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100101, China) (2 Graduate school, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China)
  • Received:2011-11-28 Online:2012-10-23 Published:2012-10-25
  • Contact: Zhang Jian-Xin;CHEN Zhi-Yan

摘要: 本研究意在探讨青少年抑郁情绪遗传率的性别和年龄差异及遗传和环境对抑郁情绪跨时间连续性的影响。508对同卵双生子, 176对同性别异卵双生子参加了两轮追踪研究, 时间间隔约为一年半(1.37±0.44)。第一轮测量双生子的年龄范围为10~18岁, 平均年龄为13.69±2.04岁, 男生比例为46.2%。采用儿童抑郁量表(CDI)对青少年的抑郁情绪进行多报告者评定。结果发现, 青少年抑郁情绪的遗传解释率不存在性别差异, 处于青春早期青少年的遗传解释率高于青春中期的青少年。遗传是影响青春早期青少年抑郁情绪持续发生的主导因素, 而环境是影响青春中期青少年抑郁情绪持续发生的主要因素。

关键词: 双生子, 遗传, 共享环境, 非共享环境, 抑郁情绪

Abstract: Epidemiological and developmental studies showed that one of the obvious phenomena during adolescence is a marked increase in depressive symptoms. Behavioral genetic studies found that shared environmental influences account for the majority of the variance for children’s symptoms while genetic factors are substantial for adolescent depressive symptoms. However, whether the results of behavioral genetic studies from Western countries can be generalized to adolescents in China with a collectivism culture remains unexplored. First, prevalence of depression varies dramatically across cultures with a lower rate in China than in other countries. Second, factors that are associated with depressive symptoms and the extent to which these factors are consequential for adolescents’ mood are also different across cultures. Existing evidences showed that the quality of family relationships and grades in school had significantly stronger associations with depressive symptoms among Chinese youths than among U.S. youths. Third, genes that contribute to depressive symptoms have different frequencies in different races. Moreover, culture may moderate the expression of genes. Therefore, the first objective of the study was to examine the heritability of adolescent depressive symptoms for boys and girls in China, respectively. Results from the family study, the adoption study and the twin study suggest that adolescent depressive symptoms are heritable (range 15-80%). Moreover, empirical work showed that the relative contributions of genetic and environmental influences to depressive symptoms vary as a function of age. The second objective of the study was to extend previous ones by examining whether the heritability of depressive symptoms in early-adolescence was different from that in mid-adolescence. We hypothesized that the heritability of depressive symptoms in early adolescence was higher than that in middle adolescence according to the theory and empirical work. Depressive symptoms tend to persist over time and the stability is evident in general population samples. The third objective of the study was to examine the contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the stability of adolescent depressive symptoms in early and middle adolescence, respectively. We hypothesized that genetic factors accounted for the stability of depressive symptoms in early adolescence whereas shared environmental influence contributed to the stability of depressive symptoms in middle adolescence. Data for the current study were from the Beijing Twin Study (BeTwiSt). Given obtaining written informed consents from twins and their parents, arrangements were made for the twins to stay in their classrooms after school time. Research staffs were there to answer any questions that students might ask about the questionnaires. After the twins completed the questionnaires, they were asked to provide their saliva samples using the Oragene® DNA self-collection kit (Genotek Inc.). Zygosity was determined by DNA analyses (89.5%) and questionnaire (10.5%). In DNA analyses, nine short tandem repeat (STR) loci which are highly heterogeneous in Chinese population were used. Same-sex twins with at least one different genetic marker were classified as dizygotic twins, otherwise classified as monozygotic twins. 508 MZ, 176 DZ twins participated in the longitudinal study with the interval of 1.37 years (SD=0.44), and the percentage of male was 46.2%. CDI (Children’s Depression Inventory) was used to measure adolescent depressive symptoms and Mx software was used to conduct the unique genetic analyses and bivariate genetic analyses. No gender difference was found in the present study. Genetic factors accounted for more variance of adolescent depressive symptoms in early adolescence than in middle adolescence, and the magnitude of nonshared environmental influence increased with time. Genetic factors contributed to the stability of depressive symptoms in early adolescence whereas environmental influence contributed to the stability of depressive symptoms in middle adolescence.

Key words: twins, genetic, shared environment, nonshared environment, depressive symptoms