ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (5): 885-893.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00885

• 研究前沿 • 上一篇    下一篇


陈浩彬1, 汪凤炎2()   

  1. 1江西科技师范大学教育学院, 南昌 330038
    2南京师范大学心理学院, 南京 210097
  • 收稿日期:2020-06-09 出版日期:2021-05-15 发布日期:2021-03-30
  • 通讯作者: 汪凤炎
  • 基金资助:

Wisdom in old age

CHEN Haobin1, WANG Fengyan2()   

  1. 1School of Education, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330038, China
    2School of Psychology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097, China
  • Received:2020-06-09 Online:2021-05-15 Published:2021-03-30
  • Contact: WANG Fengyan


智慧是个体在其人生经历中习得的一种德才一体的综合心理素质, 是成功老龄化的重要标志和毕生发展的理想终点。研究发现, 三维智慧量表、自我评估智慧量表、成人自我超越问卷等自陈式测量和柏林智慧范式、智慧推理等表现式测量对老年人智慧评估具有良好性能; 老年人智慧发展受到开放性、自我反思、情绪调节、人格成长等内在因素以及受教育程度、关键生活经历、社会环境等外在因素的交互影响; 毕生发展的智慧为老年人带来更高主观幸福感、生活满意度以及更少社会疏离感、孤独感和抑郁。未来应该开发多测度、整合的老年人智慧测评工具; 深入揭示老年人智慧的预测因素、影响后效及其内部作用机制; 进一步探索社区养老服务中老年人智慧的干预与培育策略。


关键词: 智慧, 老年人, 测量, 反思, 幸福感


In the past 40 years, researchers have explored and constructed diverse definitions and components of wisdom. They have gradually reached a consensus that wisdom is the application of meta-cognition to reason and solve problems based on the morality. Wisdom is also closely related to individual life experience, personal growth and even physical maturity. Therefore, wisdom can be defined as a psychological quality that integrates intelligence with morality.
Among the measurements of wisdom applied in old age, the self-reported scales mainly include the three-dimensional wisdom scale (3D-WS), self-assessed wisdom scale (SAWS), and the adult self-transcendence inventory (ASTI), the performance-based methods mainly include the Berlin wisdom paradigm and the wisdom reasoning. According to the results, wisdom in old age is relatively well, but there may not be a linear relationship between the aging and the increasing of wisdom in the middle and late adulthood, the cognitive or knowledge components of wisdom reach a peak at a certain age (such as 50 to 55 years old), and after that they begin to decline, and the reflective and emotional components of wisdom will not decline, due to the growth of psychosocial development and perspective-taking ability, emotional regulation, and empathy or compassionate for others, they will even increase with age. Therefore, aging may not be a necessary or sufficient condition for wisdom.
Studies have shown that micro-factors such as the challenges in life experience, critical life events, and social changes encountered in the life course of individual are external factors that may promote the development of wisdom in the old age; psychological resources such as sense of control, personal growth, emotional regulation, openness to experience and exploratory self-reflection that contribute to the development of individual meta-cognition are internal factors that may promote the development of wisdom in the old age; meanwhile, the orientation of pro-social moral value, the subjective motivation of pursuing the growth of wisdom or the meaning in life may be the important intermediary mechanism for learning wisdom from life experience.
Wisdom can significantly and positively predict the quality of life in the old, and can help the old people obtain life goals and sense of control, which having more important impact on their well-being. Wisdom can also act as a mediating or moderating role to buffer or reduce the negative impact of negative factors on the life satisfaction and well-being of the old, thereby relieving the solitude and oppression, alleviating the feelings of loneliness, depression, and social alienation in the old age.
There are still some limitations in the psychological research on the wisdom in old age: First, whether wisdom increases, declines or remains stable in the later stages of adulthood, the conclusions still rely on the definition, conceptualization and measurement of wisdom; secondly, the researches on the antecedents of the wisdom in the old age fail to reveal the internal mechanism of the relevant resources in the development of wisdom; thirdly, the researches on the consequences of the wisdom in the old age fail to reveal the interventional roles of wisdom or different components of wisdom; finally, there are still lack of specific and operable interventions and cultivation methods for promoting wisdom. In the future, it is necessary to develop the measurement tools that integrate various sources based on self-reporting and behavioral performance measurement, and balance the content of natural wisdom and humanistic wisdom; examine the development trajectory of individual wisdom and its psychological mechanism in the life course; conduct the longitudinal researches and experimental researches to in-depth research on the causal relationship between wisdom and well-being and the positive functions of wisdom; continue to explore the interventional conditions and promoting measures for the wisdom of the old in the practice of old care services in community, thus inspire the wisdom of the old people and promote their successful aging.

Key words: wisdom, older adults, measurement, reflection, well-being