ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (1): 27-37.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2014.00027

• 研究方法 • 上一篇    下一篇



  1. 浙江师范大学心理系, 金华 321004
  • 收稿日期:2013-07-02 出版日期:2014-01-15 发布日期:2014-01-15
  • 通讯作者: 傅根跃
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金资助项目:说谎的发展认知神经科学研究—— 来自fNIRS的证据(31371041)。

The Spontaneous-response Tasks in the Theory of Mind in Infancy

QIAN Miao;FU Genyue   

  1. Department of Psychology, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, China
  • Received:2013-07-02 Online:2014-01-15 Published:2014-01-15
  • Contact: FU Genyue


近30年来, 心理理论一直是认知发展领域关键而充满挑战的研究主题, 儿童理解他人错误信念的能力是心理理论发展的标志。诱导反应范式(elicited-response tasks)的研究结果表明4岁时儿童获得心理理论, 但是自发反应范式(spontaneous-response tasks)的研究结果表明婴儿15个月大时就已经具备心理理论。自发反应范式(spontaneous-response task) 是近些年来心理理论研究领域发展起来的研究范式。针对幼儿能通过自发反应范式却不能通过诱导反应范式这一问题, 已有三种相关的理论解释:早期能力掩盖说、内隐知识解释论和观点追踪解释论。未来心理理论研究应注意将自发反应范式运用于特殊儿童, 并进一步验证和研究心理理论的发展机制。

关键词: 心理理论, 自发反应范式, 眼动


Understanding false belief is considered the hallmark of theory of mind (ToM). However, estimates of the onset of this ability vary substantially depending on the way it is measured. On explicit response assessments of false beliefs, children usually do not succeed until about four years of age. However, on more recently developed spontaneous-response tasks they are able to succeed by as early as 15-months of age. Three possible explanations for this discrepancy in performance on these different types of tasks are discussed: the competence-masking account, the implicit-knowledge account, and the perspective-tracking account. In order to distinguish between these accounts it is recommended that future research focus on testing special populations of children, such as individuals who are deaf and those with ASD.

Key words: theory of mind, spontaneous-response task, eye movement