ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (8): 1427-1438.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01427

• 研究前沿 • 上一篇    下一篇


柴凯轩1,2, 李宜霖1,2, 朱莉琪1()   

  1. 1 中国科学院心理研究所行为科学重点实验室, 北京 100101
    2 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2018-11-15 出版日期:2019-07-26 发布日期:2019-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 朱莉琪
  • 基金资助:
    * 国家社科基金重大项目(14ZDB161)

Children’s selective learning in the domain of causal knowledge

CHAI Kaixuan1,2, LI Yilin1,2, ZHU Liqi1()   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2018-11-15 Online:2019-07-26 Published:2019-06-25
  • Contact: ZHU Liqi


儿童的选择性学习是目前认知发展领域的热点问题。儿童在因果知识领域内的选择性学习(即选择性因果学习)对于回答儿童如何获取知识这个经典问题具有重要意义。儿童的选择性因果学习表现在对他人解释的辨别、评估与采纳上。他们会主动向可靠的信息提供者寻求解释, 并在接收回答后表现出选择性跟进反应。对于他人的回答, 年幼儿童不仅能根据言语线索辨别出解释性陈述, 还能依据解释的结构特征选择更好的陈述加以采纳, 年长儿童甚至可以从不同模式的解释中灵活地学习更适宜的因果知识。未来研究应深入关注解释的其它特征在儿童选择性因果学习中的作用, 进一步探讨选择性因果学习的认知机制。

关键词: 选择性学习, 因果知识, 解释寻求, 解释质量, 解释模式


In the recent years, children’s selective learning has attracted wide-spread attention in the field of cognitive development. Specifically, understanding children’s selective learning in the domain of causal knowledge provides important insights for addressing a classic question in developmental research, namely how children acquire knowledge. Children generally acquire causal knowledge by identifying, evaluating and endorsing information from others. They actively seek explanations from reliable informants, and they select their responses based on the quality of the answers they have received. Since an early age, children can use verbal cues to distinguish explanatory responses from non-explanatory responses. Moreover, when given several explanations, they can tell which one is superior to others based on the structural characteristics of these explanations. Older children can even identify various modes of construal and adopt the appropriate one. Future studies could further investigate the roles of other exploratory characteristics in children’s selective causal learning. Researchers should also further address some controversial issues regarding the cognitive mechanisms of selective casual learning.

Key words: selective learning, causal knowledge, explanation-seeking, explanatory qualities/virtues, modes of construal