ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (2): 253-264.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.00253

• 研究前沿 • 上一篇    下一篇


杨文登1,2; 张小远2   

  1. (1广州大学心理与脑科学研究中心, 广州 510006) (2南方医科大学公共卫生学院心理学系, 广州 510515)
  • 收稿日期:2016-02-26 出版日期:2017-02-15 发布日期:2017-02-15
  • 通讯作者: 张小远, E-mail:
  • 基金资助:


Common factors vs. specific ingredients in psychotherapy: Controversy and integration

YANG Wendeng1,2; ZHANG Xiaoyuan2   

  1. (1The Center for the Psychology and Brain Science, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China) (2 Department of Psychology, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China)
  • Received:2016-02-26 Online:2017-02-15 Published:2017-02-15
  • Contact: ZHANG Xiaoyuan, E-mail:


共同要素理论与特殊成分说是探讨心理治疗改变因素的两大对立理论。文章综述了共同要素理论的内涵及两条发展途径, 并以实证支持治疗为例, 探讨了特殊成分说的内涵及研究进展, 分别探讨了两者存在的问题及争议。“共同要素vs特殊成分”更多体现的是研究者的视角, 是探索导致心理治疗改变的因素时所进行的临时划分, 两者相互依赖、相互转化, 但未能囊括治疗改变的所有因素。未来, 需要深入了解心理治疗的改变过程与机制, 培养同时掌握特殊成分与共同要素技能的新一代治疗师, 在推进循证心理治疗的过程逐渐进行整合。

关键词: 共同要素, 特殊成分, 治疗改变, 实证支持治疗, 循证心理治疗, 整合


Common factors theory and specific ingredients theory are two contradictory theories on the contributing factors of therapeutic change in psychotherapy. This article reviews the definition of common factors theory and its two developmental pathways; explores the concepts and research advances of the specific ingredients theory through examples of empirically supported treatment; and discusses respectively the issues and debates within each of the theories. We concluded that the concepts of "common factors" and "specific ingredients" represent a temporary categorization of the contributing facts of therapeutic change, mainly through the eyes of researchers. These two concepts are largely interdependent and interchangeable; however, even a combination of them may still not be able to accommodate all factors of therapeutic change. In the future, there is a need to further understand the process and mechanism of therapeutic change; to equip our next-generation clinical psychologists with skills for both "common factors" and "specific ingredients"; and to gradually integrate these two camps into one through the promotion of evidence-based psychotherapies.

Key words: common factor, specific ingredient, therapeutic change, empirically supported treatment, evidence-based psychotherapy, integration