ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2023, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (5): 747-758.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00747

• 研究前沿 • 上一篇    下一篇


张才蕙1,2, 叶渐桥2,3, 杨静4()   

  1. 1广东外语外贸大学外国语言学及应用语言学研究中心双语认知与发展实验室, 广州 510420
    2广东外语外贸大学英语语言文化学院, 广州 510420
    3蓝帆医疗股份有限公司, 上海 201318
    4浙江大学外国语学院, 杭州 310058
  • 收稿日期:2022-07-13 出版日期:2023-05-15 发布日期:2023-02-13
  • 通讯作者: 杨静
  • 基金资助:

Brain mechanism underlying learning Chinese as a second language

ZHANG Caihui1,2, YE Jianqiao2,3, YANG Jing4()   

  1. 1Bilingual Cognition and Development Lab, Center for Linguistics and Applied Linguistics, Guangdong University of Foreign Studies, Guangzhou 510420, China
    2Faculty of English Language and Culture, Guangdong University of Foreign Studies, Guangzhou 510420, China
    3Bluesail Surgical Co., Ltd., Shanghai 201318, China
    4School of International Studies, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
  • Received:2022-07-13 Online:2023-05-15 Published:2023-02-13
  • Contact: YANG Jing


国家兴, 语言强。近年来, 汉语作为第二语言学习的认知神经机制研究日渐增长, 但汉语二语学习脑机制的系统归纳及相关理论模型仍处于起步阶段。基于汉语二语学习近20年的脑机制研究, 以及最新二语学习脑机制的研究和理论, 可以归纳主要发现为:1)汉语声调学习最初依赖右颞上回和右额下回, 掌握后转而依赖左颞上回; 2)汉字字形学习与双侧额下回及右梭状回有关, 而汉字语音学习则与左颞顶叶区相关; 3)汉语二语学习初期会依赖右脑重要脑区(额下回、梭状回等), 随汉语能力的提升, 这种依赖减弱。综上, 汉语二语学习与右脑关系密切, 经历了由右侧功能主导转向双侧化或者左侧化的动态大脑发展变化过程。汉语学习者所采取的二语学习方法及其语音听辨能力, 会影响学习者的语言功能、脑结构及其脑功能网络连接方式。未来研究可以从被试语言背景、研究范式和内容、数据分析等角度出发, 探寻汉语二语学习的有效方法, 构建并完善汉语二语学习认知神经机制的相关理论模型。

关键词: 汉语二语学习, 磁共振影像, 脑功能, 脑结构, 脑功能网络


With the fast growth of the Chinese economy, the Chinese language has become one of the most widely spoken world languages. There is a steady growth of empirical studies on the neural mechanisms underlying the learning of Chinese as a second language (L2). Yet, research on the specific brain mechanisms and the corresponding theoretical models for Chinese L2 learning are still in their infancy. Research in the past two decades has revealed that: 1) Chinese tone learning relies on the brain areas of the right superior temporal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus when learners are at a lower L2 proficiency, and then shifts to the left superior temporal gyrus as they reach advanced proficiency; 2) Chinese character learning is related to the inferior frontal gyrus and the right fusiform gyrus, whereas Chinese phonological learning is closely related to the left temporal-parietal areas; 3) Overall, Chinese L2 learning relies more on right-hemisphere brain regions (e.g., inferior frontal gyrus, fusiform gyrus) at the early stages of L2 learning, and the reliance decreases with the improvement of L2 competence.
To sum up, Chinese L2 learning undergoes a dynamic neural change from an early stage of right-hemisphere reliance to a later stage of left-lateralization or bilateralization. The findings support the Assimilation Hypothesis in the Assimilation-Accommodation Hypothesis (Perfetti & Liu, 2005) which argues that extra right-hemisphere brain regions are activated in L2 learning when the typical left-hemisphere regions for first language processing cannot adapt to L2 input processing. The findings above also support the Dynamic Restructuring Model (Pliatsikas et al., 2020), which states that learners’ brain functions and neural structures go through dynamic changes at different stages of L2 learning. Furthermore, L2 learning strategies and learners’ auditory perception abilities are found to influence brain functions, neural structures, and connectivity networks. These findings are in line with the prediction of the Unifying the Bilingual Experience Trajectories model (DeLuca et al., 2020) which claims that bilinguals’ linguistic and cognitive representations are strongly influenced by their language experiences (e.g., language typology, language usage, code-switching frequency, proficiency, and age of acquisition). The current theoretical models of L2 Chinese learning can be further strengthened by considering factors such as L1-L2 characteristics, individual differences, learning strategies, and learning contexts.
Future research on Chinese L2 learning can investigate learners of varying characteristics (e.g., young learners and high-proficiency learners), triangulate research paradigms, and synthesize behavioural, functional and structural brain imaging data of language processing and production. Meanwhile, new neuroscience techniques have created the opportunity to investigate the socio-cognitive mechanisms of L2 learning under different interaction situations, such as teacher-student, student-student, and computer-student interactions. More future research in this field can advance the current theoretical models and understanding of neuroplasticity in Chinese L2 learning.

Key words: Chinese as a second language, magnetic resonance imaging, brain function, brain structure, functional brain network