ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

Advances in Psychological Science ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (3): 418-428.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00418

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Critical Review on the Theories of Post-error Slowing

WANG Lijun;XU Lei;WU Shanshan;TAN Jinfeng;CHEN Antao   

  1. (Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality, Ministry of Education; Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, China)
  • Received:2012-07-17 Online:2013-03-15 Published:2013-03-15
  • Contact: CHEN Antao

Abstract: Post-error slowing (PES) describes the prolonged reaction time (RT) in trials subsequent to an error compared to RTs in trials following correct trials. At present, researchers have found three post-error adjustments, namely post-error slowing, post-error improvement in accuracy and post-error reduction of interference, wherein the post-error slowing is the most stable post-error adjustment behavior. Early accounts aiming to explain the phenomenon mainly include conflict monitoring theory, activation inhibition hypothesis, reinforcement learning theory and mismatch theory. Of note, some recent researches developed orienting account and criterion adjustment hypothesis. Further research should pay more attention to different error types, unconscious error processing, individual differences and new analysis technology application so as to fully uncover the nature of PES.

Key words: post-error slowing, PES, conflict monitoring theory, orienting account