ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (10): 1339-1348.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2012.01339

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

冥想使人变得平和—— 人们对正、负性情绪图片的情绪反应可因冥想训练而降低

任俊;黄璐;张振新   

  1. (浙江师范大学教师教育学院, 金华 321004)
  • 收稿日期:2012-02-28 出版日期:2012-10-25 发布日期:2012-10-23
  • 通讯作者: 任俊
  • 基金资助:

    国家社会科学基金教育学一般课题“以提高积极力量为核心的中小学儿童心理健康行为模式研究” (BBA100016)资助。

Meditation Makes A Peaceful State of Mind: People’s Positive and Negative Emotional Response Can Be Reduced by Meditation Training

REN Jun;HUANG Lu;ZHANG Zhen-Xin   

  1. (College of Teacher Education, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, China)
  • Received:2012-02-28 Online:2012-10-25 Published:2012-10-23
  • Contact: REN Jun

摘要: 虽然前人已有不少研究发现冥想具有减少个体焦虑、缓解抑郁水平等功能, 并且也已经揭示了冥想促进情绪调节能力的认知神经科学机理, 但对于冥想会怎样调制人们对于外部施加的正、负性情绪刺激(图片)的情绪反应尚不清楚, 冥想究竟会使人们对外部施加的情绪刺激的敏感性增强还是减弱?如果冥想能够调节和缓解人们的情绪反应的话, 那么, 这种调节作用是“双向的” (即对正性或负性情绪刺激能产生具有不同效价方向的调节作用)还是“单向的” (即对正性或负性情绪刺激产生具有相同效价方向的调节作用)?为了检验和回答上述问题, 本研究以无冥想(或相关)经验的大学生为被试, 通过随机实验组、控制组前后测的实验设计, 考察了冥想训练能否影响被试对于正、负性情绪图片的情绪唤起。62名大学生被试被随机分配到实验组和控制组(每组31人), 实验组参与连续5天、每天20 min的冥想练习, 控制组在此期间的控制任务为通常的闭眼休息。结果显示:冥想组在练习过程中的脑α波指数显著升高; 与控制组相比, 冥想组被试对消极图片的效价评定值显著改善, 这表明冥想降低了被试对负性情绪图片的情绪反应, 研究还发现了冥想降低被试对正性情绪图片的积极评价倾向, 从而证明对外部施加的正、负性情绪刺激而言, 冥想训练的调制作用是使人们的情绪反应趋于平和。

关键词: 冥想, 积极图片, 消极图片, 中性图片, 情绪认知, α波指数

Abstract: Previous studies have proved that meditation contributes to emotion regulation, but more researches are needed on if it works by making positive and negative emotion more positive, or making positive emotion more negative and negative emotion more positive. The present study was designed to explore the effects of meditation on evaluation of emotional pictures (from CAPS) and changes of brain alpha wave. 62 university students without any previous meditation experiences were selected in this study. A random 31 participants learned meditation (for 5 days, 20 minutes everyday), and the remaining participants had a usual rest with eyes closed in the same time. All participants were asked to evaluate emotional pictures before and after meditation\usual rest, as well as take alpha wave assessments. The scores of emotional pictures evaluation were recorded by E-prime, the dates of alpha wave were collected by the HXD-I brain electrical collector, and all of the dates were analyzed by SPSS 12.0. All participants rated emotional pictures (positive, neural and negative, 10 pieces for each kind) before the experiment, before the fifth meditation\usual rest, and after the fifth meditation\usual rest. (1) On the evaluation of positive and negative pictures, the result of variance analysis showed significant differences in meditation group, but no significant differences in control group. (2) From the dates before experiment to that after the fifth meditation\usual rest, the increment rest of two groups showed significant differences on negative pictures, but no significant differences on positive and neural pictures. The experiment collected the participants’ alpha wave at times before, in the process of, and after the fifth meditation\usual rest. The result of variance analysis showed that there were significant differences of alpha wave in meditation group, but no significant differences in control group. On the increment of alpha waves before and after the fifth meditation\usual rest, there were significant differences between two groups, which meant that the alpha waves increment of meditation group was higher than that of the control group. The experiment showed that, after 5 days’ meditation, participants in meditation group were more peaceful on emotional pictures evaluation compared to the ones in the control group who have a usual rest. Further analysis showed that meditation could reduce some negative content in people’s emotion cognition, and in the meanwhile reduce some positive content. The EEG data showed that the brain alpha wave increased significantly in meditation, and 5 minutes after a meditation exercise, the alpha wave could still keep on the increasing state.

Key words: meditation, positive picture, negative picture, neutral picture, emotional cognition, alpha wave